Why a 40-second fall Sevastopol?
Why did the Germans in November 1941 for a couple of weeks occupied the Crimea, and in June 1942 fell Sevastopol? Thus, contrary to what the Soviet Information Bureau, no evacuation was not only departed bosses, and a few 10-s man got to the coast of the Caucasus on the boats that were in Sevastopol. About 100 thousand soldiers were left to fend for themselves.
The answer to this question was given in almost all 10 books framework of Russian and Russian creators. The Germans had a huge advantage in tanks, artillery and aircraft. Monographs venerable military historians almost full of names of divisions and brigades of infantry, tanks and foe, it turns out, walked to the Crimea without any organization, like bison, gathering in flocks of 200-400 pieces.
After "perestroika" military historians prefer to keep mum about tyschah German tanks, but quite impressive, with the numbers and names of ships justify that by May 1942 the German air force managed to block almost Sevastopol, loss of tonnage Russian cargo ships have been very significant, and Sevastopol left without food, watery fuel, and most importantly — without ammunition.
And in 2005 the publishing house "AST" published a book of Alexander Shirokorad "Battle of the Dark Sea" where the numbers and links both on the German and Russian at the previously hidden documents confirmed that the tanks from the Germans in the Crimea was not at all! Unless, of course, do not take 2-division assault 75-mm self-propelled guns on the chassis of the T-III. In addition, in April 1942 the Crimea was taken 22th Panzer Division composed of 176 tanks, but it acted only on the Kerch Peninsula, where the Red Army had more than 500 tanks. And immediately after the capture of Kerch 22th Panzer Division was from 21 to 24 May, sent to the 17th Army was advancing to the Caucasus.
Under Sevastopol, in May 1942, was directed in 1520 captured tanks KV-1 and S-35 of French. So Makar, an advantage in the tanks was on the Russian side. It was the same with artillery. Red Army soldiers and sailors really showed miracles of fortitude and heroism. So why is the Sevastopol fell?
The fact is that since the 20's pin Russian naval doctrine was the defense of the main naval bases of the superior forces of the Anglo-French fleet. For almost 20 years, our fleet working out the fight for mine and artillery positions. Around the bases provided to put thousands of mines, and after the explosion of the enemy's ships our ships and planes had to counter-attack the foe.
How annoying would it sounds, by June 1941 for an enemy in the Black Sea was not and could not be. The farcical Romanian fleet (4 destroyers and one submarine) did not present a severe danger to the fall of Sebastopol, and never left their own territorial waters.
British thoroughly nakostylyat Italians in the port of Taranto, near Cape Matapan and in other places. British battleships bombarded with impunity Italian town. Italian fleet, despite the assistance of Germans, could not cope with the transportation of troops and ammunition to North Africa, which was the main prerequisite for the defeat of Rommel's army.
I'm not talking about the fact that Turkey since the beginning of the war over its own neutrality and hard until May 1944 did not miss either through its straits 1st warship warring parties. In addition, none German surface ship could not pass through the Strait of Gibraltar under the guns of the British fort. And more than two 10-ka German and Italian submarines went to the bottom when trying to boost Gibraltar.
Yet the People's Commissar of the Navy stubbornly believed that the Italian fleet must necessarily invade the Dark Sea. And June 22, 1941 The Black Sea fleet joined the battle with the Italian. In the first two months of the war were sunk more than 2-10-s Italian and German U-boats, our boat a couple of times attacked Italian ships and shore batteries opened fire on the Italians. How unfortunate it did not sound, fleet Duce was virtual.
Worse of all was the fact that on the orders of the commander of Moscow's Black Sea Fleet, Admiral October has put thousands of mines at the southern coast of Crimea, leaving three narrow channel for the passage of their own ships. Passing on two fairways (third did not use) accounted for only in the daytime and accompanied Sevastopol minesweepers.
No min cruiser or destroyer could come to Sevastopol, unload and leave the black time of day, the benefit in 1941-1942. German aircraft had onboard radar and has not acted on the ships NIGHT MODE. And because of the mines the transition ships and cargo ships from Novorossiysk to Sevastopol increased by 2-4 times. In a number of cases in various nepogoditsu generally ship could not pass a narrow fairway and went back. I'm not talking about the fact that the area around Sebastopol on its own mines blew up 20 warships and transports the Black Sea Fleet.
Not enough, Admiral October, again on the same order of People's Commissar Kuznetsova, in November and early December 1941 brought from Sevastopol, about half of ammunition (over 8 tons), half of the anti-aircraft artillery, virtually all medical staff, etc. According to the Navy Artupravleniya no need to roll out artboepripasov was not. For example, during the war our navy shot and lost only 20.6% of the 305-mm shells, 18.6% of the 180-mm shells, 25.9% of 152-mm shells to the guns Kane of the total number of available ammunition. Rear bases were almost packed naval ammunition. For example, brought in Batum ammunition lay stacked on moorings right up to May 1942
By the beginning of 1942 in the Black Sea is really not enough vessels. But why then Black Sea Fleet command of the game brought the 5 biggest cargo ships? Thus, the first November 1941 The beginning of the disarmament of the auxiliary cruiser (former icebreaker) "Mikoyan" and at the end of the same month, "Mikoyan" together with the tanker "Sakhalin", "Tuapse" and "Barlaam Avanessov" passed the Bosphorus, and went to the Mediterranean Sea. Best same passenger liner "Svaneti" June 22, 1941 passed the Bosphorus, vorachivayas of passenger flights to the Middle East. And "someone" decided to reincarnate it into a floating branch "KGB." Ultimately liner stood in Istanbul before February 21, 1942 It is interesting that he went to his native shores for 22 hours before a bad attempt in Ankara at the German Ambassador von Papen NKVD agents. We must assume it is a coincidence?
Naturally, the book Shirokorad sparked anger and outrage of official historians. And in the October issue (2007), "Military History magazine" coming forth with 2 fire review: "pseudo-scientific research work of hostilities in the northern Black Sea region," Lt. Col. AV Lobanov and "weak anecdotes chronicle with numerous errors and incorrect," the chief of the research group of the historic Navy Captain 1st Rank EG Machikina.
The essence of the latest reviews yavna: take, say, Shirokorad secret chronicle of the fighting, stuck a few jokes about the virtual Italian fleet, the export of ammunition, etc., and all. Review same Lobanov where exciting.
MODE July 1941 from the French port of Brest, stealthily came battleships "Sharnhost", "Gneisenau" and the cruiser "Prince Eugene" and moved to a distant African port of Dakar, where taken in tow by the British warped French battleship "Richelieu" and then went back to the north. No losses have been under the muzzles of guns of English cyclopean fortress of Gibraltar in the warm Mediterranean Sea. The entire staff of the British fleet on this occasion took a month's leave. The connection with the squadron from Toulon came the battle cruiser "Strasbourg". At a meeting with the German ships French sailors lined up on deck and sang in unison: "Deutschland, Deutschland Hubert alles." Then all of a friendly company, acclaimed Turkish authorities took the Dardanelles and the Bosphorus and moved to Sebastopol.
But Admiral October anticipating action signified and exhibited at Sevastopol mines. Learning of this, Admiral Darlan Roeder and wept with grief and canceled its own sinister plan of attack on our city-hero.
"What nonsense!" — Voskriknet reader. Sorry, I only posted part of the article is popular Lobanov, "Yes, Sevastopol bay nearby enemy ships were observed, but in Brest (France), German battleships were" Sharnhost "," Gneisenau "and the cruiser" Prince Eugen ", a breakthrough which through Gibraltar into the Mediterranean Sea and on through the Dardanelles and the Bosporus in the Dark was not mind-blowing dream. Supporting these ships could have a battle cruiser "Strasbourg" battleship "Richelieu" and the languid cruises available to the French Vichy government. "
Okay, what do not read this magazine in France. There, members of the team, "Strasburg" the number of state heroes. They flooded own ship in November 1942 in Toulon, when the Germans occupied the southern part of France. And then our diplomats would have to apologize for this passage.
Specify the facts on the export of ammunition would be very stupid, as are links to official sources. And so began Lobanov justify that ammunition brought from Sebastopol, did not come to the guns that protected the city. In fact exported missiles to available full-time to the guns, and the list of types of shells and guns is given in my book in almost all places. Lobanov find fault with my statement that the vast majority of types of Russian missiles were interchangeably. He sarcastically wrote: "The 122-mm gun under any criteria can not use the same caliber howitzer shells and 122-mm howitzers — cannon." Lobanov but not on that ran. I was engaged in interchangeability Russian artillery reserves. I picked up from the shelf the first book, "152-mm howitzer-gun mod. 1937 and 122-mm gun model. 1931/37, the Office of service" (Moscow: Military Publishing House of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR, 1957). And on page 266 in the table of regular rounds for 122-mm gun mod. 1931/37, together with the cannon shells type of PF-471 howitzer shells see the type of PF-462, and table staff fired 152 mm howitzer-gun mod. 1937 see the cannon grenades RP-540 and near — howitzer grenades RP-530 and howitzer shells concrete-L-530. And it was all Russian howitzers and cannons. By the way, during the war, 152-mm Howitzer M-10 and D-1 shot at bronetselyam 152-mm shells of marine polubroneboynymi arr. In 1928, the same of which fired 152-mm guns Kane.
To shoot projectiles from another of the same caliber artillery systems, it was necessary only to turn the page on the respective firing tables approved by GAC, and in accordance with the indication of the tables should either did not change or, in the latter case, pull out a bunch of gunpowder from the barrel and change the angle elevation for a few minutes in comparison with the installation of a sight for standard missiles.
From 1922 to 1941, the Russian artillery, the people of the highest caliber, spent thousands of shootings and made hundreds of firing tables, instructions, and other documents, that provide almost fully interchangeable shells that were in the warehouses of the Red Army and the Navy. But, unfortunately, in our country and in 1941 was a lot of uninformed lieutenant. At the same time the problem of interchangeability of shells in the Russian army is more acute than in 1941-1942.
Publication in "AUIAB" — not the first write-justed at Shirokorad books. They're flattering me of one thing: they do not poke a finger in the other editions. They do not do basic tasks criticism — "pilot in the sea of books" — not only the shortcomings noted the book, and the reader is much more successful books on the same subject. Review expressed the essence of such a venerable military historian: "Terribly conceive if Shirokorad books fall into the hands of the reader, the reader must be patient and wait until the competent creators write ideologically literate publication".
So, bookstore shelves are full of military-historical literature, and put me in the example of nothing. Leaving only say, "Thank you very much, ladies and gentlemen of criticism".