Guide for those who observe the sun changes Facts
Our solar system consists of the Sun and everything that revolves around it: the planets, asteroids, comets. The radius of the Sun is 696,000 kilometers, which is 109 times greater than the radius of the Earth. Solar mass 1,99 x1030 pounds — to 333 thousand times the mass of Earth.
The sun is 150 million kilometers from Earth, 8.3 light-minutes. But this distance can vary depending on the position of the Earth in its orbit.
Sun — a star that is 110 times larger than Earth. Sun consists of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by weight of, as well as 0.1% of heavier materials such as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, neon, silicon and iron. Its weight is 99.86% of the total mass of the solar system.
Stars like the sun, shine from 9 to 10 billion years. Sun 4.5 billion years old, and 5 billion years, it will become a red giant, reaching the peak of his brilliance. But the red giant stars are considered damped, since hydrogen them exhausted itself.
The sun is not solid or gaseous in nature. It is a plasma system, gas at the surface and more solid to the center. Plasma structure causes the differential rotation of the Sun, that is faster at the equator than at the poles. Sun has nearly perfect spherical shape.
Structure of the Sun
Sun has 6 layers. Located within the core, radiation and convection zone, and on the surface — the photosphere, chromosphere and corona.
Energy derived from fusion of hydrogen atoms in the cortex (620 million tons of hydrogen per second), and feeds the sun rushes in the form of light to Earth.
Solar cycle, the magnetic field of the Sun
All manifestations of solar activity are associated with magnetic fields: sunspots, flares, prominences. Magnetic fields are the cause of spots and active regions in which there are solar flares — emission energy. The intensity of the magnetic field changes during the 11-year cycle, during which the number of sunspots, flares, storms increases to a maximum of solar activity, and then quickly disappears, which is the minimum of solar activity.
Solar activity on Earth is the northern lights, radio and power outages, and also change the outer shell of Earth's atmosphere.
Sunspots — areas of greatest magnetic activity, in which there are solar flares and coronal mass ejections. Spots can vary in size, depending on solar activity. Their size can be up to 80,000 kilometers in diameter, making them visible at Earth without a telescope. Bright spots surrounded by fields that have a cellular structure and are called torches.
The solar wind is an expanding plasma of the solar corona, the stream of charged particles in the heliopause, flowing at a speed of 1200 km / s. Heliosphere — the region of the solar space in which the moving solar wind plasma.
Solar flares are large flare energy release in the solar atmosphere, which will light up for a few minutes and goes out for an hour. They affect the outer layers of the solar atmosphere: the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The rate of energy approximately equal to the speed of light. Flashes are emission of electromagnetic radiation in the form of light, radio waves and gamma waves.
Outbreaks occur in active areas around the spots in which the magnetic lines pass through the photosphere to the corona. Crown provides the necessary energy for the flash, which can also be a coronal mass ejection. But the links between flares and coronal mass ejections until set.
X-rays and UV radiation from solar flares can have a major impact on the Earth's ionosphere and cause disruptions in radio remote control.
According to X-ray intensity at the peak of the solar flares are classified using Latin letters A, B, C, M or X from smallest to largest. Intensity is calculated in watts per square meter (W/m2). The peak intensity of the most powerful flash is more 4.10 W/m2. In each class of flash can be indexed by the power of the numbers 1 to 9 in ascending order, but in the class X scale is not closed at the top. Thus, the flash of class X2 twice as powerful flare of class X1.
Coronal mass ejections
Coronal mass ejections — huge emission of plasma from the solar corona in the most active areas, such as the group of spots. During the period of maximum solar activity, the sun can cause the emission of about three every day, and during the period of minimum solar activity — once in 5 days.
If during a solar flare energy is realized in the form of electromagnetic radiation, while coronal mass ejections, this energy is used to accelerate the large number of plasma and other substances.
The figure shows a typical condition where Earth's magnetic field deflects charged particles of the plasma.
When the sun throws a coronal mass, the shock wave of high energy particles cause magnetic storms, which in turn break the Earth's magnetosphere, compressing it on the one hand and extending the other. When the magnetosphere is restored, it produces energy, aimed at the upper atmosphere of the Earth.
This process often leads to the northern and southern auroras, disrupt satellites and power lines. Astronauts and pilots are at particular risk of radiation during solar coronal mass ejections.
Geomagnetic storms are temporary changes in the Earth's magnetosphere caused by the solar wind shock wave and / or magnetic clouds. In the interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth's magnetosphere reported huge amounts of energy.
Earth's atmosphere and magnetosphere provide the necessary level of protection against radiation, but astronauts are subject to potentially lethal doses of radiation. Penetration of high-energy particles into living cells causes chromosomal abnormalities, cancerous changes and other problems. That is why the long presence of man in space is not yet possible, and exploration of the moon is extremely dangerous to human life. So, the astronauts orbiting station "Mir" in 1989 received the annual radiation in just a few hours in the open space.
Magnetic storms not only affect the health and wellbeing of people, but also the weather and many areas of human activity.