Iodine deficiency

Iodine deficiency.  Photo from http://1doma.org.ua

According to statistics, the lack of iodine in the body have more than 1.5 billion inhabitants of the planet. And the diseases caused by deficiency of the trace element, are fairly common. They are by no means harmless. Almost 740 million people due to lack of iodine increased thyroid gland (endemic goiter), and 40 million people for the same reason — mental retardation.

In Russia, more than 35% of the population suffer from iodine deficiency, often without knowing it. Hormonal disorders arising because of iodine deficiency, first proceed quickly, and do not bother people. Later begins enlargement of the thyroid gland — endemic goiter, which may be accompanied by a decrease in thyroid function (hypothyroidism) or its normal functioning (euthyroid). One of the most severe manifestations of hypothyroidism in endemic goitre is cretinism occurring in childhood. The disease is accompanied by a pronounced lag in the physical, mental, mental retardation, short stature, impaired speech, sometimes deaf-mutism.

Against the background of even moderate deficit on average 10% decline intellectual ability of the population, which poses a serious threat to the intellectual and economic potential of the country. Studies conducted by the World Health Organization in different countries of the world have proved that the level of mental development is directly related to iodine.

The prevalence of goitre in children and adolescents in the central part of Russia 15-25%. And in some regions of the Federation, where this percentage reaches 40. The situation is worst in rural areas, Tambov and Voronezh regions. In the Arkhangelsk region the frequency of this disease varies from 11% at the coast of the White Sea to80-98% In the south area. Clear deficit iodine, and, consequently, the abundance of goiter in the Tyumen Region, the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Republic of Sakha, Buryatia, Tuva Republic. In these regions, the incidence ranges from 25 to 80%.

Symptoms of iodine deficiency:

  • Man becomes irritable, depressed, worried about his inexplicable bouts of depression, drowsiness, lethargy.
  • Headaches, memory loss, decreased intelligence.
  • Lowering blood pressure and other symptoms of hypothyroidism.
  • The weakening of immunity.
  • Menstrual dysfunction, impotence, infertility, early menopause.
  • Pathology of pregnancy and the fetus (stillbirth, miscarriage, cretinism)
  • With larger goiter — Symptoms of pressure on nearby organs (asthma, dry cough, difficulty in swallowing).

Prophylaxis

In most countries of the world are commonly produce foods rich in iodine — primarily salt. In this case, the packaging of salt should be a special marking "iodized." In addition to salt, in some regions of the Russian Federation, iodine enriched bread and bakery products, soft drinks, dairy products. This is based on the daily consumption rates. Guide to action are the recommendations of the World Health Organization, the iodine content of iodized salt 15-40ug / g Established physiological (depending on age) intakes of iodine. The average for the different groups, they ranged from 120 to 150 mg / g per day. To enrich food products usually takes from 10 to 30% of the daily need.

According to endocrinologists, an overdose of iodine the body when consuming foods rich in them is almost impossible, because of its content in the environment (water, soil, food) is not enough. By eating seafood containing organic iodine, Overdose is also impossible, since most of it is excreted from the body.

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