The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Prior to launch into explanations, statistics and so on, let's immediately explain what is meant. This article maps the loss incurred of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht troops of the Third Reich's satellites also civilian population of the USSR and Germany, only during the period from 22.06.1941 until the end of hostilities in Europe (unfortunately, in the case of Germany, it is actually feasible ). Deliberately excluded the Soviet-Finnish War and "liberating" march of the Red Army. The issue of loss of the USSR and Germany more than once ascended in print, go to endless debate on the Web and on television, but to a common denominator researchers of this issue can not come, because, usually, the arguments boil down ultimately to sense and politicized statements. This once again proves how sick this question in Russian history. Purpose of the article is not a "clarification" ultimate truth in the matter, but an attempt to summarize the various data stored in disparate sources. The right to make a conclusion to the reader.

With all the abundance of literature and online resources about Lofty Russian war, the idea of it in almost all suffer a certain superficiality. The main reason for this — or any other ideological bias of study or work and do not fundamentally, what it did for ideology — communist or anti-communist. The treatment of such terrific action in the light of any ideology is wrong in advance.

Especially bitter to read soon that the war of 1941-45. was the only battle 2-totalitarian regimes, where one, they say, is fully consistent with the other. We try to look at this war from the standpoint of more than justified — the geopolitical.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Germany 30's, with all its own Nazi "special", directly and inexorably continued desire for a massive superiority in Europe, which for centuries defined the path of German civilization. Even a purely liberal German sociologist Max Weber wrote during the 1st World War, "… we are 70 million Germans … have to be an empire. We have to do it, even if we are afraid to fail. " The roots of the aspirations of the Germanic roots back centuries, usually, the Nazis appealed to medieval and even pagan Germany interpreted as a purely ideological exercise, as the construction of civilization mobilizing myth.

From my point of view, all the more difficult: specifically Germanic tribes did the empire of Charles stateliness, and later formed the foundation for its Holy Roman Empire of the German civilization. And specifically, "Empire of the German Nation" did what is called a "European civilization" and began an aggressive policy of the Europeans with the sacramental «Drang nach osten» — «the onslaught of the East" because half of the "native" of the German lands, right up to the 8-10 centuries belonged Slavic tribes. Because the assignment to plan war against the "barbarian" of the USSR of the name "Plan Barbarossa" — not a coincidence. This ideology of the "primacy" of Germany as a fundamental force "European" civilization was the primary prerequisite 2-world wars. In this first second World Germany could indeed (albeit briefly) to fulfill their aspiration.

Invading limits one or another European country, German troops met wonderful on its own helplessness and indecision resistance. Short-term battle with the armies of European countries invading their limits by German troops, except in Poland, were a faster observance of a "custom" of the war than the actual resistance.

Much has been written about dutom European "resistance" movement, allegedly would cause enormous damage to Germany, and to testify that Europe is flatly precluded a German unification under his headship. But, apart from Yugoslavia, Albania, Poland and Greece, the extent of the Resistance — the same ideological myth. Certainly, the regime established by Germany in occupied countries, did not please the general public. In Germany, too, was resistance to the regime, but in neither case it was not the resistance of the country and civilization in general. For example, in the resistance movement in France for 5 years, killed 20 thousand people, for the same five years, killing about 50 thousand Frenchmen who fought on the side of the Germans, in other words, 2.5 times more!

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

In the Russian time amplification of the Resistance was introduced into the minds of both the desired ideological myth, they say, our struggle with Germany supported the whole of Europe. In fact, as already mentioned, severe resistance to the invaders had only 4 countries, which explains their "patriarchal": they were alien does not 'German' orders, encouraged by the Reich, as Europe-wide, for these countries on their own style of life and consciousness in almost all did not belong to the European civilization (though geographically included in Europe).

So Makar, by 1941 virtually all of continental Europe, one way or another, but without much turmoil became part of the modern empire with Germany at the helm. Of the existing 2-10-s almost half of the European countries — Spain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Finland, Croatia — along with Germany went to war against the Soviet Union on the Eastern Front sending its armed forces (Denmark and Spain without a formal declaration of war). Other European countries have participated in military operations against the Soviet Union, but one way or another "worked" for Germany, or, rather, to the newly established European empires. The misconception about the events in Europe led us to completely forget about the many real-world events since then. So, for example, the Anglo-American troops under the command of General Eisenhower in November 1942 in North Africa, fought with the Germans did not at first, but with the two hundred thousandth army of the French, despite the spirited "victory" (Jean Darlan because of the obvious advantages Allied forces ordered to surrender to the French troops ), were killed in the fighting Yankees 584, 597 British and 1,600 French. Naturally, this small loss across the second World War, but they demonstrate that the situation was a bit more complicated than usual thinking.

Reddish Army in the battles on the Eastern Front seized half a million prisoners who are citizens like no war with the Soviet Union countries! You can make the objection that it is a "victim" of the German violence to drive them to the Russian expanses. But the Germans were not stupid with you and we are unlikely to be allowed on the front of the polls unreliable troops. And yet one more stately and multinational army won victories in Russia, Europe was, in general, on its side. Franz Halder in his diary June 30, 1941 recorded the words of Hitler: "European unity as a result of a joint war against Russia." And Hitler completely correctly assessed the situation. Almost geopolitical aims of the war against the Soviet Union produced not only the Germans, and 300 million Europeans, united on different grounds —
from enforced subordination to want cooperation — but, one way or the other, acting together. Only by relying on continental Europe, the Germans were able to mobilize an army of 25% of the population (for information, the Soviet Union has mobilized 17% of its own people.) In a word, power and technology equipment army invaded the Soviet Union, provided 10 of millions of skilled workers across Europe.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Why it took me so longish introduction? The answer is simple. In the end, you need to understand that the Soviet Union was at war not only with the German Third Reich, but almost all of Europe. Unfortunately, in the age-old "rusofobstvo" of Europe superimposed horror of "terrible beast" — Bolshevism. Many volunteers from European countries who fought in Russia, particularly waged war with an alien communist ideology. Not the least of their number was conscious haters "inferior" Slavs, infected with plague racial advantages. Modern German historian R. Ryurup writes:

"In almost all of the documents the Third Reich imprinted image of the enemy — Russia, deeply settled in the German history and society. Such eyes were characterized by even those officers and soldiers who were not convinced either exalted by the Nazis. They (these soldiers and officers) also shared ideas about "eternal struggle" Germans … the protection of European culture from the "Asian hordes", the cultural vocation and the rule of law in the East Germans. enemy image of this type has been extensively vserasprostranen in Germany, he belonged to the "spiritual values". "

And this geopolitical consciousness was typical not only the Germans as such. After June 22, 1941 by leaps and bounds arise voluntary legions, later transformed into the SS Division "Nordland" (Scandinavian), "Langemark" (Belgium-Flemish), "Charlemagne" (French). Guess where they defended the "European civilization"? That's right, quite far away from Western Europe, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia. German Dr. K. Pfeffer wrote in 1953: "Most of the volunteers from the states of Western Europe went to the Eastern Front as the story of the TOTAL this puzzle for the whole of the West …" Here's the forces of almost all of Europe and was destined to confront the Soviet Union, not only with Germany, and it was not a clash of "two totalitarianism" and "civilized and progressive" Europe "barbarous state subhumans" so long to frighten the Europeans from the east.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

1. The losses of the USSR

According to the official census of 1939, the Soviet Union lived 170 million people — far more than even any other European country taken separately. The entire population of Europe (excluding the USSR) was 400 million. By the beginning of the second World War, the population of the Union of Russian population was different from future enemies and allies of the highest levels of mortality and low longevity. All the same, the highest birth rate provided significant population growth (2% in 1938-39.). Also, unlike in Europe consisted in a youth population of the USSR: fraction of kids under the age of 15 years was 35%. This same feature is permitted comparable rapidly (in tech. 10 years) to return the pre-war population. Fraction of the urban population was only 32% (for comparison: in the UK — more than 80%, France — 50%, Germany — 70% in the U.S. — 60%, and only in the Land of the Rising Sun, it had the same value as the and the USSR).

In 1939, the population of the USSR increased markedly after the entry of the new areas of the country (Western Ukraine and Belarus, the Baltics, Bessarabia and Bukovina), whose population was 20 [1] to 22.5 [2] million people. The total population of the Soviet Union, according to the CSO help on January 1, 1941, was determined to 198,588 people (including the Russian Federation — 111 745 thousand). According to current estimates, it still was less and 1 June 41 was 196.7 million.

The population of some countries in the years 1938-40.

USSR — 170.6 (196.7) million;
Germany — 77.4 million;
France — 40.1 million;
England — 51.1 million;
Italy — 42.4 million;
Finland — 3.8 million;
United States — 132.1 million;
Japan — 71.9 million.

By 1940, the population of the Reich had risen to 90 million, and in view of the satellites and the conquered countries — 297 million people. By December 1941 the USSR had lost 7% of the territory of the country, which before World War II population of 74.5 million people. This again emphasizes that despite the assurances of Hitler, the Soviet Union had advantages in human resources over the Third Reich.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

For always majestically Russian war in our country, 34.5 million people wore uniforms. This represented about 70% of the total number of boys aged 15-49 years in 1941. The number of ladies in the Red Army was approximately 500 tyscham. Higher percentage was designed exclusively in Germany, but as we read as before, the lack of manpower Germans covered by the European workers and prisoners of war. In the USSR, a similar lack of covered working day or extended duration and increased use of labor ladies, kids and old people.

On direct unrecoverable losses of the Red Army in the Soviet Union for a long time, not voices. In a personal conversation Marshal Konev in 1962 referred to a figure of 10 million people [3], known defector — Colonel Kalin, who escaped to the West in 1949 — 13.6 million people. [4] The figure of 10 million people was published in the French version of the book "War and Population" B. Ts Urlanis known Russian demographer. The creators of the famous book "Grief secrecy lifted" (Ed. G. Krivosheeva) in 1993 and in 2001 released a figure of 8.7 million people, now in most reference books listed specifically it. But the creators state that there are not included: 500 thousand military service designed to mobilize and captured by the enemy, but not enrolled in the lists of units and formations. Also left out almost completely dead militiamen in Moscow, Leningrad, Kiev and other big cities. At the current time, a more complete list of non-performing Russian fighter losses are 13.7 million people, but about 12-15% of the records again. According to the article "Dead Souls majestically World" ("NG", 22.06.99), the historical and archival center for the search "Destiny" association "War Memorials" found that due to double or even triple the number of records lost soldiers 43rd and 2 Second Shock Army to explore the center of the fighting was overestimated by 10-12%. Since these numbers refer to the period
when the account of losses in the Red Army was not sufficiently receive close, one can imagine that in general in the war due to double-counting the number of dead Red overstated by approximately 5-7%, ie, 0.2 -0.4 million.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

On the question of the prisoners. South American explorer Alexander Dallin on archival German data estimates their number at 5.7 million. Of them died in captivity 3.8 million in other words 63% [5]. Russian historians estimate the number of Red Army prisoners of 4.6 million people, 2.9 million of them died [6] In contrast to the German sources are not included civilian entity (eg railway), also seriously wounded left on the battlefield, occupied by the enemy, and then died from wounds or shot (about 470-500 thousand [7]) is particularly desperate situation of prisoners of war was in the first year of the war, when it was captured more than half of the total number (2.8 million) and their work has not yet begun to be used in the interests of the Reich. Camp in the open air, cold and hunger, disease and lack of pharmaceuticals, the most severe appeal, mass executions unhealthy and unable to work, well, just all the undesirables first commissars and Jews. Not coping with the flow of prisoners and for political and propaganda motives, the occupiers in 1941 was dismissed from house to house over 300 thousand POWs priemuschestvenno natives of western Ukraine and Belarus. In the coming this practice was discontinued.

Also, do not forget that about 1 million prisoners had been transferred from the captivity of the auxiliary parts of the Wehrmacht. [8] In almost all cases, the prisoners it was the only chance to survive. Again, as most of these people, according to the German data, at first tried to desert the ability of units and formations of the Wehrmacht. [9] In the local auxiliary forces of the German army stood out:

1) The volunteer assistants (Jivi)
2) Service of order (DAR)
3) supporting the front-line of the (noise)
4) police and defense team (heme).

First, in 1943 the Wehrmacht there were up to 400 thousand Jivi, 60 to 70 thousand Odie, and 80 th in the Eastern battalions.

A proportion of the population and prisoners of war captured territories have made a conscious choice in favor of cooperation with the Germans. Thus, the SS Division "Galicia" in the 13,000 "places" were 82,000 volunteers. More than 100 thousand Latvians, Lithuanians, 36 thousand and 10 thousand Estonians served in the German army, to a greater extent in the Waffen SS.

In addition, several million people from the occupied territories were deported to forced labor in the Reich. CPP (Extraordinary State Commission) immediately after the war, the number assessed in 4,259 million. More recent studies give a figure of 5.45 million people, of them were killed thousand 850-1000

Estimates of direct physical extermination of the civilian population, according to the ESC by 1946.

Russian Federation — 706 thousand people.
USSR — 3256.2 thousand people.
Byelorussian SSR — 1547 thousand.
Lit. SSR — 437.5 thousand people.
Lat. SSR — 313.8 thousand people.
Est. SSR — 61.3 thousand people.
Mold. SSR — 61 thousand people.
Karelian-Fin. SSR — 8 thousand people. (10)

So the highest number for Lithuania and Latvia due to the fact that there were death camps and concentration camps for prisoners of war. Were tremendous and the loss of population in the front line during the fighting. But finding them is almost impossible. Not only allowable value — the number of those killed in the siege of Leningrad, ie 800 thousand people. In 1942, the infant mortality rate in Leningrad headed for 74.8%, in other words, out of 100 babies came a gust of about 75 kids!

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Another important issue. What is the number of former Russian people after the Russian war majestically chose not vorachivatsya in the USSR? According to Russian archives, the number of "second emigration" was 620 thousand. 170000 — Germans, Bessarabian and bukovintsev, 150 000 — Ukrainians, 109,000 — Latvians, 230 000 — Estonians and Lithuanians, and only 32,000 Russian [11]. Now, this estimate is obviously too low. According to current data, emigration from the USSR was 1.3 million. What gives us the difference in almost 700 thousand were previously assigned to the irreparable loss of the population [12].

So, what are the losses of the Red Army, the civilian population of the USSR and the general population loss in Lofty Russian War. In the past 20 years, the primary outcome was "drawn by" the ears Khrushchev figure is 20 million. In 1990, as a result of the ad hoc committee of the General Staff of the USSR State Committee on Statistics and there is a more reasonable estimate of 26.6 million. Now it is official. Attention is drawn to the fact that in 1948 the South American sociologist gave Timashev assessment of losses of the USSR in the war, which actually coincided with the evaluation committee of the General Staff. Also, the data of the Commission Krivosheeva coincides Maksudova assessment made by him in 1977. According to the Commission, GF Krivosheeva [13].

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

So let's summarize:

The post-war estimate of losses of the Red Army's 7 million people.
Timasheff: Reddish Army — 12.2 million people., Civilians 14.2 million., Direct human loss 26.4 mln., The general population 37.3 million [14]
Arntts and Khrushchev: direct human 20 million. [15]
Biraben and Solzhenitsyn: Reddish Army 20 million., Civilians are 22.6 million people., Straight human 42.6 million, the total population 62.9 million. [16]
Maxudov: Reddish Army — 11.8 million people., Civilians are 12.7 million people, the direct loss of human 24, 5 million people. You can not not mention that S. Maxudov (AP Babenyshev, Harvard Institute USA) purely military spacecraft caused the loss of 8.8 million [17]
Rybakovsky: direct human 30 million people. [18]
Andreev, Darski, Kharkov (the General Staff, the Commission Krivosheeva) direct combat losses of the Red Army's 8.7 million (11, 994 including prisoners of war) people. The civilian population (including prisoners) 17.9 million. Direct human loss 26.6 million. [19]
Sokolov: the loss of the Red Army — 26 million people [20]
M. Harrison: general loss of the USSR — 23.9 — 25.8 million.

What did we have in the "dry" balance? We will be controlled by conventional logic.

Assessment of losses of the Red Army, given in 1947 (7 million) is not credible, because not all the calculations, even if imperfect Russian system have been completed.

Khrushchev's assessment is also not confirmed. On the other side are also unfounded and "Solzhenitsyn's" 20 million of losses only the
army or even 44 million (without denying some talent as a writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, all the facts and figures in his works are not proven either by a single document and understand that from where he take — is unrealistic).

Boris Sokolov tries to explain to us that the only loss of the armed forces of the USSR amounted to 26 million people. Operated it with all this indirect way of calculations. Accurately known to the loss of the officer corps of the Red Army, according to Sokolov is 784 thousand (1941-44). Sovereign Sokolov, referring to the average loss of officers of the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front, 62,500 people (1941-44.), And the data of Mueller-Gillebranta , displays the ratio of losses to the officer corps of the ordinary Wehrmacht as 1:25, in other words 4%. And void sumnyashesya, this method extrapolates to a reddish Army, getting their 26 million of non-performing losses. But such an approach on closer examination turns out to be wrong in the beginning. In 1-x, 4% of losses officers do not have an upper limit, for example, in the Polish campaign, the Wehrmacht had lost 12% of the officers to the total losses of the Armed Forces. In-2, the emperor Sokolov, you might need to know that when regular number of German infantry regiment in 3049 a man officers there were 75 people, in other words 2.5%. And in the Russian infantry regiment in 1582 the number of people — officers, 159 men, or E.10%. B-3, appealing to the Wehrmacht, Sokolov forgets that the more combat experience of the troops lost in the middle of the lower officers. In the Polish campaign, the loss of 12% of German officers, the French — 7%, and on the Eastern Front is 4%.

The same can be applied to the Red Army, if at the end of the war the loss of officers (not according to Sokolov, and statistics) were 9.8%, by the beginning of World War II and could make up 24%. It turns out, like a schizophrenic, all reasonable and true, only the initial premise is wrong. Why is the theory of Sokolov we braked so carefully? Yes, since Mr. Sokolov very often gives his number in the media.

With this in mind, pushing ahead too low and high estimates of losses, we get: Commission Krivosheeva — 8.7 million (11,994 million prisoners of war data, 2001), Maxudov — the loss of even a few less formal — 11.8 million. (1977 -93 years.) Timasheff — 12.2 million people. (1948). This also can be ranked and outlook M. Harrison, at the level of general loss, marked them, the loss of the army should lie down at the skylight. These data were obtained by different methods of calculation, since Maxudov and Timasheff and therefore did not have access to the archives of Defense of the USSR and Russia. It seems that the loss of the USSR Armed Forces in World War II are very close to that of the "heap" to group results. Let us not forget that these numbers include 2.6-3.2 million murdered Russian prisoners of war.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

In conclusion, it should be, for sure, agree with the views Maksudova that the number of losses to exclude emigration outflows, which totaled 1.3 million., Which is not taken into account in the study of the General Staff. At this value, and should reduce the magnitude of the losses of the USSR in World War II. The percentage losses of the USSR structure looks like this:

41% — loss of aircraft (including prisoners of war)
35% — the loss of the sun (not prisoners of war, that is, direct combat)
39% — loss of population occupied territories and the front line (45% of Prisoners of War)
8% — the population of the rear
6% — Gulag
6% — emigration outflows.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

2. The loss of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS

By the time the true there is quite reliable figures for losses of the German army, acquired a direct statistical computation. This is explained by the lack of reliable for various reasons, the initial statistical data about German losses.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

More or less clear picture about the number of prisoners of war Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front. According to Russian sources, the Russian troops were taken prisoner 3,172,300 Wehrmacht soldier from them in the NKVD camps were 2,388,443 Germans. [21] According to the calculations of German historians in the Russian POW camps only German troops were about 3.1 million [22]. The discrepancy, you see, about 0.7 million people. An explanation of this discrepancy to differences in estimating the number of Germans who died in captivity: for Russian archival documents in Russian captivity killed 356,700 Germans and German researchers estimated about 1.1 million people. It seems that the more accurate figure is the Russian Germans died in captivity, and the missing 0.7 million missing and did not return from the captivity of the Germans in fact did not die in captivity and in the field.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

The vast majority of publications on population estimates of combat losses Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS, based on the data of the Central Bureau (Department) accounting losses of the armed forces in the German General Staff of the High Command. At the same time, denying the validity of Russian statistics, the German data are regarded as completely reliable. But on closer examination it turned out that the outlook for the highest reliability of the data of this department is very exaggerated. Thus, the German historian R. Overmans in the article "Human sacrifice 2nd World War in Germany," he concluded that "… the channels of disk imaging in the Wehrmacht did not reveal the degree of confidence that some authors ascribe to them." As an example, he reported that "… the official conclusion of the Department of losses in the headquarters of the Wehrmacht, referring to 1944, documented that the loss that was incurred in the course of Polish, French and Norwegian campaigns and the identification of which presented no technical problems were almost twice higher than initially reported. " According to Mueller-Gillebranda, which many researchers believe, demographic loss Wehrmacht $ 3.2 million. Another 0.8 million have died in captivity. [23] But, according to the Organization Department of the OKH help from May 1, 1945, only ground forces, including the Waffen-SS (with no air force and navy) for the period from 1 September 1939 to 1 May 1945 lost 4 million 617.0 thousand people. This is the latest post on
the losses the German Armed Forces. [24] In addition, from mid-April 1945 centralized accounting of losses was not conducted. Since the beginning of 1945 data is not complete. The fact remains that in a recent radio with his role, Hitler announced a figure of 12.5 million total losses of the German Armed Forces, of which 6.7 million non-recurrent, which exceeds the data Mueller Gillebranda approximately doubled. It was in March 1945. I do not think that two months the soldiers of the Red Army did not destroy any of the 1st German.

In general, information department of the Wehrmacht's losses can not serve as initial data for the calculation of the losses of the Armed Forces of Germany in the stateliness Russian war.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

There are other statistics losses — Statistics Wehrmacht soldier graves. According to the annex to the German law on "Preservation of burial sites," the total number of German fighter, are recorded in the graves on the territory of the Union of Russian and Eastern European countries, is 3 million 226 thousand people. (On the ground only of the USSR — 2,330,000 graves). This figure can be taken as the start of the calculation of demographic losses of the Wehrmacht, but it needs to be adjusted.

In 1-x, this figure takes into account only the burial of the Germans, and in the Wehrmacht led war fighter a huge number of other ethnic groups: the Austrians (of them killed 270 thousand people.), The Sudeten Germans and Alsatians (killed 230 thousand people.) And representatives of other nationalities and countries (killed 357 thousand people.). Of the total number of people killed soldier Wehrmacht non-German nationality at a fraction of the Soviet-German front, account for 75-80%, ie, 0.6-0.7 million.

In-2, the figure refers to the early 90-ies of the last century. During the intervening time while looking for German graves in Russia, the CIS and Eastern Europe lasted. And appearing on this topic reports were not sufficiently informative. So, for example, the Association of Russian war memorials, made in 1992, said that over the 10 years of its existence gave the German Union for the care of military graves information about tombstones 400 thousand Wehrmacht soldier. But if it was the newly discovered burial or they are already included in the figure of 3 million 226 thousand unclear. Unfortunately, the aggregate statistics of newly discovered tombs Wehrmacht soldier could not be found. Approximately one can assume that the number of newly discovered over the past 10 years, the Wehrmacht soldier graves located within the boundaries of 0.2-0.4 million.

Third, many burial Wehrmacht soldier killed in the Russian land lost or specifically were destroyed. In about these unmarked graves of disappeared and could not be buried 0.4-0.6 million Wehrmacht soldier.

Fourth, these data do not include disposal of the German soldier killed in battle with Russian troops on the territory of Germany, and Western European countries. According to R. Overmansa, in the last three months of vernal war killed about 1 million people. (Low estimate 700 thousand) Overall, on German soil and in Western European countries in the battles of the Red Army were killed with approximately 1.2-1.5 million Wehrmacht soldier.

Finally, in the fifth, one of the men came in and buried the Wehrmacht, died of "natural" death (0.1-0.2 million).

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Assessment of losses Wehrmacht with the introduction of the balance of the armed forces of Germany during the war years through articles, Major-General Vladimir Gurkin. Its estimated number shown in the 2nd column of the table. 4. Here attention is drawn to two numbers characterizing the number mobilized in the Wehrmacht during the war, and the number of prisoners of war Wehrmacht soldier. The number of mobilized during the war (17.9 million people). Taken from the book B. Mueller Gillebranda "The army in Germany 1933-1945." Tz Together with the fact VP Bokhari said that the Wehrmacht was intended more — 19 million people.

The number of prisoners of war Wehrmacht V. Gurkin determined by summing the prisoners taken of the Red Army (3.178 million) and the allied forces (4.209 million people.) Until 9 May 1945. In my opinion, this number is too high: it included prisoners of war who were not soldiers of Wehrmacht. In the book, Paul and Karel punter Beddekera "German prisoners of second world war," says: "… In June 1945, the Joint Command of the allies, it became clear that the" camps is 7,614,794 prisoners of war and persons unarmed military personnel, of which 4,209,000 at the time of the surrender were already in captivity. "Among the designated 4.2 million German prisoners of war, not counting the Wehrmacht soldier, there were many others. For example, in the French camp Vitrile Francois middle of the prisoners' youngest was 15 years old, the oldest — almost 70. "creators write about folkshturmovtsah prisoners, the organization Yankees special" children's "camps, where prisoners gathered twelve or thirteen year old boys from the" Hitler Youth "and" Werewolf ". Mention placement in the camp, even persons with disabilities. article" My journey in Ryazan captive "(" Map »№ 1, 1992) Henry Shippmann noted:

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

"It is necessary to take into account that at first were taken prisoner, although to a greater extent, but not limited to, not only the soldiers of Wehrmacht soldiers or SS units, and serving Air Force personnel, members of the" Volkssturm "or napolovinuvoennyh Unions (organization" Todt " , "Reich Labor Service," etc.). Among them were not only men, and the ladies — and not only the Germans, and the so-called "Volksdeutsche" and "foreigners have" — Croats, Serbs, Cossacks, north — and the Western Europeans that would otherwise have fought wars on the side of the German Wehrmacht or ranked as him. Besides, during the occupation of Germany in 1945, he was arrested anyone who was in uniform, even if it was about the chief railway station. "

In general, in the midst of 4.2 million prisoners of war taken allies to May 9, 1945, approximately 20 to 25% were Wehrmacht soldiers. This means that a prisoner of the allies was 3.1-3.3 million Wehrmacht soldier.

The total number of Wehrmacht soldiers who were captured before the surrender, was 6.3-6.5 million.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

In general, demographic combat the loss of the Wehrmacht and SS troops on the Soviet-German front are 5,2-6,3 million., 0.36 million of them died in captivity, and the non-return loss (including prisoners) 8.2 -9.1 million. Also it should be noted that the Russian historiography until recent years did not mention some data on the number of prisoners of war at the end of the Wehrmacht's military operations in Europe, apparently for ideological judgments, because even nicer to believe that the EU has "struggled" against fascism than to give in to self report that some very large number of Europeans deliberately waged war in the Wehrmacht. So, on the note of General Antonov, May 25, 1945. Of the Red Army were captured 5 million 20 thousand only Wehrmacht soldier from them until August after filtration events were released 600 thousand (the Austrians, Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenes, Poles, and so on.), And these prisoners of war in camps NKVD did not push off. So Makar, transient loss of the Wehrmacht in the battles of the Red Army to be even higher (about 0.6 — 0.8 million).

Yet there is one method of "calculating" losses in Germany and the Third Reich in the war against the Soviet Union. Completely correct incidentally. Try to "substitute" numbers related to Germany, the methodology for calculation of general demographic losses of the USSR. We shall use only the official data of the German side. Thus, the population of Germany in 1939 was according to Mueller-Gillebrandta (page 700 of his work, so beloved supporters of the theory of "collapses dead bodies") of 80.6 million people. With all this we, the reader should be aware that this includes 6.76 million Austrians, and the population of the Sudetenland — still 3.64 million people. In other words, the population of Germany is actually in the range of 1933 to 1939 was (80.6 — 6.76 — 3.64) 70.2 million. With this simple math sorted out. Next: natural mortality in the Soviet Union was 1.5% per year, but in Western Europe, mortality was even lower, at 0.6 — 0.8% per year, Germany was no exception. But the birth rate in the USSR in about the same proportion superior to that of European, due to which the Soviet Union had the highest population growth measured all the pre-war years, beginning in 1934.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

We know the results of the post-war census in the USSR, but not enough people know that such a census was carried out by the Allied occupation authorities Oct. 29, 1946 in Germany. The census gave the following results:

Russian zone of occupation (no eastern. Berlin) guys — 7, 419 million women — 9,914 million, total: 17,333 million.

All the Western occupation zones (no app. Berlin) guys — 20,614 million, ladies — 24,804 million, total: 45.418 million.

Berlin (all sectors of occupation), guys — 1.29 million women — 1.89 million, total: 3.18 million.

Total population of Germany — 65? 931? 000. Purely arithmetic operation 70.2 million — 66 million, like giving decline of only 4.2 million, but it's not that simple.

At the time of the census in the USSR, the number of babies born since the beginning of 1941 was about 11 million, the birth rate in the USSR during the war fell sharply and amounted to only 1.37% per year of the pre-war population. The birth rate in Germany and in peacetime did not exceed 2% per annum of the population. Imagine it fell only 2 times instead of 3, as in the Soviet Union. In other words, the natural increase of the population during the war years and the first year after the war was about 5% of the pre-war population, and figures reached 3.5-3.8 million children. This figure must be added to the total figure of population decline in Germany. Now math is different: the overall decline in the population of 4.2 million + 3.5 million = 7.7 million. And this is not the final figure, to complete the calculation we need to subtract the number of population loss figure of natural mortality during the war and in 1946, accounting for 2.8 million people (take the figure of 0.8% so that was "higher"). Now the general decline of the German population, caused by the war, is 4.9 million people. That, in general, is very "like" a figure of bad losses Army Reich contained Mueller-Gillebrandtom. So did the Soviet Union, who lost in the war 26,600,000 own people, really, "piled with corpses" of his opponent? Patience, pochetaemy reader, let's all the same will bring their calculations to their logical end.

The fact that the population of Germany is actually grown in 1946, and at least 6.5 million people, and presumably up to 8 million! By the time of the census in 1946 (according to the German way, data hosted in 1996 the "Union expelled," and all was "forcibly displaced" about 15 million Germans) only from the Sudetenland, Posen and Upper Silesia was deported to Germany's countryside 6.5 million Germans. About 1 — 1.5 million Germans fled from Alsace and Lorraine (unfortunately, more precise data are not available). In other words, is these 6.5 — 8 million and should be added to the losses actually Germany. And this is a "little bit" other numbers: 4.9 million + 7.25 million (the arithmetic average of the number of "exiled" to the motherland Germans) = 12.15 million In fact, it is 17.3% (!) of the population of Germany in 1939. Well, that's not all!

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

Again emphasize that the third Reich — it is absolutely not even Germany only! By the time of the attack on the Soviet Union in the Third Reich "officially" were: Germany (70.2 million.), Austria (6.76 million)., Sudetenland (3.64 million). Occupied in Poland "Baltic corridor", Poznań and Upper Silesia (9.36 million)., Luxembourg, Lorraine and Alsace (2.2 million people)., and even cut off at the top of Yugoslavia Corinthia, only 92.16 million.

These are all areas that have been formally incorporated into the Reich, and the inhabitants of which were subject to conscription into the Wehrmacht. "Imperial Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia" and "General Government Poland" we are not going to take into account (although ethnic Germans conscripted into the Wehrmacht and the Territories). And ALL of these areas right up to the beginning of 1945 remained under the control of the Nazis. Now get the "final payment" when you take into account that we are aware of the loss of Austria and is 300? 000, in other words, 4.43% of the population (in%, of course, even less than that of Germany). That will not be a "spanned" to imagine that the population of other areas of the Reich during the war, suffered the same loss as a percentage of
that will give us another 673? 000. As a result, common human loss Third Reich are 12.15 million + 0.3 million + 0.6 million. = 13.05 million. Here is the "Tsiferki" is more like the truth. Given the fact that these losses are included in the 0.5 — 0.75 million inhabitants of the dead civilians (and not 3.5 million), we lost the sun equal to the Third Reich 12.3 million non-recurrent. Given that even the Germans admit the loss of its own Armed Forces in the East in 75-80% of all losses on all fronts, the Armed Forces of the Reich lost in the battles of the Red Army, with about 9.2 million (75% of the 12.3 million) person irrevocably. Naturally, not all of them were killed, but having the data released (2.35 million), as prisoners of war who died in captivity (0.38 million) can be quite accurate to say that in fact dead and the dead from wounds and in captivity, is also missing missing, but was captured (read "dead", and that 0.7 million!), Sun Third Reich had lost during a hike to the East about 5,6-6 million. According to these calculations, the transient loss of the USSR Armed Forces and the Third Reich (no allies) are correlated as 1.3:1, and combat the loss of the Red Army (the data under control of the team Krivosheeva) and the Armed Forces of the Reich as 1.6:1.

The calculation of total human losses in Germany

The population in 1939, 70.2 million people.
The population in 1946, 65.93 million people.
Natural mortality was 2.8 million.
Natural increase (births) 3.5 million.
Emigration flow of 7.25 million.
Total loss of {(70.2 — 65.93 — 2.8) + 3.5 + 7.25 = 12.22} 12.15 million.

Died every tenth Teuton! Captured every twelfth!

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

In this article, the creator is not intended to seeking out the "golden section" and the "ultimate truth." These data are accessed by it in the scientific literature and networks. They're just all fragmented and scattered on different sources. Creator expresses his personal opinion: they believe the German and Russian sources, the war can not, because their loss underestimated at least 2-3 times, the loss of the enemy in the same exaggerated 2-3. All the more surprising that the German sources, unlike Russian, fully recognized "credible," although, as indicated by a simple analysis, it is not.

Sunk loss of the USSR Armed Forces in World War II comprise 11.5 — 12.0 million people irrevocably, in fact, fighting demographic losses in the 8,7-9,3 million. The loss of the Wehrmacht and the Waffen SS on the Eastern Front is 8.0 — 8.9 million people irrevocably, from their purely military demographic 5,2-6,1 million (including those killed in captivity) people. Plus, the loss actually Germanic sun on the Eastern Front should be added the loss of satellites, and it is nothing less than 850 thousand (including those killed in captivity) people were killed and more than 600 thousand prisoners. Total 12.0 (the largest number) million versus 9.05 (smaller number) million.

Logical question: where is "collapsing corpses", which they say is not so little Western, and now Russia's "open" and "democratic" sources? The percentage of dead Russian prisoners of war, even the most gentle estimated that more than 55%, and German, at most, less than 23%. Maybe the difference in losses criteria explained simply inhuman detention of prisoners?

Creator aware that these items are different from the last version of the official declaration of loss: the loss of the USSR Supreme Soviet — 6.8 million soldiers killed, and 4.4 million taken prisoner or missing, the loss of Germany — 4,046 million soldiers dead, dead of wounds, missing persons (including 442.1 thousand who died in captivity), loss of satellites 806 thousand dead and 662 thousand prisoners. Sunk loss of Soviet and German armies (including prisoners) — 11.5 million and 8.6 million. Overall loss of 11.2 million people in Germany. (For example in Wikipedia)

The question of the peaceful population of more terrible against 14.4 (smaller number) million victims of the Second World War in the Soviet Union — 3.2 million people (the largest number) of victims of the German side. So who and who fought the war? We should also mention the fact that no denying the Holocaust of the Jews, the German society to this day does not accept "Slavic" holocaust if the suffering of the Jewish people in the West understand all (thousands of pieces), then the sins against the Slavic people prefer to "modestly" to keep quiet. Non-participation of our researchers, for example, in an all-German "historians' dispute" only worsens the situation.

I would like to finish the story of the unknown phrase, an English officer. When he saw a column of Russian prisoners of war, which were driven by the "international" camp, he said, "I forgive you in advance Russian all that they do to Germany."

The article was written in 2007. Since that time, the creator of his own views have not changed. In other words, "stupid" collapses dead bodies of the Red Army was not, in general, as well as special numerical advantages. This substantiates the occurrence and, soon, a huge reservoir of Russian «oral history», in other words, the rank and file of memories of WWII. For example, the electron Priklonsky, the creator of "Diary gunners", mentions that during the war he beheld two "killing fields": the attack of our troops in the Baltic region and in contact with them under the flank fire of machine guns, and the Germans in the breakout from the Korsun-Shevchenko boiler. An example of a unit, but still valuable because of wartime diary, and is quite impartial.

Not so long ago, the creator of articles came (to the newspaper "Duel," edited by J. Mukhina) a curious table, the conclusion is controversial (although the corresponding gaze creator), but fascinating approach to the dilemma of losses in World War II:

Assessment ratio of losses as a result of comparative analysis of losses in wars 2-last centuries

Application of the method of comparative analysis, the base of which was laid more Jomini relation to the assessment of losses requested statistics about the wars of different eras. Unfortunately, more or less complete statistics are available only for the last wars 2-centuries. Data on non-performing combat casualties in the wars of the XIX and XX centuries, summarized the results of operations and zabugornyh Russian historians are shown in Table. The last three column of the table shows the explicit dependence of the outcome of the war on the values of the relative losses (losses expressed as a percentage of the total Army) — a relative loss in the favorite in a war is always less than that of the vanquished, while this relationship is stable, the cyclic nature (it is valid for all kinds of wars), that is, has all the features of the law.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

This law — call it the law of the relative losses — can be formulated as follow this: in at least some of the war, victory goes to the army, which is less than the relative loss.
Note that the absolute number of bad losses in the winning side may be lower than (the Russian war of 1812, Russian-Turkish, Franco-Prussian War) and more than the underdog (Crimean, the first global war, the Soviet- Finnish), but the relative loss in the favorite is always less than that of the vanquished.

The difference between the relative losses favorite and defeated characterizes the degree uveritelnosti victory. War with close relative losses of the finishing peace treaties with saving the underdog in the existing political system and the army (for example, the Russian-Japanese war). In the wars ending, like Lofty Russian war, complete capitulation of the enemy (the Napoleonic wars, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871.), The relative loss of a favorite relative losses is much less defeated (by more than 30%). In other words, the greater the loss, the greater must be the size of the army to win a landslide victory. If the loss of the army in 2 times more than your opponent, you win the war for its strength should be at least 2.6 times the size of the opposing army.

Now back to the Lofty Russian war and we'll see what the human resources available in the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany during the war. The available data on the number of warring parties on the Soviet-German front, are shown in Table. 6.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

From Table. 6 shows that the number of Russian participants of the war was only 1.4-1.5 times greater than the total number of opposing forces and by 1.6-1.8 times the constant German army. In accordance with the law of the relative losses in excess of the number of participants in this war, the loss of the Red Army destroyed the Nazi war machine, in principle, could not exceed the loss of the armies of the fascist bloc of more than 10-15%, and the loss of regular German troops — more than 25-30 %. This means that the upper limit of the ratio of non-performing combat losses of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht is the ratio of 1.3:1.

The ratio of the number of non-performing combat losses in Table. 6, do not exceed the value of acquired above the upper limit of the ratio of losses. This is, in general, does not mean that they are final and not subject to change. As new documents, statistical data, the results of research the number of losses of the Red Army and the Wehrmacht (Table 1-5) may be updated, changed, in that or other side of their relationship, too, can vary, but it can not be greater than 1, 3:1.

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War

1. CSB "The size, composition and movement of the population of the USSR" M 1965
2. "The population of the Russian Federation in the 20th century" by M. 2001
3. Arntts "The human loss during the second World War," Moscow 1957
4. Frumkin G. Population Changes in Europe since 1939 NY 1951
5. Dallin A. German rule in Russia 1941-1945 NY-London 1957
6. "Russia and the USSR in the wars of the 20th century" M.2001
7. Victims of the field n 2-dictatorships M. 1996.
8. Thorwald J. The Illusion. Soviet soldiers in Hitler, s Army NY 1975
9. Collection of posts Extraordinary State Commission M. 1946
10. Zemskov. The birth of the second emigration 1944-1952. SI 1991 number 4
11. Timasheff NS The postwar population of the Soviet Union in 1948
13 Timasheff NS The postwar population of the Soviet Union 1948
14. Arntts. The human loss in the second world war, Moscow 1957, "International Affairs" 1961 № 12
15. Biraben JN Population 1976.
16. Maxudov C. Loss of the population of the USSR Benson (Vt) in 1989., "On the front-line losses of CA during the second World War," "Free Thought" 1993. Number 10
17. The population of the USSR for 70 years. Edited by Rybakovskii LL M 1988
18. Andreev, Darski, Kharkov. "The population of Russian Union of 1922-1991 years." M 1993
19. Sokolov B. "Novaya Gazeta» № 22, 2005, "The Cost of Victory -" M. 1991.
20. "The war of Germany against the Russian Union 1941-1945", edited by Reinhard Ryurupa 1991. Berlin
21. Muller-Gillebrand. "The army in Germany 1933-1945", the M.1998
22. "The war of Germany against the Russian Union 1941-1945", edited by Reinhard Ryurupa 1991. Berlin
23. Gurkin VV human losses on the Soviet-German front in 1941-45. Nini number in March 1992
24. MB Denysenko. WWII in the demographic dimension "Eksmo" 2005
25. S. Maxudov. The loss of the Soviet population during the second world war. "Population and Society" 1995
26. Yuri Mukhin. If not for the generals. "Yauza" 2006
27. B. Kozhin. Lofty war Russia. A series of lectures 1000th anniversary Russian wars. "Yauza" 2005
28. The materials of the newspaper "The Duel"
29. E. Beevor "The Fall of Berlin", the M.2003

For more information:
G. Krivocheev "Russia and the USSR in the wars of the twentieth century. Book losses "

The loss of the Soviet Union and Germany in the Great Patriotic War
SQL - 17 | 0,303 сек. | 7.57 МБ