April 19, 2013. If you look at the geological map of Alaska, you can see the regions where the layers of rock in a strange way "fused" with the platform. South Alaska — a cluster of fragments of all shapes and sizes, each of which is ready to tell his story. All of them — "exotic terranes", formed in different places? At different times. What forces carried them here, and why some of them are deployed relative to its neighbors — is a mystery.
Some exotic terranes — a native of the regions on the other side of the world, the other — from the nearby places. Each of them is different from each other in their characteristics, presenting a number of so-called "geological eras." Quaternary deposits lie in the immediate vicinity of the Cambrian strata of the Mesozoic. This era lasted for hundreds of millions of years. If the theory of the movement of continental plates is correct, the "clash" between the land masses occurred in Alaska more than a dozen times. However, none of the terranes are not placed side-by-side with their neighbor, they are mixed with each other.
Another mystery lithography terranes that some of them — from the oceanic crust, while others — continental. A number of terranes, apparently — of volcanic islands. There are also the remains of the continental shelf of South America. Surprisingly, less than one percent of Alaska was formed to "own" the North American continent.
In Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 14, № 3, pp. 307-352, David Pratt has studied the problem of the theory of continental tectonic displacement of structures and the ocean floor. His work has shown that the "classical model of thin lithospheric plates that move over the asthenosphere, is implausible."
See also: The movement of continents again became inexplicably
Among the geophysical plate tectonics is the dominant theory explaining the modern configuration of the Earth. Argued that the formation of the continents, as well as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur due to the movement of crustal blocks that are removed from each other in some places or superimposed on each other (subduction) — in the other. For example, the mid-ocean ridges are located where the earth's crust moves apart tearing up magma. "Seam" of a relatively thin cortex contributes to the development of volcanic processes, the formation of a new ocean floor, and, ultimately, a gradual divergence over the world.
It is believed that in other places, such as the coast of North America, the pressure frozen on the mid-ocean ridge magma causes the seabed "go" under the continent in the process of subduction. As soon as the frozen crust sinks beneath the North America, it is melting from the hot magma, in a kind of process of lithospheric recycling. It is assumed that the water in the rocks is converted into water vapor, resulting in the magma rises along the border of the continent, forming clusters of igneous rock ("plutons"), which eventually find weak spots in the crust. These weaknesses are formed volcanoes. This theory explains the existence of many volcanoes along the west coast of North America.
It is believed that 250 million years ago all the modern continents were part of a single huge continent — Pangaea. The reason for the fragmentation of Pangea, the huge "plates" on which the continents move is not known, although there are many theories. It is believed that plate tectonics is an iterative process, so Pangaea was not the first time that the continents come together it will not be the last.
See also: A new look at the mysterious layer of the earth's surface
So what is, according to Pratt, the problems of the modern theory of plate tectonics?
1. The lithosphere is formed contiguous structures. There is a alternation of layers, and separated from the lithosphere asthenosphere impossible.
2. It is assumed that earthquakes and volcanoes indicate the edge of the slab. However, recent studies found in the deep ocean earthquake without seismic activity, as the deeper areas are far away from plate boundaries.
3. It seems that many boards do not exist. According to the Pratt, the north-western boundary of the Pacific, North American and Eurasian plates, the southern boundary of the Philippine plate, part of the southern boundary of the Pacific plate, and most of the northern and southern boundaries of the South American plate, are fictions.
4. Manifestation of "the Continent" is an illusion. A lot of explanations provided by the compatibility of the continents together ignore other important considerations. On the overlapping continental shelves do not pay attention, and the gaps between the continents do not inspire confidence. We refer the reader to pages 7-9 of Pratt.
5. The assumption that the rocks are magnetized in the formation and retain magnetization for hundreds of millions of years, is untenable. In addition, it is necessary that they remain magnetic orientation that existed on Earth at the time of their formation.
6. The hypothesis that India broke away from Antarctica, was an island for over 200 million years, and then — "collided" with Asia, contrary to the testimony of the fact that she has always been a part of Asia. India does not have any signs of the unique flora and fauna that would support the proposal for hundreds of millions of years of isolation, for example, in Australia.
7. Heat flow from the spreading zone in mid-ocean ridges is not decreasing with distance. In contrast, no significant difference in the temperature distribution near the ridges and the rest of the ocean. This fact contradicts the concentration of magma flows in the seams of the ocean floor to create new crust.
8. The theory of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies on the ocean floor has been refuted in the drilling of the cortex. As it turned out, the so-called "magnetic strip" on the bottom of the ocean — it is rather isolated ovals, not linear formation.
According to Stephen Smith: "The theory of plate tectonics does not take into account the theory of the electric universe. The land was once the scene of destructive actions of electrodynamic forces, lift hill, ravaged ocean, floating continents. It is possible that these events took place on a global scale storage of human civilization. In this case, there is no need to resort to other theories that require revision and amendments whenever new facts are discovered. "