December 15, 2010. A rare natural phenomenon recently managed to secure it with a hydrophone, previously used in the tracking of Soviet nuclear submarines. Some scientists believe that the bottom activity — a kind of "heartbeat" of the planet. Found himicheskby process affects the composition of sea water on the deposition of metals, including gold, etc.
It is a question of some substance, like a volcanic lava, flowing slowly from the depths of the planet and sprawling on the ocean floor.
But all this is happening in the dark late at night, out of reach of the underwater realm, protected from the prying eyes of many deadly pressure tonne-kilometers. That is why these processes are poorly understood and seem to us mysterious.
The cracks on the ocean floor as it pulsate periodic emission of hot magma, the length of raschelin — 80-90 thousand km
The eruptions of lava from the craters of volcanoes make up only a tenth of the total mass of lava, everything else is erupting and crevasses. This lava would be enough to cover all the roads each year of America three-meter layer of rock.
Recent years, researchers have become used to monitor volcanic activity hydrophones are left out in the cold after the Soviet and now Russian submarines have reduced their activity in the American coast. Thus scientists have, for example, to fix hundreds of small eruptions off the coast of Oregon. They would also like to see what is happening on the seabed. But this is impossible, since, say, the depth of the crack, named Gordo Rich and formed at the boundary of two underground plates, is about 3.5 km — none diver is unable to climb up there. Even underwater robots have a hard time — because the surrounding water is almost boiling.
However, such attempts are made. Scientists recently went on a 50-meter research vessel "MacArthur" to the area seen volcanic activity and lowered into the water sensitive detectors. With their help, they were able to take samples of liquid erupted from fissures, it has proved extremely abundant bacteria and rich variety of salts.
At the University of Washington in Seattle, scientists are trying to learn more about the exotic organisms flourish in the boiling point. "This is the latest milestone of Microbiology", — said John Barr, a biologist who undertook the study of heat-resistant microorganisms.
The cracks between the tectonic plates on the ocean floor, especially cleft Gordo Rich, became particularly famous in the 80-ies of XX century, when it became clear that they are bordered by deposits of gold and other precious metals. This discovery helped in the years to then U.S. President Ronald Reagan to accelerate the adoption of the law on expanding the boundaries of the United States to the 230-mile zone in the ocean.
But even after that, the holes were poorly understood and their evolution has been a mystery. Only in the 90s Navy hydrophones allow researchers to capture such an eruption quite regularly. After an underwater earthquake that struck Feb. 26, 1996, a group of scientists who gathered for the first time aboard the "MacArthur", found a warm current width of 9 km. "It made a strong impression on us, — says researcher Karent Van Damme, coordinating such research. — It is possible in these cracks and once born, life on our planet. "