Which animal is most like a human being? This is the Russa — Finnish proverb 1921

Confronting the Finns imperial government since the end of the XIX century has had a very serious impact on the attitude of Finns towards Russian even after Finland became independent. It is from this point on (or rather — since the beginning of the Finnish Civil War in January 1918) russophobia in Finland takes the most radical form.

The reason for this state of affairs is very clearly formulated Finnish historian O. Karemaa "During the Civil War in Finland fueled by russophobia seems stood desire to make a white Russian scapegoats for all the cruelty and thereby justify their own ideas","for psychological reasons, the ugly truth about the fratricidal war of trying to cover up the alleged ideological struggle in defense of Western culture from the Russian declared mortal enemies … without an external enemy to rouse the masses to war it would be difficult. "

In other words, the white in Finland needed some external threat to distract their own people from the profound political, social and economic problems that have led to a split in the Finnish society and war. And such a threat was declared a Soviet Russia and in particular — the Russian troops, who had not been withdrawn from the territory of Finland after getting her independence, and in the public mind the Finns began to actively implemented myth "war of liberation" against Russia, which was a substitute for a real civil war, although in reality the Russian troops were not carrying any threat to Finnish independence, and all the help of the RSFSR red Finns has been reduced to a secret supply of weapons and ideological support.

As a result, Russian hatred in this period resulted in Finland in the open ethnic cleansing. Russian were destroyed without regard to whether they were volunteers in the Red Guards, or have to sympathize with white civilians. In Tammerfors after its capture, the white 6 aprelya1918 were killed about 200 Russian, including white officers, the number of executions in the Russian Vyborg on April 26-27 is estimated at 1,000 people (the vast majority of which had no role in the Civil War), including including women and children. Thus, far from complete, containing only 178 names, the list of those killed in Vyborg, Russian, stored in the log contains information about Alexander Smirnov (9 years), Kasmene Svaderskom (12 years), Andrew Chubrikove (13 years), Nicholas and Alexandra Naumova (15 years old), etc. Under the heat of the moment and the White Finns got some Poles, who were shot are likely to be confused with the Russian (and similar "errors" have occurred in other places: for example, one received a Russian Pole was killed in Uusi Kaarlep ).

One of the Russian emigrants living at the time near Vyborg, described what was happening in the city "Absolutely everything, from high school students to officials, fall into the Russian form of the eye of the winners are being targeted on the spot, not far from the house Pimenov killed two realist who ran to greet mundirchikah whites in the town killed three cadets who surrendered captive red and white beleaguer driven from land ditch, with this exciting and part of the crowd, the former on the streets and indiscriminately and conversations finished off in the ditch and in other places. Who was killed for that, it was all unknown heroes knife! Shot in front of the crowd, before being shot tore off people watch, rings, purses selected, dragged boots, clothing, etc. Especially hunted for Russian officers, were killed and their innumerable among their commander, quartermaster, who passed in front of this the warehouse white, and the police officer, causing many of the apartments, ostensibly to view the documents, and they did not return home, and then searched for their relatives in piles of bodies in the ditch: they had been removed from even cablee '.

Events in Vyborg caused a wide resonance in Russia. The Soviet government on May 13 asked the German ambassador V. Mirbach with a request to establish a joint commission to investigate the murders of Russian inhabitants of Finland. In this case, what happened in the city was described as follows: "Here there were no mass executions of innocent residents of Russian origin, committed horrendous atrocities against the civilian population of Russian, were shot as 12-year-olds. In a barn in Vyborg, as conveyed witness last saw 200 corpses, including Russian officers and students. Wife murdered colonel told the High witness that she had seen destroyed by Russian were lined up in single file and shot with machine guns. According to witnesses, the total number of those killed in two days comes to 600. After the occupation of Vyborg Whites arrested a group of Russian citizens, numbering about 400 people, among whom were women and children, Stark and students were brought to the station, talking to each other for about 10 minutes, the officers announced to them that they have been sentenced to death, and then arrested were sent to the Hamina goal to "trees", where they were shot with machine guns, the wounded were finished off with rifle butts and bayonets, there was now the destruction of the Russian population, without distinction, were exterminated old men, women and children, officers, students, and general all Russian. "

A lot of the above facts disturbance caused in the ranks of the Russian White movement, resulting in many of its leaders were later against discussed joint projects with the Finns march on Petrograd Yudenich. The Minister of Marine Northwestern government Rear Admiral VK Pilkin wrote in 1919 to his colleague in the government of Rear-Admiral Kolchak, MI Smirnov "If the Finns go [In Petrograd] alone, or at least with us, but in the proportion of 30 thousand against three or four — which is in Finland, when known their hatred of Russian, butchers their character … they destroy, shoot and cut the whole of our officers, the innocent and the guilty, intellectuals, youth, high school students, cadets — all of whom are, as they did when they took the Reds Vyborg. " The same view was taken by one of the leaders of the anti-Bolshevik Petrograd underground VN Tagantsev: "None of us wanted to march on Petrograd Finns. We are mindful of the massacre of the Russian officers, together with the red rebels. " Moreover, according to historian T. Vihavainen similar views on the fate of Petrograd in the case of taking it by the Finns'are without basis and in terms of experience in 1918, and the plans that are hatched in extremist circles "activists".

Were subjected to harassment and Finnish women who had contact with Russian: they cut their hair, tore their clothes, and in some places even discussed the possibility of their branding with a hot iron. In a place like Korsnyas flogging at the last minute prevented a local priest. Cleanliness issues of the nation in general, to all appearances, a very troubled Finnish society, when in 1921 in Finland were evacuated members of Kronstadt uprising, the Finnish press strongly opposed the settlement of refugees in the countryside, fearing that the Russian will mingle with the local Finnish population. As a result of Kronstadt were deployed in several camps with very strict conditions of detention: the border camps were forbidden to leave under threat of execution, communication with local residents were also strictly forbidden.

With the end of the Civil War, the physical destruction of Russian in Finland has stopped, but the Finnish government's desire to get rid of the Russian population and the refugees did not disappear. Back in April 1918 the Finnish Senate decided to expel from the country all the former Russian subjects, and during the spring and summer of about 20,000 Russian were expelled from the country. However, soon the Finns abandoned this practice and to provide Russian refugees to enter the country. This is justified by considerations of creating a favorable international image of Finland. O. Stenruut, who led at the time the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, proposed that tolerant policy towards refugees in Finland would strengthen its independent status and freed from German dependence. The same view was taken by the commandant of the border Rantakari, who believed that the refusal to accept refugees brought to Finland "hatred of the civilized world. "

However, in parallel with similar solutions in the country to escalate ethnic tensions. The main agents of Russo-phobia in Finnish society were former gamekeeper, the Agrarian Union, won 42 seats in parliament in 1919 and became the second largest party, and schyutskor created in 1922 Academic Karelian Society (AKS). Moreover, these organizations foment hatred wore, from the point of view of its members, the creative character, which is an integral part of the construction of the Finnish national identity. According to them, the unity of the Finnish nation can only be achieved through the promotion of hatred of all things Russian. "If we succeed,- Chairman of the AKC Elmo thought Kyle — then it is not far off, as our nation will conduct a thought, a strong, all-conquering, when translated into reality Härma husbands saying "we can talk about ryussya, just grinding his teeth." Then Finland will become free. "

Very symbolic in this sense medal for members of the AKC has developed one of its ideologues priest Elias Semoyoki: one side of it represented the love of Finland, the other — hatred of Russia. As a result, in Finland conducted a systematic policy of incitement of national hatred against Russian. Already in 1920, mentioned above E. Kyle was "instruction and dissemination program" ryussafobii "(from the word" ryussya "- a contemptuous naming Russian) that were sent to the district chiefs schyutskora" activists "and Jäger officers. Recipients should organize their teams spread russophobia and assign those responsible. In the villages, this work should involve local chapters schyutskora and teachers. Massive anti-Russian company held in the Finnish press, which often even been calls for the destruction of Russian. In March 1923 in the newspaper "Yulioppilaslehti" the article "Ryussafobiya," which asserted that "eIf we love our country, we need to learn to hate her enemies … why in the name of our honor and freedom sounds let our motto: Hate and love! The death of "Russ", be they red, although white. " In the same year, AKC circulation of 10 thousand copies published a brochure, "Wake up, Suomi!", Which contained similar ideas: "What is good for us to ever come out of Russia? Nothing! Death and destruction, plague and Russian stench stretched out … Russia has always been and will always be the enemy of humanity and humane development. Was there ever benefit from the existence of the Russian people for humanity? No! His disappearance from the face of the earth would be to mankind, on the contrary, the great happiness. " No less radical was determined and schyutskorovskaya newspaper «Suojeluskuntalaisen», which held in 1921 among its readers Contest Russian proverb, in which the winner was the reader who suggested this option: "Which animal is most like a human being? This is the "Russa". Because of the popularity of the contest was held, and the second round, in which the best was saying, "Beat on the back — get rid of the cough of me — and get rid of the "Russ" However, these newspapers attacks will not look too outrageous when you consider that during this period, even Finnish officials in official Russian reports allow comparison with the animals.

At the same time subjected to censorship of the curriculum, from which removed mention of Russian in a positive way. Cleaning took place in the Finnish army, which the nationalists sought to rid of any traces of "Russian-ness." In the first place, of course, the army fired Russian officers. For example, in September 1919, resigned were hastily sent to all Russian pilots that trained pilots for the Finnish Air Force. After them came the turn and Finnish officers serving in the imperial army. In 1920, the pages of the newspaper "Ilkka" they demanded the dismissal of the leader of the Agrarian Union S. Alkio. No less active against serving in the Russian Finns were officers and rangers. In 1924, they even threatened to collectively resign if the army will not be dismissed former tsarist officers. As a result, the number of officers who have received training in Russia in the Finnish army declined steadily throughout the 20's and 30's, and all the key positions were held by the Finns, who served in the German army.

Certain oppressions suffered in Finland and the Orthodox Church, for which the government has pursued a policy of finnizatsii. 3 marta1923, the State Council issued a decree on the transfer of service in the Orthodox churches throughout the year on the Finnish or Swedish. The number of parishes under the influence of Finnish authorities also declined steadily: the church was demolished (as, for example, a church in the city of Hämeenlinna v1924), part — turned into a Lutheran Church (Church of St. Alexander Nevsky in Suomenlinna), some — transferred to the municipal authorities (the Church of the Apostles Peter and Paul in Tornio). In his fight with the Orthodox Church and the Finnish nationalists: after 1918 Russian churches and cemeteries were repeatedly desecrated.

In addition to the top-down, "ideological" Russophobia in Finland and there russophobia home. With very heavy post-war situation in the country and the difficulties with food and shelter Finns were treated with great concern to refugees who, in their view, only added to the already difficult economic situation in Finland. Finns and feared for their jobs, and, it should be noted that it is not always without good reason: in the 1920s and 30s refugees (but mostly — Ingrian) repeatedly brought shtreykbreherskoy organization "Association Vientirauha" to fill the vacancies of striking workers. Although the share of workers in the total mass of the refugees were very small, hatred of them was transferred to the Finns of all immigrants from Russia as a whole. In the end, the conclusion Karemaa "to the 20 th years. XX century. nearly all Finns were inclined to accept "ryussafobii".

As we can see, in the 1920s in Finland, there really is quite a serious problem of ethnic intolerance against Russian, which not only broke the fate of hundreds trapped in Finland former Russian subjects, but also created tensions in the Soviet-Finnish relations in the aforesaid period. As noted in 1923, the Soviet ambassador to Finland, AS Blacks "rusofobstvo Finnish bourgeoisie can be compared only with their no less striking Semitism. In our current work, we feel that every blank wall nationalist, zoological hatred. Class hatred of the Finnish bourgeoisie to the Republic of Soviets, combined with fierce rusofobstvo defines continuous and, at first glance, strange fluctuations in Finnish politics. Objectively between us and Finland there are no serious reasons for conflicts, on the contrary, everything seems conducive business convergence, practically our patient, compliant, benevolent political line does not meet the response here. Here, the idea, the thought of the possibility of a loyal, calm relations with Russia is strong opposition. " This situation, of course, had a negative impact on the development of Soviet-Finnish relations and in the end was another factor that led to the two states of the Winter War.

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