For the Germans met with KV-2 was a real shock

For the Germans met with KV-2 was a real shock
First fighting the Soviet-Finnish War, which took part in languid tanks KV-1 clearly showed the effectiveness of this class of armored vehicles. 76-millimeter cannon tanks was quite defeat for all armored targets. At the same time, this weapon is not allowed to destroy a huge number of types of fortifications. If fill timber point could break through the shell of caliber 76 mm, then for breaking concrete walls of buildings of more severe this gun is no longer enough.

Military Council of the North-Western Front proposed to strengthen the arms languid tank. Instead of a 76-mm gun they want to build a howitzer of 152 mm caliber. Operating experience of field artillery such caliber demonstrated its sufficient power in order to fight the harsh excellent enemy fortifications. Military control of the country has approved the proposal and in January 1940 Design Bureau (SDB-2) Kirov Plant (Leningrad) received the task to equip the tank KV-1 152-mm howitzer. To perform fundamental tasks given just a few days. Because of this design team running ZY Kotin was obliged to go to the barracks. Engineers working day lasted for 16-18 hours. Only enough free time to sleep, and even then not always.

First as weapons to be upgraded tank considered 152 mm howitzer standard 1909/30 period. It was suitable for installation on the tank size, but with all this, its properties were no longer sufficient. Then the eyes of designers and military fell on 152-mm howitzer arr. 1938, also known under the name M-10. Firing properties of this instrument were even better than the previous one. At the same time, the breech of the howitzer and its recoil device had such dimensions in which required newcomer Tower. Practically speaking, most of the time allocated for the creation of the tank time was spent creating the newest tower. Compared with tower KV-1 she had huge dimensions, although the diameter of the ring remains the same. Thanks to this handy not labor intensive and some rework of armored systems. Brand new tower received index MT-1. Is noteworthy that the new heavy tank with a larger caliber howitzer in the documents referred to as «tank with a big tower.» Unique HF, in turn, in this period was listed under the heading «tank with a small tower.»
In the process of profound modernization of the KV was little changed chassis. Box, caterpillar mover and a number of related systems remained without changes. With all this new engine was installed. Diesel V-2K revised had a huge power — 600 horsepower — which, however, gave no significant increase features. The fact that the brand new tower weighting machine and the entire increase in power was «eaten» by the difference in weight. Hull of the tank with a width of rolled plates of 75 mm (forehead and board) to 30 (roof) provides protection against the vast majority of the then existing anti-tank guns. Armor plate width 75 mm had a decent level of protection, because brand new tower MT-1 collected specifically from them. All four walls of the tower were made wide seven and a half cm, roof — in three, and the mask instrument reached a thickness of 110 mm. Because the newest tower and more than stern guns «tank with a big tower» was almost 10 tons heavier than the initial HF and had a combat weight of 52 tons. With all this power density of both armored vehicles, because of the different engines, were approximately equal and equal 11-11.5 horsepower per ton of weight.

Armament «tank with a big tower» had in its composition one gun and three machine guns. 152 mm howitzer M-10 in its tank mounted on the trunnion embodiment in a large tower. Its anchorages system was designed in such a Makarov that gun was absolutely balanced. But designers SKB-2 failed to balance the entire tower completely. Because of this, the center of mass of the tower with a gun was not on the axis of rotation. In martial criteria, this led to the fact that the tanks had to stare at the slope of his car — when the misalignment is more than a certain value electric turret could not cope with their own work. Pointing guns horizontally rotates the tower. Vertical lay angles were in the range from -3 ° to +18 °. In addition, as required by the tank crew as required could create so-called «Jewelry tip.» For this tower was fixed, and the cannon to move around within the horizontal sector width of a few degrees. Howitzer ammunition was 36 rounds of separate loading. Originally planned to issue the tanks only high-explosive grenades howitzer RP-530. But in practice, the new heavy tank could use almost any shells of 152 mm caliber. Already during the Finnish War «tanks with a big tower», which is led betonoboynymi fire projectiles. Large size breech also features its attachment claimed to do in the backsheet special tower door. Through it, the factory was established howitzer. In parts of the door used to repair guns, ammunition loading and landing crew.

Secondary armament of the tank consisted of 3 machine-guns. One of them was paired with a gun. Two other units were installed in the ball on the front hull and the rear wall of the tower. The total ammunition 3 guns included 3087 rounds (49 disk stores).

Refreshed arms deeply modernized tank KV-1 required increment crew. Now it consisted of six people: a tank commander, commander of the gun (gunner), his assistant (the castle), a driver, assistant driver and gunner. The duties of the gun commander and assistant acts were previously performed by one charging.

February 10, 1940 first experienced «a tank with a big tower» trial began shooting. They performed directly on the terrain of the Kirov plant, trench shield. Accuracy was found to be satisfactory, well and undercarriage did not disappoint. The only problem with the design touches the muzzle cover. To prevent bullets, fragments and other large «garbage» in the trunk of a special round was installed item. Opening the muzzle is satisfied automatically, in a split second before the departure of the projectile. At the first test firing cap was torn from mounts and flew off somewhere. It became clear that this part of the tank — superfluous. On the second layout «tank with a big tower» muzzle cover is not installed, and were removed from the first closing balances mechanism.

Factory tests of the new tank will not last long. For 17 February, the two went to the front layout. In the course of military trials was collected information they need to improve. Namely, the range was expanded allowable ammunition — specifically strengthening band Mannerheim became those objects through which the «tank with a big tower» became betonoboynymi shoot projectiles. Military also made a number of proposals to build the newest tower. In accordance with these tips during the second half of 1940, engineers SKB-2 finalized its shape. First, alteration undergone its dimensions. Refreshed turret had the smallest height and denotes the index of the MT-2. Immediately this altered form frontal and side plates. For convenience of assembly the forehead tower became rectangular and not trapezoidal, as previously. Also redesigned mask tools and introduced several improvements least large.

Modified tank with tower MT-2 is a fact that the military and want to get. Now armed armored vehicles had adequate power and ease of use. As for the level of protection that reservation KV tanks from the beginning of their combat operation has been enticed to get the most reviews. So, after fighting on the forehead, sides and towers experienced «tanks and a large tower» numbered 10s dents from enemy shells. Within a few months of combat tests no one of them and failed to break 75 mm rolled homogeneous armor. As an example of the power of weapons and the level of protection the latest machines can quote tankista EF Glushak:

Obstacles to strip Mannerheim had made thorough. Loomed before us in three rows bolshennye granite dragon’s teeth. And yet, in order to make the passage width of 6-8 meters, we only 5 shots in handy betonoboynymi shells. While hacking dragon’s teeth, the enemy opened fire on us in continuous. Dot we are rapidly detected, and then with 2 shots at one hundred percent destroyed it. When they came out of the battle, in Armor calculated the 48 dents, but no holes.

Totality of protection, armament and mobility influenced the decision of the People’s Commissariat of Defense. First, in 1941 the new tank was put into service under the designation KV-2. Mass production was maximized at the Leningrad Kirov Plant. KV-2 was produced until October 1941. In the first months of the war issue of heavy tanks uniformly decreased. The reason for this was immediately several reasons: complexity and labor-intensive production, the plight of the industry, the need for evacuation facilities, etc. Made clear the number of tanks KV-2 raises questions. In most cases in the figure of 330-340 machines. But a number of sources indicates that the Permian plant number 172 managed to make only a hundred suspension systems for howitzers. From this it is concluded Accordingly, the amount collected tanks.

Despite the small amount made comparable tanks KV-2, on the fronts of stateliness Russian war they made a real splash. His 152-mm shells languid tanks confidently hit all immediate capacity that the German armor. Reservation, in turn, enough to protect the vast majority of guns. More or less normal to fight «Klim Voroshilov» second model could only 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. But the duel tank and anti-aircraft gunners had previously intuitive result: due to a larger caliber tank guns could kill payment without entering the zone of assured destruction. Besides tankers parked outside vsepolnotsennymi sheets of armor, not bulletproof shield gun. In general, the KV-1 and KV-2 were harsh force that was worth fear. However, some aspects of the implementation, logistics, etc. led to sad results.

As examples of failures of new tanks often cited 4th Armored Division. During the first two weeks majestically Russian war is lost connection 22 KV-2. With all of this only 5 of them were hit by the enemy. Others due to lack of fuel or spare parts were thrown or destroyed by the crew. Practically speaking, the bulk of the losses of heavy Russian tanks came specifically for non-combat incidents. Difficulties with supply and constant retreat forced tankers not fix their cars and throwing or destroy them. Yet, even in such languid criteria Russian tankers delivered opponent weight problems. A striking example of this is a memoir of the 1st German officers who served in the 1st Armored Division:

Our company opened fire with 700 m We all came closer. Soon we were in 50-100 m apart. But we could not reach of success. Russian tanks continued to advance, and our armor-piercing shells simply bounced off their armor. Tanks kept direct fire from 50-mm and 75-mm guns. In the KV-2 has got more than 70 rounds, but none of them managed to break his armor. Several tanks were knocked out, when we managed to get to the tracks, and then shot with a small distance from the guns. Then they stormed the sappers with satchel charges.

For the Germans met with KV-2 has been a real shock. Here is what wrote in his diary the commander of the 11th Tank Regiment (6th Panzer Division 4th Panzer Group) June 25, 1941:

«On the morning of the 2nd Battalion of the 11th Tank Regiment, together with a group of background Shekendorfa advancing along the road, avoiding the swamp on the right. The whole day of the attacks reflect unchanging Russian 2nd Panzer Division. Unfortunately, the Russian 52-ton tanks languid showed that they are practically insensitive to the fire of our 105-mm guns.
Several results of our 150-mm shells were also ineffective. Yet, as a result of constant attacks tanks Pz Kpfw IV most of the enemy tanks were knocked out, which allowed our units to move forward three kilometers west Dubysa.
Group «Rouse» managed to hold its own foothold, but at noon, having received reinforcements, the enemy counter-attacked down the left wing in a northeasterly direction to Rasenyay and sent fleeing troops and headquarters of the 65th Tank Battalion. At this time, the Russian heavy tank cut the route linking us with a group of Rouse and the connection with this part missing a day or throughout the night and the next. To combat tank was oriented battery 88 mm anti-aircraft guns. The attack was such a failure, as the previous fight with a battery of 105-mm howitzers. Everything else, try to get close to our reconnaissance tank and burn it incendiary bottles failed. Group could not get close to a fairly close distance due to heavy machine-gun fire that led the tank. «

Survivors during the retreat of the Red Army tanks KV-2 wage war for a couple years. Starting from 1943, part languid tanks remade in recovery vehicles. The fact that their driving characteristics had already not completely satisfied with the military, and a decent engine power was able to evacuate the padded armor. Multiple HF-2 were captured by the Wehrmacht and used for their own purposes. In the German army Russian tanks were designated PzKpfw KV-II 754 (r). The last of these trophies was destroyed in the 45th, during the storming of Koenigsberg.

The main period of life and combat tanks KV-2 occurred in the most languid times majestically Russian war. Because of this, tanks suffered huge loss, first noncombat. This was one of the main reasons that the 3-redundant with hundreds of tanks assembled before our time, only one survived. At the moment it is an exhibit of the Central Museum of the Armed Forces. Interestingly, in the Air Force Museum of the Northern Fleet (Safonovo, Murmansk region) has another tank, similar to the KV-2. The word «like» is used here for the reason that the tank of Safonov was made to shoot the feature film «Tank Klim Voroshilov-2» and the basis for it was another languid armored vehicle — the IS-2.


According to the first battles of the Soviet-Finnish War, which took part in the languid tanks KV-1 clearly showed the effectiveness of this class of armored vehicles. 76-millimeter cannon tanks was quite defeat for all armored targets. At the same time, this weapon is not allowed to destroy a huge number of types of fortifications. If fill timber point could break through the shell of caliber 76 mm, then for breaking concrete walls of buildings of more severe this gun is no longer enough.



Military Council of the North-Western Front proposed to strengthen the arms languid tank. Instead of a 76-mm gun they want to build a howitzer of 152 mm caliber. Operating experience of field artillery such caliber demonstrated its sufficient power in order to fight the harsh excellent enemy fortifications. Military control of the country has approved the proposal and in January 1940 Design Bureau (SDB-2) Kirov Plant (Leningrad) received the task to equip the tank KV-1 152-mm howitzer. To perform fundamental tasks given just a few days. Because of this design team running ZY Kotin was obliged to go to the barracks. Engineers working day lasted for 16-18 hours. Only enough free time to sleep, and even then not always.

First as weapons to be upgraded tank considered 152 mm howitzer standard 1909/30 period. It was suitable for installation on the tank size, but with all this, its properties were no longer sufficient. Then the eyes of designers and military fell on 152-mm howitzer arr. 1938, also known under the name M-10. Firing properties of this instrument were even better than the previous one. At the same time, the breech of the howitzer and its recoil device had such dimensions in which required newcomer Tower. Practically speaking, most of the time allocated for the creation of the tank time was spent creating the newest tower. Compared with tower KV-1 she had huge dimensions, although the diameter of the ring remains the same. Thanks to this handy not labor intensive and some rework of armored systems. Brand new tower received index MT-1. Is noteworthy that the new heavy tank with a larger caliber howitzer in the documents referred to as «tank with a big tower.» Unique HF, in turn, in this period was listed under the heading «tank with a small tower.»

In the process of profound modernization of the KV was little changed chassis. Box, caterpillar mover and a number of related systems remained without changes. With all this new engine was installed. Diesel V-2K revised had a huge power — 600 horsepower — which, however, gave no significant increase in features. The fact that the brand new tower weighting machine and the entire increase in power was «eaten» by the difference in weight. Hull of the tank rolled plates with a width of 75 mm (forehead and board) to 30 (roof) provides protection against the vast majority of the then existing anti-tank guns. Armor plate width 75 mm had a decent level of protection, because brand new tower MT-1 collected specifically from them. All four walls of the tower were made wide seven and a half cm, roof — in three, and the mask instrument reached a thickness of 110 mm. Because the newest tower and more than stern guns «tank with a big tower» was almost 10 tons heavier than the initial HF and had a combat weight of 52 tons. With all this power density of both armored vehicles, because of the different engines, were approximately equal and equal 11-11.5 horsepower per ton of weight.

Armament «tank with a big tower» had in its composition one gun and three machine guns. 152 mm Howitzer M-10 in its tank mounted on the trunnion embodiment in a large tower. Its anchorages system was designed in such a Makarov that the gun was quite balanced. But designers SKB-2 failed to balance the entire tower completely. Because of this, the center of mass of the tower with a gun was not on the axis of rotation. In martial criteria, this led to the fact that the tanks had to stare at the slope of his car — when the misalignment is more than a certain value electric turret could not cope with their own work. Pointing guns horizontally rotates the tower. Vertical lay angles were in the range from -3 ° to +18 °. In addition, as required by the tank crew as required could create so-called «Jewelry tip.» For this tower was fixed, and the cannon to move around within the horizontal sector width of a few degrees. Howitzer ammunition was 36 rounds of separate loading. Originally planned to issue the tanks only high-explosive grenades howitzer RP-530. But in practice, the new heavy tank could use almost any shells of 152 mm caliber. Already during the Finnish War «tanks with a big tower», which is led betonoboynymi fire projectiles. Large size breech also features its attachment claimed to do in the backsheet special tower door. Through it, the factory was established howitzer. In parts of the door used to repair guns, ammunition loading and planting crew.

Secondary armament of the tank consisted of 3 machine-guns. One of them was paired with a gun. Two other units were installed in the ball on the front hull and the rear wall of the tower. The total ammunition 3 guns included 3087 rounds (49 disk stores).

Refreshed arms deeply modernized tank KV-1 required increment crew. Now it consisted of six people: a tank commander, commander of the gun (gunner), his assistant (the castle), a driver, assistant driver and gunner. The duties of the gun commander and assistant acts were previously performed by one charging.

February 10, 1940 first experienced «a tank with a big tower» trial began shooting. They performed directly on the terrain of the Kirov plant, trench shield. Accuracy was found to be satisfactory, well and undercarriage did not disappoint. The only problem with the design touches the muzzle cover. To prevent bullets, fragments and other large «garbage» in the trunk was installed special round item. Opening the muzzle is satisfied automatically, in a split second before the departure of the projectile. At the first trial shot the cover was torn from mounts and flew off somewhere. It became clear that this part of the tank — superfluous. On the second layout «tank with a big tower» muzzle cover is not installed, and were removed from the first closing balances mechanism.

Factory tests of the new tank will not last long. For 17 February, the two went to the front layout. In the course of military trials was collected information they need to improve. Namely, the range was expanded allowable ammunition — specifically strengthening band Mannerheim became those objects through which the «tank with a big tower» became betonoboynymi shoot projectiles. Military also made a number of proposals to build the newest tower. In accordance with these tips during the second half of 1940, engineers SKB-2 finalized its shape. First, alteration undergone its dimensions. Refreshed turret had the smallest height and denotes the index of the MT-2. Immediately this altered form frontal and side plates. For convenience of assembly the forehead tower became rectangular and not trapezoidal, as previously. Also redesigned mask tools and introduced several improvements least large.

Modified tank with tower MT-2 is a fact that the military and want to get. Now armed armored vehicles had adequate power and ease of use. As for the level of protection that reservation KV tanks from the beginning of their combat operation has been enticed to get the most reviews. So, after fighting on the forehead, sides and towers experienced «tanks and a large tower» numbered 10s dents from enemy shells. Within a few months of combat tests no one of them and failed to break 75 mm rolled homogeneous armor. As an example of the power of weapons and the level of protection the latest machines can quote tankista EF Glushak:

Obstacles to strip Mannerheim had made thorough. Loomed before us in three rows bolshennye granite dragon’s teeth. And yet, in order to make the passage width of 6-8 meters, we only 5 shots in handy betonoboynymi shells. While hacking dragon’s teeth, the enemy opened fire on us in continuous. Dot we are rapidly detected, and then with 2 shots absolutely destroyed it. When they came out of the battle, in Armor calculated the 48 dents, but no holes.

Totality of protection, armament and mobility influenced the decision of the People’s Commissariat of Defense. First, in 1941 the new tank was put into service under the designation KV-2. Mass production was maximized at the Leningrad Kirov Plant. KV-2 was produced until October 1941. In the first months of the war issue of heavy tanks uniformly decreased. The reason for this was immediately several reasons: complexity and labor-intensive production, the plight of the industry, the need for evacuation facilities, etc. Made clear the number of tanks KV-2 raises questions. In most cases in the figure of 330-340 machines. But a number of sources indicates that the Permian plant number 172 managed to make only a hundred suspension systems for howitzers. From this it is concluded Accordingly, the amount collected tanks.

Despite the small amount made comparable tanks KV-2, on the fronts of stateliness Russian war they made a real splash. His 152-mm shells languid tanks confidently hit all immediate capacity that the German armor. Reservation, in turn, enough to protect the vast majority of guns. More or less normal to fight «Klim Voroshilov» second model could only 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. But a duel tank and anti-aircraft gunners had previously intuitive result: due to a larger caliber tank guns could kill payment without entering the zone of assured destruction. Besides tankers parked outside vsepolnotsennymi sheets of armor, not bulletproof shield gun. In general, the KV-1 and KV-2 were harsh force that was worth fear. However, some aspects of the implementation, logistics, etc. led to sad results.

As examples of failures of new tanks often cited 4th Armored Division. During the first two weeks majestically Russian war is lost connection 22 KV-2. With all of this only 5 of them were hit by the enemy. Others due to lack of fuel or spare parts were thrown or destroyed by the crew. Practically speaking, the bulk of the losses of heavy Russian tanks came specifically for non-combat incidents. Difficulties with supply and constant retreat forced tankers not fix their cars and throwing or destroy them. Yet, even in such languid criteria Russian tankers delivered opponent weight problems. A striking example of this is a memoir of the 1st German officers who served in the 1st Armored Division:

Our company opened fire with 700 m We all came closer. Soon we were in 50-100 m apart. But we could not reach of success. Russian tanks continued to advance, and our armor-piercing shells simply bounced off their armor. Tanks kept direct fire from 50-mm and 75-mm guns. In the KV-2 has got more than 70 rounds, but none of them managed to break his armor. Several tanks were knocked out, when we managed to get to the tracks, and then shot with a small distance from the guns. Then they stormed the sappers with satchel charges.

For the Germans met with KV-2 has been a real shock. Here is what wrote in his diary the commander of the 11th Tank Regiment (6th Panzer Division 4th Panzer Group) June 25, 1941:

«On the morning of the 2nd Battalion of the 11th Tank Regiment, together with a group of background Shekendorfa advancing along the road, avoiding the swamp on the right. The whole day of the attacks reflect unchanging Russian 2nd Panzer Division. Unfortunately, the Russian 52-ton tanks languid showed that they are practically insensitive to the fire of our 105-mm guns.
Several results of our 150-mm shells were also ineffective. Yet, as a result of constant attacks tanks Pz Kpfw IV most of the enemy tanks were knocked out, which allowed our units to move forward three kilometers west Dubysa.
Group «Rouse» managed to hold its own foothold, but at noon, having received reinforcements, the enemy counter-attacked down the left wing in a northeasterly direction to Rasenyay and sent fleeing troops and headquarters of the 65th Tank Battalion. At this time, the Russian heavy tank cut the route linking us with a group of Rouse and the connection with this part missing a day or throughout the night and the next. To combat tank was oriented battery 88 mm anti-aircraft guns. The attack was such a failure, as the previous fight with a battery of 105-mm howitzers. Everything else, try to get close to our reconnaissance tank and burn it incendiary bottles failed. Group could not get close to a fairly close distance due to heavy machine-gun fire that led the tank. «

Survivors during the retreat of the Red Army tanks KV-2 wage war for a couple years. Starting from 1943, part languid tanks remade in recovery vehicles. The fact that their driving characteristics had already not completely satisfied with the military, and a decent engine power was able to evacuate the padded armor. Multiple HF-2 were captured by the Wehrmacht and used for their own purposes. In the German army Russian tanks were designated PzKpfw KV-II 754 (r). The last of these trophies was destroyed in the 45th, during the storming of Koenigsberg.

The main period of life and combat tanks KV-2 occurred in the most languid times majestically Russian war. Because of this, tanks suffered huge loss, first noncombat. This was one of the main reasons that the 3-redundant with hundreds of tanks assembled before our time, only one survived. At the moment it is an exhibit of the Central Museum of the Armed Forces. Interestingly, in the Air Force Museum of the Northern Fleet (Safonovo, Murmansk region) has another tank, similar to the KV-2. The word «like» is used here for the reason that the tank of Safonov was made to shoot the feature film «Tank Klim Voroshilov-2» and the basis for it was another languid armored vehicle — the IS-2.


Created by Kirill Ryabov

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