Physicists have named a new cause of death when jumping into a black hole

07.04.2013

Astronomers and astrophysicists do not only look for confirmation of the theory of relativity and studying volcanoes on Jupiter's satellites. They are still trying to find out what will happen to leaping into a black hole man.

Photo: Rambler

Obviously, writes Nature News, he will die. The only question is, how and how fast. Previously, it was commonly believed that at some point the difference in operating in different parts of the body force of gravity reaches a critical value and break the man on the side (remember the formula of the law of universal gravitation — the force is equal to the product of the masses divided by the square of the distance and the legs can be closer to the black hole than the head, hence the difference in (Mchernoy hole mastronavta x) / r2). Next on the superdense core somewhere near the event horizon fall broken down to atoms remains and that's all finished — the event horizon is called the scope beyond which not even light out.

But new calculations performed by Joseph Polchinski of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara (the very familiar to the old TV series!) Speak in favor of that scenario. Even before the gravitational forces become too large, falling into a black hole man burned in fire generated by the quantum effects of the storm. That is, the stream of particles generated by quantum effects near the event horizon.

In principle, that near the black hole can produce radiation, physicists knew long ago. Radiation predicted famous astrophysicist Stephen Hawking and named after him, is due to birth in a vacuum vapor particles. A similar effect can occur anywhere, but the particles are always produced in pairs of particles and anti-particles, which then annihilate each other, then we do not see and do not notice: the final balance is zero in ordinary space. But not near the event horizon that can absorb one of these particles, and leave the other without its antipode. In this case, the annihilation impossible, so that if the energy of the newborn particles sufficiently large, then it goes away from the black hole.

But Hawking's calculations and other theorists also spoke in favor of the black hole is more or less significant mass (ie, a few solar masses, it is such occur in death stars) gives too little radiation that is unlikely to cause harm to a hypothetical suicide. A new paper presented by Polchinski and his colleagues made a splash in 2012, among the professional community because it claimed otherwise — around the black hole can be a real quantum storm rage. We will not go into detail and talk in detail about how physicists have come to this conclusion, but let's say the most important thing: why this study does not idle thinking scholars on topics like "what if …" (with a description of some impossible the situation).

The fact that scientists now there is no quantum theory of gravity. Gravitational field described by the general theory of relativity (it will soon be one hundred years old, and her repeatedly checked about one of the checks we wrote just this morning), a microcosm described by quantum mechanics (and its proof — right in front of you computer would not quantum mechanics was not simple ), but in quantum mechanics, there is nothing about gravity, and general relativity there is nothing about quantum effects. And to make a unified theory of gravity and all other fields — this is the main problem of modern science.

Quantum processes near black holes, so are ideal subject for study. Here and quantum effects and gravity, it is not surprising that black holes are actively exploring how Astrophysics (Russian radio telescope "Radioastron", aka "Spektr-R" number of black holes in the centers of galaxies as a primary objective) and theoreticians. The question of what will happen to the astronaut and suicide so partly analogous to the question about Schrödinger's cat — it is clear that no one planted the cats in boxes with quantum detectors and ampoules of hydrocyanic acid, but this thought experiment is rightly occupied an important place in the quantum theory.


Warning: do not try this yourself

Epidemiology of readers: we encourage all other exercise extreme caution in dealing with black holes and, in particular, with the active nuclei of galaxies! Jets jump in and climb in the ergosphere is not worth it!

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