BNR was unwelcome state

In the political history of the Belarusian People’s Republic of separate space occupied by three statist documents — three charters, adopted on 21 February 9 and March 25. About their role in the development of the Belarusian statehood, cultural renaissance times BNR Rada also about the relationship to the Belarusian People’s Republic of Belarus — a conversation with historian Anatoly Sidorevich.
"Experienced Belarusian politicians in 1918 were in no hurry to declare a political choice of Belarus, hoping a sudden Bolsheviks wiser?"
Michas Scoble: "Anatoly, remember, in the poem" Mother tongue "Pimen Panchenko, poetically describing the names of all 12 months, written with an emphasis on sound" c ":" March — with sakatannem and vernal birch juice. "So in March for Belarusians — it is also listing the Belarusian People’s Republic. Moreover, entrenched in the public consciousness date March 25. pragaloshanaya But BNR was earlier. So maybe you need to celebrate another date? "
Anatoly Sidorevich: "No, all the same, are those who celebrate March 25. First charters, adopted on 21 February only proclaims imitation authorities on the ground of Belarus. But there is no mention of the state and legal status of Belarus. What it is: an autonomous Russian part of the Democratic Federation, as stated in the All-Belarusian Congress resolution, or use self-government? Meanwhile, the action takes place. Germans reach Mogilev and Polotsk. Bolsheviks rescue his power — go to shameful Brest peace, a result of which Russia, as we know, was broken into two parts. Bolshevik Our homeland starts looting Belarusian men. Bolshevik regime showed his great-imperialist insides. In this situation, Belarus had their say. And Executive Committee All-Belarusian Congress March 9 perceives second charters — says the People’s Republic of Belarus. "
Scoble: "Let’s look at its text. As it was declared, what are the main principles laid dyarzhavatvoryya?"

Sidorevich "first and main principle — Belarus proclaimed within the boundaries of digital dignity of the Belarusian people. This is actually the Belarus, which we have now except in certain districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno provinces. I mean Belsky and Sokolsky counties — is currently Sokolsky province of Poland. I mean some of Smolensk, Bryansk and Chernigov land.
In-2 — considered to be the founding Diet Belarus. Hitherto Council All-Belarusian Congress had the power to adopt it and renamed it on 19 March and will be the Rada of the Belarusian People’s Republic. So much for the legislature. Now about the power of the executive. People’s Secretariat consisted of 15 people’s secretaries. In the second charters only one lack: again no mention of state-legal status of Belarus. Experienced Belarusian politicians have so far avoided the uniqueness, they hold in store free of stroke in the hope: and suddenly Bolsheviks wiser? But not wiser, and in third was quite charters defined the status of Belarus — as independent states. So to celebrate all the same need to March 25. "
"After March 25th the Russians began to leave the structure BNR"
Scoble: "To insert documents BNR abolishes the right of private property on the ground. How primordial, the most sacred dream Belarusian peasant expressed in Kolasauski" newest land ":" Buy land, buy your own angle "?"
Sidorevich: "Right, right to private property was abolished. But the land of the landlords, the land the church, the monastery, the specific, the Treasury transferred to peasants hereditary use. Other words — with the right gear on the heritage of the children. Were to be made trade, peasant, speaking in the present , farms, which did not exclude the introduction of wage labor. These farms were not to be small. If the owner died and left escheat property (which some pass), the right to purchase the land or property received government, municipal ground fund, which was due to convey this land again, in peasant use. "
Scoble: "In all 3 plug charters says nothing about the status of the Belarusian language. But virtually all the paperwork, all the documents taken at the BNR Belarusian language (worth to look through the" Archives BNR "invested Sergei Shupam). Neuzh something from the beginning and the Executive All-Belarusian Congress Rada Committee and Council of the Belarusian People’s Republic consisted of some conscious Belarusians? "
Sidorevich: "Glad All-Belarusian Congress elected at the congress itself, consisted largely of Belarusians of Belarusian socialists who Belarusian-speaking people. But in accordance with the request of the Congress delegates Rada was supplemented by representatives of national minorities socialist orientation. There were Poles, there were Jews, there were Russian, and they were introduced in the first People’s Secretariat (Zlobin and McRae). But litmus test for them has been omitted in the night from 24 to 25 March. And the representative of the Great Zlobin the first to leave the People’s Secretariat and the Council of the Republic. After May 1 in the People’s Secretariat Belarusians are left alone, and BNR Rada again consists largely of Belarusians ".
Scoble: "Today we see the reaction of the European countries to recognize the independence of Kosovo. Why Belarusian People’s Republic does not want to admit even the coming of our neighbors with whom we once lived in one state — I mean, and the Principality of stateliness and Rzeczpospolita? "
"Belarusian People’s Republic for all, not counting the Belarusians, was unwelcome"
Sidorevich: "In such cases, I always refer to the work of the interlocutors honorary doctor Yuri Turonka" unexpected Republic. " Lithuania zarilas on Belarusian lands on Navgardukas (Navagarodak) Gardinas (Grodno) and Narutsis (Narač). Latvia spakusna watched Davgalpils (Dvina). Ukraine metsilasya to Pinsk, Kobrin, Brest, Gomel Region and mozyrschiny. Well, davneshnie, Hetman still desire to have in our Podneprovje their estates.
In Poland, the general was anti-Belarusian alliance with the Germans. Since Poland could not return to Poznan and Gdansk itself, it was suggested that such a deal: Belastochchina, Brest and Grodno Poland depart Poznanshchyny instead. All were keen to snatch what nibudt in Belarus. And the Bolsheviks own blacksmith snatched. As we know, three Belarusian province — Gomel region, Mogilev and Vitebsk Region’s 1924-1926 belonged to Russian Russian Federal Republic.
BPR for all, not counting the Belarusians, was unwelcome. In particular, the role was played by the ugly and the French government and the German government (like the Kaiser, and the Social-Democratic, when President Friedrich Ebert became Germany). "
Scoble: "Why Germany toward the republic behaved so rudely?"
Sidorevich: "The Germans at Brest promised that they would not recognize any new municipalities on the territory of the former Russian Empire. Incidentally, Lithuanians (you guessed, or they were given a hint) declared its independence on February 16. And Lithuania, as well as Ukrainian Republic, under this paragraph Brest agreement did not fall. Though, I must say, the Germans some time even inclined to confess BNR. They looked that the People’s Secretariat into something capable of and started to refer to it uniformly economic affairs, a post. Germans vosprepyadstvovalo that Belarusian political forces have found unity, failed in July 1918 to form a coalition government. "
"The British government offered assertively make Poland Federated alliance with Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine"
Scoble: "One of the active members of the BPR in the international arena was Anton Lutskevich. In 1919, on the road from Paris to Minsk he as prime minister met in Warsaw with the head
of the Polish country Jozef Pilsudski. Curious, what language they spoke?"
Sidorevich: "I think that in Polish. Though could and Belarusian, most likely at the Vilnius trasyantsy. After Pilsudski in the circle of friends, acquaintances and davneshnih inhabitants of Vilnius never tried to read a pure Polish. He always said:" Nie estem poliakem, estem litvinem ". And Litvins palshchyzna own."
Scoble: "But what they had read in one language, even very trasyantsy, did not help them find understanding in the future of Belarus."
Sidorevich "Since Pilsudski was not the only actor on the Polish political scene. Very strong position in Poland had a lot of Vitas, I mean Piast Peasants’ Party, and national Democrats — Endek mountain. They were all convinced that these, I’m sorry," margin "- the primordial Polish territory.
British government aggressively offered Poland make Federated alliance with Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine, but the Poles did not agree. They had the support of France. And Georges Clemenceau was at 1-x, palenafilam and in-2 — Muscophiles. "
"In Minsk in 1918 was a cultural renaissance on the Bolshevik side we do not litsezreem any noticeable figures of Belarusian culture"
Scoble: "The Belarusian People’s Republic lasted less than two years, more precisely, 22 months. What this time it was made in the sphere of education and culture? "
Sidorevich: "Judge for yourself. Already in the summer of 1918 in Minsk two theaters. Ah, what were the theater! Furor in Minsk did pan Frantisek Olehnovich who came from Vilnius. And it was worth the competitiveness veteran Minsk scene — the founder of the first Belarusian Drama Company and Florian Zhdanovicha comedy.
Gymnasium opened in Minsk Budslau, provisional commission was created for the opening of the Belarusian Institute, began to operate for publishing textbooks "clearance". Vladimir Terevsky acted choir, folk orchestra and dance group. A newspaper that prints "Belarus"? "Pinsk gentry" and "vagrants" Dunin-Marcinkiewicz, whole chapters of "Simon music" and "newest land" Kolasa. First and last time in his life is able to issue its own magazine Yanka Kupala, it was called "Run" … In fact, we are not the Bolshevik side litsezreem any noticeable figures of Belarusian culture. There’s one Dmitry Zhilunovicha (Tishka Gartny). This renaissance kulturovy dare young Anton Adamovich and Andrei Alexandrovich. That is the cauldron in which created the basis for the rapid growth of the Belarusian culture of the 1920s: "Foals", "Uzvyshsha" etc. "
"If BNR Rada recognized RB, we would be left no representation on the outer case of the Anschluss of Belarus"

Scoble: "end of the conversation I wish to turn to another document. BNR This Declaration of 1947, which, incidentally, says:" The Council of the Belarusian People’s Republic does not recognize and does not recognize the BSSR in the form of the Belarusian-independent country, honoring her for the Russian- Communist fiction thrown Moscow. "That’s understandable. But was 1991, was proclaimed the Republic of Belarus is independent, approved its municipal signs — white-red-white flag and" The Chase. "But BNR Rada has never recognized the Republic of Belarus. How can this be explain? "
Sidorevich: "A certain steps Minsk made for this recognition. Minister of Foreign Affairs Peter Kuzmich Kravchenko put a lot of effort and energy for the convening of the First World Congress of Belarusians. And to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Act of Independence in Belarus visited Dr. Joseph Sazhich — Chairman of the BNR. And there was a rumor that the BNR Rada recognizes the Republic of Belarus, the municipal seal will be sent here in Minsk. happen is what happened with the Ukrainian People’s Republic, which came with the Polish emigration president who acknowledged Poland.
But in Belarus was prime Kebich in the Belarusian Supreme Soviet again podymali communist forces. And at least some carefully observe the Belarusian processes beheld that Belarus is not going so smoothly that there is a threat to democracy and the brand new cultural renaissance. And it became clear that the BNR Rada does not recognize the Republic of Belarus. "
Scoble: "And if this recognition took place, which we have had political consequences?"
Sidorevich: "If Parliament recognized the Belarusian People’s Republic of Belarus, it would mean that we do not have any representation in the event of the Anschluss of Belarus. Though I, as a historian, is convinced that we are not threatened by the Anschluss. Why? Let’s turn to the proclamation of the BSSR . Who was the most active against vystupantsam? Myasnikian and Knoryng. And when they become the head of the Byelorussian SSR, then became ardent patrons of its territorial integrity and opposed the creation Litbel artificial association, invented in Moscow. Why radio and Myasnikian Knorynga descendants, who now rule in Belarus, will give their power and their locality Moscow, Warsaw or Vilnius? "Tags: BNR, independence, false, certificates

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