Life and death legends: Lude

"Lude — is stable community of people, historically rooted in a particular area and which is different from other communities a single language, with measured characteristics relative to culture and psyche, as a general presentation of its own unity and fixed identity. Term" people "includes the tribe, tribal group, nationality, ethnic civilization, religious and linguistic communities.
It — only one concentrated definition definition "people" from the 10’s definitions available in the world. And the controversy that began in the 19th century that people have, last. But in Belarus, all 20th century and right up to now all know exactly: there are people who are, and who — no. "
Vyacheslav Rakytskyy"In the Russian time was ideologem: people — this is a working class and farmers, all other — elite, which should be silent and obey this people. And yet, as the Belarusian science, and post-Soviet Russian, defines the notion of people?"

Tatiana Protko"Take, for example, Dictionary of the Belarusian language. It argues that in the Belarusian language, the word" people "defines:" 1 — the population of any country, state 2 — civilization, ethnicity, nationality, and 3 — the main bulk of the population working 4 — just people. "
Rakytskyy"Immediately completely reverse definition. Turns out that every group of people you can call people? Is that — ignorance instead of science? Either this definition hides any other background?"
Protko"It seems to me that such a definition was done deliberately, because it gives the ability for different ideological and political manipulation. Specifically, such a complicated and quite the opposite definition of" people "and gave gives grounds for his ability mitalyagizatsyi. Agree that on the one hand — "parasites", as previously states simply loafers, offenders, drug addicts, prostitutes — men as part of the population, on the other — not because they do not work, do not make real values. For a long time — all the Russian period of our history — to masses of the workers concerned, only those who create real value. Hence the debate: the intelligentsia — is people or not? "
Rakytskyy"So, people in the Russian science and practice was very comfortable ideologies. You, Tatiana, emphasize that the concept of" people "even mitalyagizavalasya. How and why?"
Protko"To answer this question, let us remember together stable winged metaphorical phrase with the word" people. "Specifically, they are always there is an underlying meaning of the myth. They recorded the incidence and major special" life "myth. Please Vyacheslav, start" .
Rakytskyy"Folk wisdom, folk art, folk medicine, the soul of the people, people’s artist, normal people, the voice of the people, the interests of the people …"
Protko"This series can be continued indefinitely. Everything can be popular if you really covet, at least verbally — from the spiritual to the real. Continue and I with an emphasis on ideological qualities mitalyagemy" people "- Russian people, the people’s love, happiness of the people , People’s Party, the People’s Commissar, enemies of the people, the masses … More — more when deprived of something personal, personal start losing animality, can impose such generality and any acts and statements. Please: people are always right, people do not may be mistaken. Older people who represented themselves Russian people have been brought up on similar allegations. "
Rakytskyy"These people in society perakladvalasya responsible for the acts of power. And so Makarov, no one is responsible for anything, because he was acting on behalf of the people. Recall that the request of the people even raise prices."

Russian people had to adore, to do everything in his interest, even lose their lives for the noble people there were …

Protko"Russian people had to adore, to do everything in his interest, even loss of life for people there were notable. Was also alleged that the state controls the people through their own representatives, and the government is doing to its own people. Make a personal contribution to the happiness of the people — the purpose of life each person. So can briefly lay out the content of the myth of the Russian people. Briefly we can say that we have people — it is in India, such a sacred animal that can not feed, and drive, but you can not touch — God forbid! "
Rakytskyy"This is about the Russian people. Course, it was not just mitalyagema and first ideologem. And other nations such as complex and contradictory picture of the people?"
Protko"In science, the term" people "defines what we have given in the definition from the outset — a stable community of people who have certain characteristics and understands itself supolnastsyu.U British English people — it’s just people. And other peoples also mitalyagizavali yourself . For example, the Germans considered themselves zvyshrasay that can qualify for global domination, the Russians believe in their God they bride, uniqueness, and they beheld behold the own distinctive path of development and are proud of their contributions to the global civilization. Amerikosy quite rapidly as did the myth own country as a country of general abilities. Yankees may once from Cinderella to be reincarnated as a star or a billionaire. Mitalyagema "people" characteristic to all the nations. "
Rakytskyy"Now Discard husks aside ideological Russian pores. Cleanse away the notion of" people. "Do Belarusians own real myth about the people?"
Protko"Of course there is. There are legends about the Belarusian people, through the prism of which other people perceive Belarusians. And there are legends that we are about to make for themselves. Curiously, in most peoples outer and inner legends differ, but the Belarusians that they practically monotonous. "
Rakytskyy"What is this legend?"
Protko"Belarusian people — benevolent, strannopriimets, nyasprechlivy, rather limited, hard-working, nehluslivy, patient, non-confrontational, with very low requirements for life. Mention is traditional: the bread would not be war — and you can live happily. Not with empty A favorite political briefly defined his favorite program from both the need to ensure all Belarusians and Škvarka cup. "
Rakytskyy"And yet here mythological? Each utter what we really are."
Protko"Yes, utter. And never confirm that the jealous fears of power and immediately hate it that wants bed of roses" beautiful "life. This is the specificity of the myth. He — not an artificial creation of political consultants or ideologues. If myth lives means you need it, love it, it makes a certain social tasks, helps people to survive and live. Legends, which are particularly popular with Belarusians, help maintain self-pluses, personal significance role in the development of the country, the country. Why, for example, Belarusians wish could adregavats the massive falsification of the election results? Since then destroyed the myth that we choose, that depends on us result of the election — destroyed the myth of democracy. "
Rakytskyy"But in today’s society in which form there is a myth about the people?"

Modern Belarusian society joined the myth of the Russian people pores, and his power-o
riented support …

Protko"In today’s society is a form of municipal vserasprostranennoy legends. They can be recorded in the literature, the visual arts, historical and philosophical writings of so-called state ideology. And here spread the myth begins to engage with the Government has a special unit of people and resources. Specific feature of the myth of the nation is that its support in modern Belarusian society is as the population itself and the government. Belarusian society joined the myth of Russian people pores and his power oriented support. "
Rakytskyy"How it was formed?"
Protko"From giving the word" people "positive meaning of so-called" populists "- members of the movement intellectuals in the second half of the XIX century. Populists considered peasant community the best form of public relations, and the peasantry — a more progressive part of society. Bolsheviks, who abandoned the main postulates populists have taken from them, but the eyes on the masses as the main factor of social development. Only the peasants added to the same job. Bolsheviks developed and modern legends of the people. However, under the Bolsheviks, he was called "the Russian people." But, abandoning the whole of the Bolshevik system of power and economic relations, we are one hundred percent retained Bolshevik legend. "
Rakytskyy"And what it had consequences?"
Protko"Very different. During 1-x, it assist preserve the stability that the Belarusian government is very proud of. Vo-2, assist foothold in the power of those politicians who beheld it necessary restoration of socialism with a human face. B-3, slowed, and in some industries and suspended the development of democracy in Belarus. B-4, made a comfortable transition to the new system of values for a significant part of the Belarusian population, especially the retirement age, although slowed considerably strengthen this system. "
Rakytskyy"Why has this happened?"
Protko"Russian legends were oriented to the future, they divert attention from the problems of modernity, found common and understandable explanation of the different claims of society, including political. Central concept of these legends, of course, is the people. Not the case when people only tried democratic convictions damage the myth of the Belarusian people, opponents accused them that Democrats do not love their own people. Even President expressed it in public. Preservation of old legends promotes private information place nationalization television nerazvitasts institution of private property. In the former Soviet Union, where these Background eliminated Russian legends are not mentioned, people are no longer needed. "
Rakytskyy"How do the place of myth and reality in the place of modern Belarus, why do they say people are very often not of himself, but on behalf of the fabulous people?"

Existence in space more comfortable myth than reality in space …

Protko"The decrease in population lasts — once a year we have become less Belarusian language as a distinguishing feature of the people do not develop, the circle narrows its implementation. Under threat of Belarusians and financial autonomy, as a consequence, and political. Yet there are many other problems. And not to think neuvvyazkami over these, as they say, not to spoil the mood for yourself, people are beginning to use the myth about himself as an accomplished, happy, prosperous Belarusian people.’s easier, and there is no accountability. existence in the space of myth more comfortable than in the space of reality. "
Rakytskyy"And what would happen if suddenly the myth of the lost people in general?"
Protko"I think people would feel very uncomfortable. The Russian writer and publicist Pisarev have the account of people who constantly lived in the dark. And if the hero turned on the light, all have seen what they are dirty, ugly. Then they put out the light, and the hero destroyed. This is always necessary to keep in mind when hunting legend overnight change. Fortunately, legends do not just disappear. should change significantly incident life, even should form new legends. We have already started this process. created a myth about a president who can do everything, fussing about the interests of the people and so on. This new myth gradually constricts old myth of the power of the people, about the infallibility of the people, the wisdom of the people. These and other features to run across the president, who already received the title of Father. only where people can still the official version to show their wisdom — that’s right to elect the president or members of parliament. Belarus But this procedure is formalized so that a significant part of the population is seriously not perceived. "
Rakytskyy"What about the love for the people?"
Protko"I do not think it’s a myth. Anyway, for me it is the reality of life. After all, for me people — some alive people I meet during my life who rejoice and suffer, and die there. In the Old Testament, God said that only has one beloved people, in a new Testament, we have discovered that God’s love extends to all nations. For the believer, it’s pretty, but whoever will create for himself various other legends. And even pronounce that God — is also a myth. "
Rakytskyy"How long this will last the most advanced and implemented in Belarus consciousness myth about people, and what will happen to the people if the myth about him die?"
Protko"I think that the myth of the people shall not perish never, because people — the people, the population — can not exist without legends. Another thing that modern legends are popular swap, transformed into other. For example, the myth that people always rights, dies after will be destroyed the myth of the first president. And this happens after people will feel responsible for their lives and will not transfer it to the shoulders of the country. As a brand new life will be new legends. "

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