The hydrogen outgassing in the Russian platform. Part 1

At the end of February 2007 on the site Hydrogen future we put the article "Outgassing of hydrogen was detected in the central regions of the Russian Platform," which is also widely known on the internet under the name — "Mysterious funnel. " Now, at the end of July 2008, we present new data on the problem.

First of all, we have to tell you — dear reader: hydrogen outgassing is not only not ceased, but has a marked tendency to expand. It captures and new areas appear to become more intense. If a year and a half ago, we were quite happy with gas analyzers, which measures the concentration of hydrogen to 1000 ppm (Up 0.1%), then in the spring of 2008, we almost did not include them, as it was necessary to work with concentrations of about 1%. One of analyzers that are at our disposal is scaled to 1.5% (up to 15,000 ppm), But this year, and it became the place to choke hydrogen. The measurements were performed both on new areas, and on fixed points on our earlier that these high concentrations were observed.

Pictures are clickable

Previously (see we isolated funnel "failing" and "explosive." Now these types of structures should be added to the ring structures of subsidence, which are well deciphered in satellite images: they appear as dark rings and circles at the exit of the hydrogen streams and streams. And they can be seen most clearly in the black soil zone. We specially dug pits and hand-held drill to find out the reason for this clarification. And it turned out — hydrogen degassing eliminates the black humic organic — The most valuable part of the topsoil. Topsoil is lightened to gray, and even a light-gray color. Of course, this sharply reduces their productivity. In addition, we have the impression that hydrogen detrimental effect on the living flora itself. In places the hydrogen flows dying trees and undergrowth, and sometimes even stops growing grass. But with this issue, of course, have to understand the experts — biologists.

FIG. 1. Plantations and Chernozyomnoye field in the north-eastern suburbs of Lipetsk. The diameters of the ring structures of from 100 to 250 meters. Depth — no more than 4 meters in those structures, there are no signs of settling silt bottom. This is surprising, since quite a few heavy rains, the water washed away the dust from the sides and gathered at the bottom of a pool of muddy water, which dries to form a crust of mud. And if such is not crisp and subsidence there is no drainage of the structure, inevitably leads to the conclusion that subsidence in this location was recently ("recently" — in real-time human).

FIG. 2. The picture of the ring structure (top, pictured. 1). We look to the south. The "gray column" in the right quadrant of the image — V.Larin, height 174 cm If you do not know how this place looks like from space, you'll never guess that there are active geological processes, and in front of the ring structure formed by subsidence due to hydrogen outgassing from the bowels of the planet.

Then, following the ancient rule — "It is better to see once than hear a hundred times"We will show a series of photographs that illustrate the scope and diversity of the hydrogen outgassing generated structures. In the explanatory notes to these photos will meet term — "hydrogen bleaching." We have already mentioned that this is due to the destruction of humus in the black earth. Humus — a long organic compound (molecule) complex composition. Their length is provided by chemical bonds of carbon atoms with each other. But when they fall in a stream of hydrogen, the hydrogen atoms are incorporated between the carbon atoms long molecules are cleaved into shorter, which are volatile gases, and fly. Furthermore, in places where the hydrogen jets we are under a layer of soil sand white. The white color of the soil due to the appearance of kaolin — a clay mineral having a white color. Kaolinization develops and feldspar grains of sand caused, we believe the influence of hydrogen.

FIG. 3. An example of a ring structure in the initial phase of their education. 2 km diameter of the ring. (North-west of the Volgograd region).

FIG. 4. The next phase of development of ring structures: diameter — 2.5 km. Well expressed by the central depression. As a result, Black Earth formed upland bog. (East of the Voronezh region).

FIG. 5. Further development of the ring structure sagging. Swamp took almost the entire ring structure. In this case, hydrogen has to go beyond the primary ring, and began vybelivat neighborhood. (East of the Voronezh region).

FIG. 6. In this picture we see how hydrogen destroys plantations. Note the bald spots in the forest belt. The trees in this place died recently. The structure is less easily disposed of saplings nursery. Apparently trees are grown for several years, until the "hydrogen attack" did not destroy them. These facts point to the expansion of the hydrogen outgassing — now it captures more and more space.

FIG. 7. Moscow region, 1.5 km to the southeast of the city of Elektrostal. The ring structure subsidence of forest (sizes 220? 170 m). Brown tones in the center — the swamp, "gray felt" — fallen trees, a green border — alder, "dark crescent" below — the shade of the trees of the surrounding forest.

FIG. 8. The ring structure of subsidence in the Moscow region (between the villages of Zilina and Verevsky, 22 km NNW of Moscow, size 450? 350 m). Old predominantly spruce forest is destroyed, the structure subsided, Zabolots and overgrown with pine trees.

Subsidence structure similar to that shown in the photo. 8, are widely distributed in the northern part of the Moscow region. And even more places where they are just going to show up. So we were interested to check — whether these are the underlying cause of education? Or is it just a banal swamp in which organic matter decomposes, and therefore they are "floating" hydrogen? This version periodically whispered to us skeptics who sit in each of us, and those who love to hang out periods of enforced idleness by bad weather. And to shorten those pesky type of cooperation we are attracted to talented geophysics — Andrew Gorbatikova, who has developed a unique method of "micro-seismic sounding." Profile latitudinal length of 1,500 m (16 feet stations through 100) observed under this vertical structure subsidence zone (the "pipe" diameter 350 m) extending to a depth of more than 7 kilometers away (see Fig. 9). In this "pipe" is a sharp absorption of microseismic waves and decrease the speed of sound propagation. Conclusion: most likely, the zone is penetrated by pores and cavities that are filled with liquid and a gas.

Numerous measurements of the concentration of hydrogen in this place found a strong anomaly that extends beyond our profile. At the center of this anomaly (where the structure subsidence) hydrogen content exceeds 1.6%, the periphery they fall (sawtooth) to values of the order of 0.5%, which is also very much.

FIG. 9. The results of microseismic sensing and Vodorodometrii (in soil air) in the latitudinal profile through the structure of subsidence are shown in Fig. 8. The tubular vertical zone is exactly aligned with the ring structure. The color scale reflects the varying degree of absorption of MS in decibels (the brighter — the more complete absorption).

Inside the structure subsidence surface is flat, does not lie and do not stick out the fallen trees (both sides), and dry, in some places you can go without rubber boots. Among the soft moss grow rosemary, cranberries and blueberries. View attractive. But if you find a clearing with no young trees and jump on it, then show how you differ from surface waves. There is a feeling that you jump on the "soft blanket", floating on some slush. My younger colleagues (Gorbatikov Andrey and Nikolai Larin) also noticed this and came up with that! One will jump, and the other will catch the "echo" that comes with depth. Decided — will jump Larin (he geologist and qualified), while Andrew, as he geophysicist, was destined to be a "sounder". They have played this game and in the evening, after work, assured me (Larina — older), which echo comes about a quarter of a second. This means that a "soft blanket" a pit filled with "gruel", and the depth of this well is something about 180 meters I would not want to be among the builders, pulling way through such a structure, or among the crew of a heavy tank, decided to drive on level ground through a young woodland.

For the week of field work, we heard a lot of complaints of local gardeners, whose homes are in the immediate vicinity of the structure subsidence (See FIG. 8). They mainly complained about the smell of hydrogen sulfide, from which at times "just can not live," and "dead bald head" in the gardens and orchards, where there is absolutely nothing grows. We know the cause of these evils, sympathized with them, and refrain say that more could have been worse.

FIG. 10. Circles, rings and hydrogen bleaching in the north-western part of the Volgograd region. Area of such zones affected by hydrogen bleaching, measured in hundreds of square kilometers, which clearly illustrates the scale of the phenomenon.

We have reason to believe that these areal hydrogen anomalies eating out at a depth of vertical tubular zones — a sort of "of a hydrogen"(See FIG. 11). And it is likely that these areas can be selected hydrogen boreholes as conventional natural gas. Agree — this is quite a remarkable solution of many problems. We will be able to produce hydrogen — unique in its features energy source that does not have to drive far away through pipes, as it expires right here by our side, in the literal sense of the word. And if we learn how to capture the hydrogen flow at depth is thereby significantly reduce the negative effects of hydrogen on the surface drainage area.

Finally, do not forget about the phenomenon hydrogen embrittlement metals, which may cause destruction of the foundation engineering structures, underground pipelines and conduits. It should be clearly understood — if the soil air content of hydrogen measured by the percentage, the embrittlement of underground steel structures inevitably.

FIG. 11. Our understanding of the nature of the hydrogen outgassing in the lithosphere. In the upper horizons of the crust dark blue shows of a hydrogen on the sidebar on the right, well reveals the top of a hydrogen.

Two years ago, our old friend and colleague — SM Beskin (Dr. geol.-Miner. Sciences) showed us a very unusual phenomenon in the south of Moscow region many of the fields abundantly covered with tiny mud volcanoes.

FIG. 12. Above — "mud volcanoes" in line, the height of 0.5 meters, the emptiness of the "gas bubble" occupy 40-50% of the volume of the bladder wall somehow surprisingly smooth and thick.

Our measurements have shown that this phenomenon is evident in places of hydrogen degassing. And at first we thought that the reason for this lies in some of the local features of the soil, which prevents the free release of hydrogen and causes it to accumulate in the form of bubbles. However, in spring 2008, this phenomenon is widely evident across the Moscow region.

FIG. 13. Moscow Region, Dmitrov district, in April 2008. The field to the south of the village was covered Svistukha mud volcanoes. Before this was not observed. In the center of the image V.Larin, and it is not happy what they see.

Read more. Part 2>

Source: Hydrogen future

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