MLRS (multiple rocket launcher) «Hurricane» intended to defeat manpower, armored and light armored vehicles and armored infantry units of the enemy on the march and in the concentration areas, the destruction of command Fri, military infrastructure and communication nodes, remote installation of antipersonnel and antitank landmines in war zones at a distance of 10 — 35 thousand m.
Given Adopting a Field reactive system M-21c 1963, Tula GNII no clear Engineering in 1963-1964 in an active manner conducted search operations in order to study the creation of a long-range capability and strong system on the number of explosives in a volley, with which you can could be addressed in an expeditious manner combat tasks at ranges from 10 to 40 thousand m
In the Engineering Department in June 1964, sent for consideration «Project Field multiple launch rocket systems» Hurricane «, which has a range of projectile 35 thousand meters draft of the proposed system, which has a higher maneuverability, speed up to 70 km / h, the highest permeability and the possibility of opening salvo in a small clearance time. This system can be used to defeat unsheltered or sheltered in field installations manpower, firepower, tanks and nuclear and chemical weapons and other objects and enemy targets at ranges of up to 40 thousand m
By order of Minoboronprom (MOS) of 28 December 1966, in 1967 started the scientific research project «Creation of complex precision missile salvo» The Hurricane » (LC-121-66). Work completed in December 1967 with the ability to obtain evidence given by the devil, theoretical elaborations, bench testing of engines, separation devices, delay disclosure stabilizer aerodynamic model blowdown and fire projectiles. Recommended system for carrying out R & D (development work).
The results of research endorsed subsection 1 of section 1 number NTS Ministry of Defense Industry and theme recommended for development work after the address identified shortcomings.
By order of the Ministry of Machine Building and the Ministry of General Machine Building number 18/94 in 1968, a preliminary design was developed missile system salvo «Hurricane.» In September of the same year work was recommended to carry out development activities (from the document TULGOSNIITOCHMASH (Tula) the beginning of the 1970s.).
In 1969 — the beginning of 1970 have carried out work on the formulation and adjustment of TTT on developmental work, «Army MLRS» «Grad-3» (first in 1970 changed to «Hurricane»). Apparently, this is the tactical and technical requirements of the military unit number 0010 64176. The system had to enter combat vehicle, command vehicle, machine and transport equipment Arsenalnoye. Proposes to use the following types of warheads shells: cluster fragmentation acts, Blast (this is crushing body), cassette, designed for remote mining. The decision to develop other types of combat units (incendiary, cumulative, campaigning in spec. Filling) had taken the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Machine Building in the 2nd quarter of 1970, according to the results of the pilot project. The design of shells to be used, one for all combat units solid rocket engine with a fixed nozzle in the entire range of operating temperatures. Interchangeable nozzles was not. As a base MRL proposed for use ZIL-135LM. During the conceptual design had to have been working on the combat vehicle and transport machinery crawler transporter tractor MT-S (optional tactical and technical requirements for multiple launch rocket systems «Grad-3» («Hurricane») and the terms of reference for revision commander of the machine). Number of guides was equated 20 pcs. using the chassis of ZIL-135LM and 24 pcs. Chassis With MT. But a clear number of guides was refined after reviewing preliminary design. To transport the machine as a base also seen wheeled chassis KrAZ-253.
From a letter Ganicheva AN (TULGOSNIITOCHMASH) Yelagin (Grau) in a / h 64 176, it became clear that the Ministry of Machine Building Industry and the Ministry of Defence approved the following performers on multiple launch rocket systems «Grad-3»:
Department of Mechanical Engineering:
Research Institute of Chemical Technology (p / A-7210, Capital Region, Moscow Region) for testing the powder charge and the ignition system;
Factory «Red Army» State and Instrument Design Bureau (p / B-8475, Leningrad) for developing means of ignition;
Kazan Research Institute of Chemical Industry (p / B-2281, Kazan) for lifting charge for submunitions;
Plant Maslennikov (p / P-6833, Kuibyshev) for the creation of a contact fuze warhead acts, remote mechanical tube type cassette warhead;
Institute «Geodesy» (P / P-6766, Capital, Krasnoarmiysk) tests and evaluation of the warhead;
Research Institute «Search» (P / B-8921, Leningrad) for testing contact fuse for bomblets from cluster warhead;
Krasnoarmeisky Research Institute of Mechanization (p / A-7690, Capital, Krasnoarmiysk) equipment for testing high-explosive warhead, a bursting charge for bomblets from cluster warhead;
Orsk Mechanical Plant (p / P-6286, Orenburg region, Orsk) for the production of shells and warheads engines.
Ministry of Defense Industry:
Perm Machine-Building Plant named after VI Lenin (p / P-6760, Perm) for transport and combat vehicles;
All-Union Scientific Research Institute «Signal» (P / A-1658, Vladimir region, Carpet) on completion of the commander’s machine.
Work on the creation MLRS «Hurricane» were carried out on the basis of Resolution of the USSR CM from 21.01.1970 № 71-26 (Order of the Ministry of Machine Building number 33 from 28.01.1970).
In order to check the activities that are associated with the work to improve the range of fire, in January-February 1971 were planned shooting at 30 pc. MLRS shells «Hurricane» of ballistic facility placed on a gun carriage ML-20. Were to be delivered shells having three kinds of feathers:
— blade type, thickness 7 mm pen disclosure feathers to the longitudinal axis of the projectile at an angle of 90 °;
— Scheme shells «Castle»;
— combined (combining projectile tail blade type and «Castle»).
During purging the Central Institute aerohydrodynamical options shells have three kinds of feathers received positive results. With all this in store resistance was about 12 percent.
In 1972, SRI clear Tula municipal engineering work carried out on the subject LH2-154-72 «Single-channel angular stabilization system for shells» Grad » and «The Hurricane» (Q1 1972 — the start of work, the 2nd quarter of 1973 — the end).
In 1972, finding single-channel angular stabilization waged on two fronts:
— based on the angular velocity sensor using a gas-dynamic executive bodies;
— based on the contact angle sensor using a pulsed powder executive.
According to the report of the Tula Municipal Engineering Research Institute clear about the work in 1972, this year carried out theoretical calculations, simulations on analog electrical machines, experimental laboratory studies of single-channel angular stabilization system, and its parts for jet unguided missiles like «Hurricane» and «Grad». Caused major system requirements and system elements.
The system consisted of stabilization электроннопреобразовательный block rotary encoder, the executive bodies gasdynamic or pulse type.
It was determined that the introduction of a single-channel system stabilization in shells «Hurricane» and «Grad» improves 1.5-2 times their properties on the accuracy of firing.
System elements angular stabilization developed drawings made layout standards and tested in laboratory conditions. At the time of making or submitting the report was conducted establishment party blocks single-channel angular stabilization for flight testing.
In 1972, by order of the chief of the second head of the Ministry of Machine Building number 17 on 20.12.1970, made TulgosNIItochmashem research project on «Research ways of creation of long-range missiles systems» Hurricane » and «Grad» (HB2-110-71g).
In accordance with a motivated task performed theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated the possibility of growth range firing missiles systems «Hurricane» and «Grad» through the use of high-momentum fuel and strong materials for the production of housing.
In 1972, recommended a developmental work on the development of «The Hurricane» (Possibly meaning the development of shells or shell) with a range increased to 40 thousand m
In 1972 he graduated from the factory testing of, and system presented to the landfill-troop tests comprising:
— unguided rockets with cluster fragmentation acts (weight 80-85 kg) and fragmentation (weight 100-105 kg) warheads;
— BM 9P140 mounted on chassis ZIL-135LM;
— transport and loading vehicle 9T452 installed on ZIL-135LM;
— Arsenalnoye equipment.
During factory received mining properties of the system that satisfy the main tactical and technical requirements:
— long range shooting projectiles having explosive fragmentation warhead — 34 thousand meters, cluster warhead — 35 thousand meters;
a shell having a high-explosive warhead: Toward wb / X = 1/174, for range Bq / X = 1/197;
a shell having a cluster warhead: Toward wb / X = 1/152, for range Bq / X = 1/261;
— reduced area of damage projectile with cluster warhead at the approach of combat element to the goal of 85-90 degrees:
manpower located openly — 22090 m2 (Eud. kgm/sm2 = 10);
military equipment — 19 270 m2 (= 135 Eud. kgm/sm2);
— reduced lesion area with projectile warhead:
military equipment — 1804 m2 (Yehud = 240kgm/sm2);
— the size of the funnel:
depth of 4.8 m;
diameter of 8 m
Fighting machine has 18 guides; time volley — 9 seconds Ammunition for transport and loading machine ammunition shells — 1 set.
Fighting vehicle was developed under the control of head designer Kalachnikova Yuri Nikolaevich.
The system is constantly being upgraded — for example, there are now a number of modifications of missiles, warheads and data projectiles.
Currently, MLRS 9K57 «The Hurricane» is in service in the Russian, Kazakh, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Yemeni armies, possibly also in the Syrian army.
MRLS «Hurricane» extensively used in Afghanistan in combat. Please 1980s it launched and used the Syrian military on the initial stage of the war with Israel. System used federal troops in Chechnya. According to public data system used last Russian troops in 2008 during the Georgian-South Ossetian conflict.
Ukraine conducted work on the installation of the artillery on the modified under its installation KrAZ-6322. Period of execution is not installed.
The composition of multiple launch rocket systems «Hurricane» includes:
9P140 combat vehicle;
Transport and loading vehicle 9T452;
AFCS (automatic control complex fire) 1V126 «Cabbage-B»;
Car surveying 1T12-2M;
Meteorological Complex 1B44-finding;
Set the arsenal of special equipment and tools 9F381
9P140 combat vehicle was performed on a four-ZIL-135LMP with high maneuverability and 8×8. Artillery unit consists of a pack, which collected sixteen tubular rails, swivel base with iron sights and mechanisms guidance counterweight mechanism, also hydraulic and electrical equipment. Guidance mechanisms, equipped with actuators, allow direct vertical rails package from 5 to 55 degrees. Angle horizontal guidance is ± 30 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the combat vehicle. To increase resistance launcher during firing aft chassis has two legs that are kitted out jacks actuated manually. Rockets may be transported specifically directing. Combat vehicle equipped with night vision devices and communications (radio station R-123M).
Tubular slides — smooth-walled pipe with U-shaped helical groove on which slides during firing pin missile. So Makar, provided its initial promotion to impart desired durability projectile in flight. Projectile motion along the trajectory of rotation is supported by the drop of the stabilizer blades which are mounted to the longitudinal axis of the projectile at a predetermined angle. Volley one combat vehicle covers an area of over 42 hectares. The main method is a consuming fire to the closed position. There is the possibility of firing from the cabin. Calculation 9P140 combat vehicle — 6 people (4 people in peacetime) combat vehicle commander, driver, gunner (senior gunner), calculation of numbers (3 people).
Package rails installed on the cradle — welded rectangular platform. Cradle is connected with the upper machine using 2-spindles, which she swings around (turns) when you hover over the angles of elevation. Totality cradle package guides, a series of knots and details of the mechanism for locking the bracket’s sight, the ignition system and other is swinging part. With the help of a rotating part of the combat vehicle package guides given appropriate azimuthal angle. The spinning part consists of oscillating parts of the upper machine counterweight, lifting and rotating mechanism, overhead, playground gunner hand drive guidance mechanism for locking the swinging part of the quick fit swinging, locking mechanism of the rotating part. Equilibrating mechanism with partial compensation for the time of the swinging weight. It consists of a pair of mounting parts and torsion bars. Turning and lifting mechanisms are for guidance package guides in the horizontal plane and in elevation. The main method of guidance is electric. When repairs and in case of failure used manual transmission. Locking mechanisms are fixed installation moving parts while driving. Hydrolocks swinging part unloaded hoist while shooting and aiming at preventing sbivaemost elevation angles.
On combat vehicle features a panoramic mechanical sight D726-45. As goniometric and sighting devices in the gun sights use native panorama PG-1M.
System start-9P140 combat vehicle provided:
— harmless calculation work that serves military vehicle when firing;
— volley and conduct of a single lamp in the cockpit when the calculation;
— management and a single salvo fire while in the shelter based on distance up to 60 meters from the war machine;
— firing in case of failure of the main power supply units and chains of fire.
System start-up is possible with the same salvo rate (starting with 16 missiles going rate 0.5 seconds) and so called the «ragged» firing rate (the first eight missiles launched at intervals of 0.5 seconds, with other missile 2 second intervals.) Through the use of «ragged» the rate of fire can significantly reduce the frequency and amplitude of oscillation combat vehicle, and how to do better firing accuracy.
For loading launcher used transport-9T452 loading vehicle developed on a similar machine with combat gear. Any 9T452 loading vehicle can carry 16 missiles. The machine provides the loading (unloading) without special. training positions, including at least some transport vehicles, other transport and loading vehicle or from the ground. Reloading process is mechanized, the charging time of 15 minutes. Load 300 kg.
Transport equipment and loading machine consists of a frame, tap the pan with rammer, trolleys, lifting devices, operator platforms, devices for docking, bars, slewing gear, electrical equipment, machinery alignment, ZIP. Tray with rammer — folding prop, along which the plunger with a missile. Axis alignment mechanism smoothes the missile, which is in the tray, and the axis of the guide tube. The left and right carts designed for missile deployment. Transport-loading machine has three drive which produce: lifting / lowering missiles, rotating crane, chambering missiles guides.
Loading the war machine in the following order is made with the upper tier: lift rocket, put it in the tray, unhook lifting devices, hand in these rocket into the guide.
Feature a four-wheel chassis ZIL-135LMP is placing the power plant for the four-seater cockpit. This power plant consisted of a 2-V-shaped eight-cylinder gasoline engines ZIL-375. At 3200 revolutions per minute, each engine has an output of up to 180 hp The box has an onboard scheme: each side spinning wheel independent engine through a separate box, final drives and transfer cases. Wheels first and fourth axis — managed, be independent with torsion bar suspension has springs. Wheels secondary axles close together, have an elastic suspension and the frame fastened aggressively. The machine is equipped with a centralized tire pressure regulation. The machine has a very higher throughput and speed properties. When driving with a full load on the highway is the highest speed of 65 km per hour, without preparatory training can Fording depth of up to 1.2 meters. Combustible in store for stroke is 500 km.
Ammunition of multiple launch rocket systems «Hurricane» consists of the following missiles:
— 9M27F having a high-explosive fragmentation warhead;
— 9M27K having submunitions with fragmentation submunitions;
— 9M27S pep having a head portion;
— 9M59, 9M27K2, 9M27K3 with submunitions with anti-tank mines;
— 9M51 headquartered part FAE acts (during the war in Afghanistan showed the highest efficiency).
Most firing range — 35 sq m, for the destruction of at least distances on missile wear rings that inhibit it in flight. Range cassette shell with a small ring of 11-22 km, unguided missile 9M27F is 8 — 21 km. In the case of the huge braking range cassette shell is 9 — 15 km, and the projectile 9M27F is 8 — 16 km.
The complex can be used in the criteria for enemy use of nuclear, bacteriological, chemical weapons at different times of day and year, when the air temperature -40 … +50 ° C. in different weather criteria.
Multiple rocket launcher «Hurricane» can be transported aqua, rail or air transport.
Tactical and technical properties 9P140 MLRS MLRS «Hurricane»:
Weight combat vehicle in a combat situation — 20 tons;
Weight combat vehicle without calculation and shells — 15.1 tons;
Length — 9,630 m;
Width — 2.8 m;
Height — 3,225 m;
Axels — 8×8
Number of guides — 16 pcs;
Rotation of the guide — 240 degrees;
Recharge time — 15 minutes;
In store down the highway — 500 km;
Time to transfer combat vehicle from traveling into the firing position less — 3 minutes;
While leaving a firing position after making volley least — 1.5 minutes;
Temperature range of combat implementation — from -40 to +50 ° C;
Surface wind — up to 20 m / s;
Relative humidity at 20 ° C. .. 25 — 98%;
Dustiness surface air — to 2 g/m3;
Introducing height above sea level — to 3000 m;
General properties of rockets:
Caliber — 220 mm
Weight of solid powder charge — 104.1 kg
Most firing range — 35 km;
Small firing range — 8 km;
Temperature range combat use — from -50 to +50 ° C;
Temperature range of short-term (up to 6 hours) stay PC — from -60 to +60 ° C.