Ordinary viper (Vipera berus) — the most common venomous snake in central Russia. After wintering vipers appear on the surface of the earth usually in April — May. In the summer refuges for Vipers are holes of different animals, voids in rotten stumps and between rocks, bushes, packed last year's grass, hay. You can run into a viper and the water's edge, as these snakes are good float. Vipers can settle in abandoned buildings, under a pile of old building materials.
Colouring vipers may be very different. According to the background (gray or other colors) stretches along the back bar, which usually has the form of a zigzag, but it happens and with smooth edges. Maybe viper and pure black.
Areas at risk
In the middle zone of cold-blooded viper active in the daytime. They love to bask in the sun, including can do it, and right on the trail, on the stumps, mounds and stone slabs. On warm summer nights snakes are active and can crawl to the fire.
At a meeting with the man snake, usually tries to crawl away. Footsteps snakes (devoid of hearing) perceive through the tremors. On the soft peat litter or soil dug vibrations are almost not covered, and sometimes viper does not have time in advance to escape.
Taken by surprise snake takes a proactive defense: hisses, makes a threatening shots, and finally throws-bites, which is stoking movement represents a threat to the object. Therefore, sharp movements in the immediate meeting with the viper is better not to do, and certainly not worth trying to learn more about it.
Anyway, only the European part of Russia each year thousands of people bitten by a viper.
What's going on?
The closer the location of the bite to the head, so it is more dangerous. In place of a viper bite, and it is usually, of course, there are still two point wounds from poisonous snakes teeth. Bite immediately causes severe increasing pain.
In the spring of viper venom is more toxic than the summer. It contains neurotropic cytotoxins, i.e. affects nerve cells. Other components of the venom of vipers cause a number of disorders of blood coagulation and necrosis.
Local reaction begins in the first few minutes after the attack snakes: bitten part of the body is red, becomes hot, up from the bite swelling spreads, that is, the limb swells.
The general reaction usually develops within 15-20 minutes, but can occur at once. Starts to hurt and feel dizzy, there is lethargy, nausea (sometimes — vomiting), it becomes difficult to breathe, heart pounding. Confusion for bitten by a viper is not typical, but still the victim may look retarded, "drunk."
What to do?
Suck the poison should be only when there is no chance for health care in the coming hours, that is in serious long-term campaigns. According to numerous reports, in all other situations far more damage to the health of the affected cause misconduct in the provision of first aid, and not the bite snake.
The bite of a viper should immediately go to the doctor (or call "ambulance"). On the way, it is important that part of the body bitten remained motionless and did not work. The movement accelerates delivery of poison in the body. Of course you can fix a scarf, conventional sticks.
The victim should remain calm, do not make unnecessary movements and plenty of fluids (not just once, better in small portions, to about three liters, preferably plain water or juice, soda). You can take 1-2 tablets allergy medicines, such as "suprastin", "tavegil." Nothing else on the way to the doctor not to do so.
Acceptance of alcohol is not allowed. Under no circumstances should not be burning the bite, cutting the wound, the introduction into it of potassium permanganate or any other substances. You can not apply a tourniquet around the bitten limb. Everything mentioned in this paragraph, the "people's" money will not stop the spread of venom through the body, but can aggravate both local and general manifestations of poisoning.
Extremals: how to suck the venom
If medical care is not available, you can try to suck the venom. Suction should begin immediately, after 3-5 minutes, it was almost useless. It can do and those who find themselves side by side, and the victim.
First you need to collect the skin around the bite into the fold and squeeze to open the wound, until the droplets of blood. Suck to be short sharp movements. Content wounds (bloody fluid) to spit. Continue to be 10-15 minutes (at the first sign of edema — to stop, because the poison is absorbed into the surrounding tissue and can not delete it.) You can only remove a third to a half of the venom.
It should be noted that in field conditions incise the bite, not zanesya in wound infection (including the deadly tetanus!) Is not possible, so this should not be done.
If there are no open mouth sores, to suction the procedure is safe, as it has got, despite the spitting into the stomach to digest the poison and loses activity. However, the mouth is then rinsed with water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. It is also, as in any similar situation, be aware of the risk of transmission of various infections through blood or saliva.
At the doctor
In any rustic Infirmary, in any city hospital and clinic, in urban and rural "Ambulance" bitten by a viper for a special serum "Antigadyuka." Its ingredients neutralize poison snake.
Serum acts not instantaneously, to alleviate the condition may take several hours. This time, the victim should be held in the House, under the supervision of a healthcare worker alone. It is likely that in addition to the serum, will require other medications to correct the symptoms that the poison had already called.
The doctor will process the bite with iodine, will close the wound with a sterile dressing to prevent secondary infection. No special aftercare bite is not required.
With timely treatment after 5-6 days, and often before, all the discomfort will disappear completely. During the recovery should be observed sparing regimen and implement the recommendations of a physician.
For a man healthy mature enough to walk through the forest, the common viper's bite is not lethal. However, in the case of untimely or improper treatment can develop serious complications, up to chronic renal failure.
How to avoid the bite of a viper?
Going to a place where the possible meeting with vipers, you must have the appropriate clothing and shoes. Protect from bites snake: High boots, thick wool socks, thick, not skinny body pants tucked into boots, with an overlap. In gathering mushrooms and berries is better to push the grass with a long stick, and if you intend to pay special attention to the mound overgrown — poshuruyte it with a stick before the start there hands.