History of the «Spiral»

History of the

Starting 60s. Cool war in full swing. In the U.S., there are works on programmke Dyna Soar — hypersonic orbital rocket plane X20. As a response to this program from, work on developing their own rocket planes are held in our country, many institutes and design bureaus, as commissioned by the government in the form of R & D, and in an active manner. But the development of aerospace systems «Spiral» was the first large-scale official theme, supported by control of the country after a series of events leading up to the prehistory of the project.

In accordance with the five-year direction on certain subjects up Air Force orbital and hypersonic aircraft practical work astronautics aviation in our country in 1965 were committed Mikoyan OKB-155, where they are headed 55-year-old Chief Designer Gleb Lozino -Lozinski. Subject to create a two-stage air-orbital plane (in modern terminology — aerospace systems — ACN) received index «Spiral». Russian Alliance seriously preparing for a large-scale war in space and from space.

In accordance with the requirements of the customer’s designers started the development of reusable two-stage complex consisting of a hypersonic aircraft vehicle of (GSR) and military space plane (OS) with rocket boosters. Start system provides horizontal, with the introduction of booster carts, separation occurred at speeds of 380-400 km / h After dialing using engines GSR right speed and altitude separation occurred and the upcoming OS acceleration occurred using a two-stage rocket engines accelerator working on hydrofluoric fuel.
History of the
Battle manned reusable single OS implementation foresaw the introduction of options fotorazvedchika day, Scouting radar, interceptor of cosmic purposes or attack aircraft with missiles «space-to-Earth» and could be used for the inspection of cosmic objects. Weight of the aircraft in all variants was 8800 kg, including 500 kg payload to scout and interceptor versions and 2,000 kg in attack aircraft. Range of reference orbit was 130 … 150 km altitude and 450 … 1350 inclination to the north and south in the area starts with the USSR, with the task of flight was to be made within 2-3 turns (third round of planting ). Maneuvering ability OS with the introduction of on-board rocket propulsion system operating at high energy fuel components — fluoro Amidol F2 + (50% N2H4 + 50% BH3N2H4), had to provide the change in orbital inclination to scout and interceptor 170, for an attack aircraft with a missile on board (and reduced supplies of fuel) — 70 … 80. Interceptor was also able to perform a combined maneuver — the simultaneous change in the slope of the orbit 120 with a lift to a height of 1000 km.

History of the

After performing an orbital flight and the braking engines OS should go into the atmosphere with a huge angle of attack, control of step descent configuration provided at a constant inclination angle of attack. On line traffic gliding descent in the atmosphere wondered ability committing aerodynamic maneuver range 4000 … 6000 km with a lateral deviation of plus / minus 1100 … 1500 km.

In the landing area OS had to be evacuated from the choice of the velocity vector along the axis of the runway, which was achieved by choosing the configuration applets tilt. Aircraft maneuverability of reaching the landing at night and adverse weather conditions on one of the alternate aerodromes Russian Union area with at least some of the 3 turns. Landing was accomplished with the introduction of the turbojet engine («36-35» Design Bureau-36) on a dirt airfield II class at less than 250 km / h

According to the approved GELozino Lozinskii-June 29, 1966 Preliminary design «Spirals», ACN, with an estimated mass of 115 tons was a stacked together wide-winged reusable devices horizontal take-off and landing — 52-ton hypersonic booster aircraft (received index » 50-50 «), and disposed thereon manned OS (index» 50 «) with two-stage rocket boosters — block excretion.

Because undeveloped as oxidant watery fluorine to accelerate work on the game as a whole as a crotch offers another step development of two-stage rocket booster on the oxygen-hydrogen fuel and fuel phased development of fluorine on the OS — first introduction of fuel at high boiling nitrogen tetrakside and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine ( AT + UDMH), then fluoro-ammonia fuel (F2 + NH3), and only after the accumulation of experience on the planned change ammonia Amidol.

Due to the peculiarities inherent design solutions and the chosen scheme allowed the aircraft start to realize a fundamentally new characteristics of launch vehicles for military loads into space:

— orbiting payload weight of at 9% or more from the take-off weight of the system;

— reducing the cost of launching into orbit 1st kilogram payload 3-3.5 times compared with the missile systems on the same components of fuel;

— conclusion of cosmic vehicles in a wide range of areas and the possibility of retargeting frisky start with the change of the desired parallax due to airborne range;

— independent relocation booster aircraft;

— Minimizing the number of airfields need;
— frisky conclusion combat orbital plane in at least some point of the globe;

— effective maneuvering space plane not only in space, and in step descent and landing;

— NIGHT MODE and airframe landing in bad weather at the aerodrome or the crew elected with at least some of the 3 turns.

Hypersonic booster aircraft (GSR) «50-50.»

GSR was a tailless aircraft length of 38 m with a delta wing is a big variable sweep across the front edge of the type «double delta» (800 sweep in the area of ​​the nose and the front of the influx and 600 in the end of the wing) span of 16.5 m and an area of ​​240.0 m2 with vertical stabilizing surfaces — keels (an area of ​​18.5 m2) — wingtip.

Manage GSR produced using the rudder on the keels, elevons and landing flaps. Booster aircraft was equipped with a 2-seater pressurized cabin crew with an ejection seat.

Soaring with a boost carts for planting GSR uses tricycle landing gear with nose strut equipped paired pneumatics size 850×250, and manufactured in the flow direction «against the flight.» Main stand armed two-wheeled cart with tandem wheels size 1300×350 to reduce the required amount of chassis in a niche in the retracted position. Track main landing gear of 5.75 m

In the upper part of the GSR in a special box fastened actually orbital plane and the rocket booster, the nose and tail fairing parts are locked.

On the GSR was used as fuel liquefied hydrogen propulsion system — in the form of unit 4 turbojet engines (THD) AM Lyulka development thrust for takeoff at 17.5 tons each, with a common air intake and working on a single external supersonic nozzle expansion. With the empty weight of 36 tons GSR could take on board 16 tons of watery hydrogen (213 m3), which was given to accommodate 260 m3 of internal volume

The engine received an index of AL-51 (at that time in the OKB-165 Turbojet developed the third generation of the AL-21F, and the new engine index chosen «with supplies», starting with a round number «50», all the more that this number appeared in index themes). Terms of reference for its creation has received OKB-165 AM Lyulka (now — SEC behalf AM Lyulka composed «Saturn»).

Overcoming thermal barrier for the GSR provides a suitable selection of structural and thermal protection materials.
Booster aircraft.

During the project work constantly thrashed. You could say that he was in a state of «permanent development»: constantly get out some inconsistencies — and all had «douvyazyvat.» In calculations interfered realities — the available construction materials, technology, capacity factories, etc. In principle, at any step of the design engine was functional but did not give a damn those who wished to get away from it constructors. «Reaching» was on for another five or six years, until early 1970, when work on the project «Spiral» were closed.

The two-stage rocket booster.

Removal unit is a single two-stage booster, located in the «semi-flush» position in the tool tray «on the back» GSR. To accelerate the development of a preliminary design provided for the development of the perineum (the fuel for hydrogen-oxygen, H2 + O2) and ground (on hydrogen fuel-fluoro, H2 + F2) options rocket booster.

When choosing a fuel component designers basis of providing in-orbit can be no greater payload. Watery hydrogen (H2) was seen as the only promising form of fuel for vehicles and hypersonic aircraft as one of the most promising fuels for rocket engine, despite its significant drawback — low specific gravity (0.075 g/cm3). Kerosene as fuel for rocket booster was not considered.

Suitable oxidizing agents are hydrogen fluoride and oxygen. From the standpoint of workability and safety of oxygen is preferable, but its use as an oxidizing agent for the hydrogen fuel results in significant volumes need huge tanks (101 vs 72.12 m3 m3), in other words to increase the midsection, and as follows aircraft drag vehicle of that reduces its highest speed uncoupling to M = 5.5 instead of M = 6 with fluorine.


Overall length rocket booster (for hydrofluoric fuel) 27.75 m, including 18.0 m of the first stage with pop stekatelem and 9.75 m second stage payload — the orbital plane. Option oxygen-hydrogen rocket booster went to 96 cm long and 50 cm thick.

It was assumed that hydrogen fluoride LRE thrust of 25 tons of equipment for both stages rocket booster will be developed in OKB-456 V.Glushko based waste LRE thrust of 10 tons on ftoroammiachnom (F2 + NH3) fuel

Orbital plane.

History of the

Orbital plane (OS) was an aerial length of 8 m and a width of 4 m flat fuselage made in a «lifting body» having a very blunt feathered triangular shape in plan view.

The basis of design is a welded truss, which was attached a power bottom heat shield (Tze) made of plates clad niobium alloy VN5AP coated molybdenum disilicide, located on the «fish scales». Screen hung on clay bearings, performing the role of thermal barriers, removing the thermal stresses due to mobility Tze relative to the housing while maintaining the external shape of the device.

The upper surface is in the shaded area and heated to less than 500 C because top housing sheathing panels locked kovar VC-99 and ANS steels.

The propulsion system included:

— LRE orbital maneuvering thrust 1.5 ton (specific impulse of 320 seconds, fuel consumption of 4.7 kg / s) for the maneuver to change the plane of the orbit and retroburns for de-orbit; then provided for the installation of more massive rocket engine with a thrust in vacuum 5 tf continuously adjustable traction to 1.5 ton to perform precise orbit correction;

— two emergency brake rocket engine with a thrust in vacuum at 16 kgs, running from the main rocket engine fuel system with pressure feed system component compressed helium;

— LRE orientation unit consisting of 6 coarse orientation engines with a thrust of 16 kg and 10 engines with a thrust of a clear orientation 1 kg;

— THD with Metal rod mc 2 and specific fuel consumption of 1.38 kg / kg per hour for subsonic flight and landing, fuel — kerosene. At the bottom of the keel placed adjustable air intake bucket, opened just before starting THD.

As a first step in the crotch swatches manoeuvrable combat OS provided for the use of fuel for LRE fluoro + ammonia.

Emergency rescue pilot on any part of the flight in cabin design provides a detachable capsule faroobraznoy form that has its own propellant engines for ejection from the aircraft at all steps of its movement from start to landing. The capsule was equipped with control engines for entry into the dense layers of the atmosphere, the beacon, and emergency unit akkumy navigation. Touchdown was performed by means of a parachute with the velocity of 8 m / s, the energy absorption at this rate is due to the permanent deformation of the special cell design of the angle of the capsule.

Weight detachable cockpit equipped with the equipment, life support systems, rescue system and the pilot cockpit 930 kg weight of the cab when landing 705 kg.

Navigation system and automatic control consisted of astroinertial autonomous navigation system, on-board digital computer, LRE orientation astrokorrektora, optical viewfinder and radiovertikali altimeter.

To control the trajectory of the aircraft during the descent except basic automatic control system provides a lightweight replacement for manual control system Yagi signals.

Fotorazvedchik day.

Daily fotorazvedchik intended for detailed operational intelligence compact and mobile terrestrial marine data for the earlier goals. Placed on board provided photographic ground resolution of 1.2 meters when shooting with an orbital altitude of 130 plus / minus 5 km.

Assumed that the target search and visual observation of the earth’s surface will be made through the pilot in the cab optical viewfinder with smoothly changing multiplicity of growth from 3 to 50s. Scooter was equipped manageable reflecting mirror to track the target with a distance of 300 km. Shooting was done manually after the automatic pilot plane alignment of the optical axis of the camera and viewfinder for the purpose; picture size to 20×20 km area at photographing distance along the route to 100 km. One pilot must have time to turn to photograph 3-4 goal.

Fotorazvedchik resettled stations VHF and HF bands for transmission disk imaging on the ground. As required passback over the target team is made automatic pilot maneuver rotation of the plane of the orbit.

Radar scout.

A distinctive feature was the presence of a radar spy outdoor deployable single antenna size 12×1, 5 m Estimated resolution for all this had to be within the limits of 20-30 m, which is quite in the exploration of marine aircraft carrier compounds and large ground-based facilities, with a swath width on ground objects — 25 km and 200 km in the exploration of the sea.

Impact orbital plane.

To engage moving targets at sea intended impact orbital plane. It was assumed that the missile launch «space-to-Earth» with nuclear warheads will be performed in the presence of the horizon targeting another OS or reconnaissance satellite. Refined target coordinates are determined locator reset prior decayed and aircraft navigation aids. Missile guidance via radio to the initial phases of flight permitted a correction to increase the accuracy of the missile guidance to the target.

Rocket with a launch mass of 1700 kg with an accuracy of targeting the plus / minus 90 km ensured defeat sea targets (such as an aircraft carrier) travel at speeds up to 32 knots, with a probability of 0.9 (radial deviation possible warhead 250 m).

Interceptor of cosmic purposes «50-22.»

Elaborated last one was fighting OS interceptor of cosmic goals, develop a 2-versions:

— Inspector interceptor with access to orbit of the target, rendezvous with her at a distance of 3-5 km and a speed of equalization between the interceptor and the target. After which the pilot could conduct an inspection target using 50x times optical viewfinder (permission to target 1.5-2.5 cm) from the following photography.
In the case of a decision to kill a target pilot in his possession had 6 homing missiles development SKB MOS 25 kg, ensuring engagement of targets at ranges up to 30 km at relative speeds of up to 0.5 km / sec. Supplies enough fuel interceptor to intercept 2-targets located at altitudes of up to 1,000 km at angles noncoplanarity orbits goals to 100;

— far interceptor kitted homing missiles development SKB MOS optical coordinator for the interception of cosmic targets on intersecting courses at a miss interceptor to 40 km, offset by a missile. Most range rocket launch is 350 km. Weight of the rocket with the container 170 kg. Search and discovery advance this goal, as the missile guidance to the target pilot done manually using the optical viewfinder. The energy of this option also provides the interceptor to intercept 2 targets located at altitudes up to 1000 km.

Astronauts «Spirals».

In 1966, Astronaut Training Center (CTC) group was formed to prepare for the flight to the «item-50» — So the CPC encrypts orbital plane by programmke «Spiral». The group consisted of five astronauts having a good flight training, including N2 astronaut Gherman Titov (1966-70 years), and have not yet flown in space Anatoly Kuklin (1966-67), Vasily Lazarev (1966-67 years) and Anatoly Filipchenko (1966-67).

4 cadre of changes over time — trained to fly on «Spiral» at different times passed Leonid Denisovich Kizim (1969-73 biennium), Anatoly N. Birch (1972-74 biennium), Anatoly Dedkov (1972-74 biennium), Vladimir Janibekov (July-December 1972), Vladimir Sergeyevich Kozelskiy (August 1969 — October 1971), Vladimir Lyakhov (1969-73 biennium), Yuri Malyshev (1969-73 biennium), Alexander Yakovlevich Petrushenka (1970-73 biennium) and Yury Romanenko (1972).

The trend towards closing applets «Spiral» led in 1972 to the numerical reduction of 4 to 3 people and a decrease in the intensity of training. In 1973 a group of astronauts theme «Spiral» and became known as BOC — Air-orbital plane (from time to time and found another name — Military orbital plane).

April 11, 1973 Deputy Chief of Division 4 1 Management was appointed instructor test cosmonaut Lev V. Vorobyov. 1973 was the last year of 4 1 Management CPC — the forthcoming history of the astronaut corps BOC came to naught ..

Close Project.

In technical terms, the work went well. According to the schedule of project development «Spiral» provided for the establishment of a subsonic OS start in 1967, hypersonic analogue in 1968 was due to experimental apparatus for the first time put into orbit unmanned in 1970, the first manned flight was scheduled for his 1977 work on the GSR were to begin in 1970 if its 4 multimode THD will run on kerosene. In the event of a promising option, ie fuel for engines is — hydrogen, build it to be deployed in 1972 in the 2nd half of the 70s. flights could begin quite equipped AKS «Spiral».

But despite the serious feasibility study of the project, managing the country’s enthusiasm for the topic «Spiral» lost. Intervention Ustinov, who was then secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, oversaw the defense industry and pleading for missiles, a negative impact on the course of applets. And when became defense minister Grechko, learned first 70s. with «Spiral», he expressed clearly and definitely «fantasy we will not be engaged.» Upcoming performance applets finished.

But thanks produced bolshennomu technological advance, the importance of the topics covered, the project «Spiral» transformed in different research projects and related development activities. Uniformly programm was refocused on flight tests analog devices without prospects of creation on their basis of the real system (BOR programm (unmanned orbital rocket plane)).

This history of the project, which is not even being practiced, played a significant role in the country of cosmic programmke.
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