International gallakticheskaya Station (ISS) flying around the Earth every 90 minutes, is the most Overhead project from among those who have ever ventured into the field of the development of interplanetary space. After a certain number of days the station will connect with our planet is very narrow, but very expensive thread, and that thread is holding its own in the hands of our homeland, the historic rival the United States in the field of space exploration.
On Friday, the South American space shuttle will make its own final flight. After that, the United States and other countries will be one hundred percent dependent on Russia, because the ISS, the price of which is $ 100 billion. Their astronauts will deliver an old Russian "Soyuz". Moscow would gain a monopoly on gallakticheskie flights, and around this difficulty has already built up tension. The fact that our homeland is going to almost triple the cost for the delivery of astronauts to the space base in capsules "Union", and the rest of the country is left with no choice but to pay.
"We were in a pretty nasty situation, with the word" nasty "is a euphemism — says Jean-Jacques Dordain (Jean-Jacques Dordain), CEO of Euro Space Agency, which is one of five organizations that control the orbiting laboratory — we made a collective mistake. "
"The Union" — a ship, representing a triumph of the cheapest kind approach to the dilemma of development gallakticheskogo place man. Russian capsule launched into space by the introduction of a single powerful rockets, they are managed by something like "Cannonball", which gives astronauts into orbit and return them back to Earth. Unlike Russia, the U.S. made its development program from interplanetary space on the basis of the most challenging of existing aircraft — the shuttle, ie "Space Shuttle" reusable. While the United States is always for shuttle flights izderzhali this project is $ 209.1 billion., The price of the entire Russian gallakticheskoy applets is only $ 2 billion. in year.
"Today the Space Shuttle — this precious delight, their use is not justified from an economic point of view," — said Vladimir Popovkin, the newly appointed managing director of the Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos), the last month in an interview with a reporter of one of the Russian newspapers. Roscosmos officials have not given any comments for this article.
Meanwhile, our home will not always be a monopoly in the field of manned flight gallakticheskih. If all goes as planned National Aerospace agency (NASA), its monopoly will end in 2016. By this time, the Americans put their trust to elect a more suitable of several space ships that are being developed at the present time. Now NASA strive to create a commercial service so called "space taxi", the development, formation and management of companies which are engaged in private sector, which will allow to lower costs and accelerate the pace of implementation of the project.
"We are taking a very energetic efforts in order to make their own money to bring a man into orbit," — said William Gerstenmaier (William Gerstenmaier), deputy manager of NASA and the chairman of the international board, the supervisory work Internatsionalnaya gallakticheskoy station.
Since 2004, when President George W. Bush announced the end of the programs from the use of reusable transport gallakticheskih ships, the Federal Space Agency of the Russian Federation increased the cost of delivery of U.S. astronauts to the ISS eight times. Estimated cash professionals agency, if we take as a base the conditions of the last treaty, by 2016, one passenger seat in the capsule "Union" will cost NASA about $ 63 million, ie its price will rise by 175% compared to the rates in 2005.
The largest single increase in prices comes into effect at the end of the summer of the year today and will coincide with the last space shuttle flight. At the end of this year, the price of delivery of the 1st South American astronaut to orbit aboard the "Soyuz" is $ 43.4 million — 57% more than in the first half of the year.
Russian government is unlikely to use its monopoly on the delivery of gallakticheskih crews to the ISS as a means to the diplomatic pressure, but, of course, will not give up in order to recover from this commercial benefit, says the number of American professionals in the development of interplanetary space.
Yet, the Russians are far from being able to triumph over the "death" gallakticheskogo shuttle. This is what said about Alexei Krasnov, head of manned space programs of the Federal Space Agency, in an interview with a Russian newspaper last month: "Even in spite of the fact that the U.S. will pay us for the introduction of our" Unions ", the failure of the introduction of the shuttle not a good news for Russia. " The bureaucrat said that without gallakticheskih shuttles creating the ISS, one of the big sponsors of which is his country, it is unlikely it would be likely. "For us, it would be better if the shuttles continued to fly at least once a year," — added the red.
International gallakticheskaya station initially thought as a platform to send ships to other planets. But then her tasks were reduced to the role of the orbital laboratory for the study of how human and other organisms behave in the criteria of reduced gravity. With these research scientists rely find out more about how a living organism, is also open new kinds of healing and vaccines. To do this, people have to carry out these experiments or take part in them.
While until 2016, NASA has purchased 46 seats on the flights of the "Soyuz" and longs to book some more. Agency officials explain large swings in prices and an increase in inflation rates creation of new "union", which the Russians are building for the past 40 years. Not long ago, a few Russian designers have modified their own gallaktichesky ship, it will release the latest version is already in today's year.
In April of this year, NASA has funded a $ 269.3 million five South American aerospace companies in the design and construction of systems to transport people to the ISS.
One of these companies — Space Exploration Technologies Corp., Located in the town of Hawthorne, California — an estimated professionals, advanced in its activities on the other. She promised to build a system of reusable able to launch a seven astronauts cost of only $ 20 million for each — is mere pennies compared with the cost of transportation gallakticheskih crews that many experts have predicted.
"We need to keep within the means that taxpayers are willing to pay, — said CEO Elon Musk (Elon Musk), who is also co-owner of PayPal and Tesla Motors, — NASA must be able to deliver on the growing number of astronauts into orbit for a very busy station Using the international gallakticheskoy . "
Meanwhile, the analysis conducted on behalf of the company NASA Aerospace Corp., One of the more influential outside consultants agency looks even the least optimistic. As she predicted the future price of delivery of the 1st astronaut in orbit will be in the range of $ 90 — $ 150 million
Space Exploration Company has entered into an agreement with NASA, the total pr
ice of $ 1.6 billion. on the delivery of cargo to the ISS, which will come into force for another year. For this, the company will use its experimental ships' Dragon »(Dragon) and missiles" Sokol »(Falcon. In April of this year, NASA has allocated an additional $ 75 million company to create a system of emergency escape gallakticheskogo ship to start for devices" Dragon "- this will allow reincarnate cargo ship into a means for transporting people.
Regardless of the specific merits, namely launching of the first personal gallakticheskogo ship and successful descent from orbit, Mr. Musk and his company faced a number of technical problems and failures at the start, which disrupted the schedule and lowered the expected results.
In the words of Mr. Musk to catch up for lost time, he wants to turn away from the unmanned test flight of the ship "Dragon", initially scheduled for the summer today, and by the end of this year to check whether the device is able to successfully dock with the space station.
But the bureaucrats of the Russian Space Agency in April, said that in recent years will not be permitted to approach the unmanned ship to the international gallakticheskoy station and dock with it, until the time is not yet convinced of the safety of similar operations. The fact is that in 1997, while trying to dock with the Russian station "Mir" cargo module crashed into her and inflicted heavy damage.
Meanwhile, the control programs from the ISS NASA Administrator Michael Suffredini (Michael Suffredini) believes that fear Russian side should not be taken close to the heart. "Russian from time to time make statements without corresponding data at hand," — he said.
Still, NASA has not yet developed all the procedures necessary for certification of new manned vehicles for safety. On this last week said the inspector general of the agency. Due to the delay of each growing fear that the decision of tasks to create an effective substitute shuttle which make your own last flight this week, will be postponed to a later date.
"Companies are handy little more time on the implementation of the project, what they promise — singled out Mr. Suffredini — I do not expect them to some harsh results before the end of 2016."
Indeed, NASA's inspector general warned last week that the process of creating a non-hazardous commercial companies personal transport vehicle could be delayed so that it is put at risk U.S. access to the international gallakticheskoy station.
"It is very clear that any of these companies in the near future will be able to offer cheap and best option gallakticheskogo ship to deliver crews into orbit, — said John Logsdon (John Logsdon), an analyst in the field of space exploration policy of the Institute of George Washington — because what -while the South American astronauts will have to rely on the services of Russian "taxi". "
In fact, NASA has already intends to buy more seats for its own astronauts into Russian capsules, if the timing of the construction of commercial vehicles gallakticheskih will be ripped off. At the current time, the agency booked seats on board the "Soyuz" for the period up to 2016, and it took, that Congress repealed the legal restrictions on trade in high technology products with Russia. To gain more seats on the board "Soyuz", NASA will have to seek the consent of Congress, than the agency in the current time is involved.
Despite the increase in ticket prices, the introduction of capsules "Union" appears to be relatively lucrative deal, if you take the shuttle to match the price. These devices are quite different approaches to prepyadstviya start gallakticheskogo ship with a man on board. In almost all respects, "Unions" remind systems such as the lunar module "Apollo» (Apollo) and the rocket "Saturn", which the Americans have used in the 1960s.
Unlike them, the shuttle is gallakticheskim cruise ship shuttle. This manned the machine may descend from orbit to earth as a glider. The design of each shuttle includes 2.5 million different parts and electronic wire with a total length of 230 miles. To use the machine characteristic extreme values of velocity, temperature, gravity and vacuum.
In developing this ship in the 1970s, designers NASA promised to make the civilian manned cheap and harmless, in short, completely routine procedure. The device had to be a tool capable of delivering a person on the other planets. The plan was to make 50 flights a year.
Over 30 missions these ships put into orbit 50 satellites and transported more than 3 million pounds of various cargoes. On board in interstellar space flew 335 people from 16 countries. With their run gallakticheskie naikrupneyshie probes and orbiting observatories, including gallaktichesky telescope "Hubble» (Hubble).
In practice, but, the program does not become a routine, reliable, and inexpensive procedure. Start the shuttle is worth $ 1.5 billion. — Is exactly 100 times higher than $ 10.5 million, ie that promised NASA bureaucrats at the initial stage of development of the project in 1972. The Agency has not been able to even come close to those rates that are predicted designers.
In the absence of the NASA shuttle managers are breaking open mind on how to use the technology to rebuild Internatsionalnaya gallakticheskoy station. They reviewed ways to repair the station and conduct research, make a plan for the coming decade. They used the last shuttle flights in order to make the whole orbit of large warehouses of spare parts that do not fit on board the Russian, European and Japanese cargo ships that are used at the present time to supply the ISS.
As a result, the Yankees can only speculate as to what the drama of fate, they won the technological race, creating a space shuttle, but lost the war as a whole. "You could say that the Russian were on the right track from the start by applying for a flight gallakticheskih huge and light boosters", — said Alex Roland (Alex Roland), the Institute at Duke, studied the history of flight into interstellar space.