Tyumen — the capital of the villages?

 


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What a rich country Sia Siberia
that for a powerful edge.
More needful century, but when it will be settled,
it is intended to play a major role
in the annals of the world.
Radishchev

Tyumen — the administrative center of Tyumen Oblast, the city was founded in 1586.
Laid-bitch governors Vasily and Ivan Carvery in July 1586 on the site of the ancient city, the capital of Tyumen Khanate, which was next to the Tatar city Chimgi Tour. In Russian chronicles the XVI century. Tyumen Khanate was called "the Great Tyumen." Tumen (tyumyan) in Turkic languages means "the lower reaches of the river", "lowland". The same word means and military units to 10,000 tribal people. The name was taken as a Russian name for the new, the first Siberian city.

 


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Tyumen — the first Russian city in Siberia, supplied by the Cossacks and explorers that ran to the east, "the rock" (Ural mountains). The way he was blocking the mighty Siberian Khanate, formed as a result of the collapse of the Golden Horde in the late XIV — early XV century. Center of the Siberian Khanate was first Tatar settlement Chimgi the Tour, but for 20 years before the city was abandoned Eriaka. In 1563, seized power in the Khanate Kuchum Khan, who began to make devastating raids on the lands Urals, recently vosheldshie of the Russian state. In the 1570s the fight against Kuchum turned into open war. To protect new land authorities began to recruit troops from the Cossacks and other "eager" people. He created a team and industrialist Stroganov, whose towns are particularly affected by the Tatar attacks. Led a detachment Ataman Yermak, who started a campaign against the Kuchum in 1581. The detachment was small, just over 500 300 Cossacks and joined them, "eager" people. This did not prevent him already in 1582 put the Tartars serious defeat. Ermak Kashlyk captured the city, the capital of Kuchum. In Moscow, Ermak sent the letter of accession of the new territory. But the war was still going on. In 1585 Kuchum sensitive Cossacks managed to inflict defeat and regain their capital. In the battle killed himself Ermak. However, the Russian advance in the east was irreversible. Kuchum soon had to retreat in the desert. From Moscow to Siberia for "dispensation of new land" went governors.

 


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In 1586, the squad archers under the command of the governor Vasily Sukina, Ivan Meat and head of Daniel written Chulkova reached the abandoned ruins of an ancient Tatar city Chingy Tour. Next to him, decided to lay a new fortress. The place chosen for her success. Steep banks of the Tura River and its tributary Tyumenki created a natural defensive lines. Here was the Tyumen fiber, part of an ancient route from Asia to Europe. Construction of the fortress were hastily. First dug in tight-fitting to each other sharpened logs, then did the south side ditch, poured earth mound, and then began to build a church, houses and barns. Near the fortress was built a small trading quarter where they lived servicemen and simply "eager" people. Construction of Tyumen lasted several years. According to the documents it is known that as early as 1596 Governor Gregory Dolgoruky paid money "for urban business" (construction). Embarked on the southern border of the annexed territories of Siberia Tyumen was primarily defensive value. Its main inhabitants were "knights, archers, foot and mounted Cossacks," the number of which increases as the danger of war. Assigned to the protection of Tyumen Russian and Tatar settlements from the attacks of the nomads of power, which lasted until the middle of XVII century.
But Tyumen developed not only as a military town. In 1596, followed by royal command to Siberia to attract trade Bukhara, to provide them with "gentleness and no go with them not to take." In Tyumen started coming caravans, merchants settled here. Over time Tyumen became an important center on the trade route to Central Asia, Persia, China.

 


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Since the second half of the XVII century is arable farming and animal husbandry, handicrafts and trade determined the development of Tyumen. By mid-century and formed the architectural appearance of the city. It was the center of the Kremlin, had grown around the townsmen, settlements, monasteries grew. Like all Russian wooden town, Tyumen burned down several times. Then the city was reborn. Instead, there were new buildings burned, their numbers grew. The city is constantly expanding his territory, he was surrounded by all the new settlements. By the end of the XVII century in Tyumen lived for nearly three thousand people.
By the beginning of XVIII century Tyumen became a major center of trade. None of the Siberian city was not as pronounced industrial specialization. Already at that time Tyumen became famous for exquisite dressing of leather, manufacture of shoes, soap, bony ridges. Much appreciated product of the Tyumen Tyumen blacksmiths and cast bells road. Dozens forges served coachmen and denote movement through the city. Rich surrounding forests were given cheap raw materials woodworkers. Tyumen famous river boats are built here, furniture, sleds and massive bright arcs, chests, drawers, and all those that provided transit trade east and west.

 


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Since 1709, Tyumen was part of the Siberian province, and in 1782 became the
chief town of Tobolsk governorship. In the XVIII century in Tyumen stone construction began. In 1728 there was built a new bridge over the river Tyumenku length of 176 meters, on the tenements stood customs, shopping arcade, six parish churches. By the end of the century the city had been built of the Assumption, the Sign, Ascension, Resurrection and Saviour Church. Then there were the first brick buildings civilian: a wine cellar administrative official and private buildings. In the XIX century Tyumen became the main manufacturing center in Western Siberia, the craft industry and agriculture. Tyumen also became the main transit point through which went on and on Tobolk sentenced to hard labor. Tobolsk was transferred here from the only administrative agency in the Russian Empire, register and distributes convicted in Siberia — the order of the exiles. Through Tyumen from 1823 to 1889 was about 800,000 prisoners, deportees and their families. At the end of the century they were sent to Braze and steamships on 13,000 annually.
The economic importance of Tyumen further increased with the opening of river navigation. In 1838 there was built and launched the first steamship in Siberia. It was called the "base", as alleged by the name of "founder" is not enough space. The first flight "Basis" committed to Tobolsk, ushering in Siibiri shipping. Located at the beginning of the Siberian waterway, Tyumen became the center of the construction and the main base of the steam fleet. Shipyard Siberian Tyumen actively replenished with new shipping company by the courts. According to official figures for 1913 of 190 ships that went down the rivers of Siberia, 135 were built in the city of Tyumen. Throughput of the port of Tyumen in the late XIX century, reached 230,000 tons per year, and the port itself is called the "gateway to Siberia."
In 1885, the Company launched the railway Yekaterinburg-Tyumen, and in 1912 — Tyumen-Omsk. Zhezheznaya road accelerated industrial development. Tyumen is a major supplier of timber and timber products and is also a major center for the leather industry, which included in its structure small artisan establishments, textile mills and factories.

 


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From the beginning to the middle of the XX century, the appearance of the city remained almost unchanged. During rainy weather the streets became impassable, communication between parts of the city violated. Tyumen called "the capital of the villages," because of the large number of settlements and villages make up the city. The population of Tyumen before the revolution was (mostly merchants and tradesmen) 30,000 people and has exceeded most populous province of Tobolsk. In the city there were about five thousand houses, 18 churches, monastery, 10 schools. Working theater, circus, published "The Siberian trade newspaper."

 


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The situation changed during the Great Patriotic War. In the city evacuated dozens of companies, they have remained there after the war. Tyumen became a city with modern industry, and August 14, 1944 was established Tyumen region with the center in Tyumen, opened its first university.

The discovery of oil and gas in the region has become a new page in the history of the city of Tyumen.

In the 1960s and 70s in the taiga, tundra and wetlands began their development. In 1966 started the construction of the Tyumen-Tobolsk-Curgut and November. In 1967 he created Tyumen Civil Aviation. Many businesses have started to work on the oil and gas industry. Tyumen aviators brought surveyors, surveyors, geologists, drillers, builders of different specialties and equipment to the most remote point. Boatman to develop new waterways on the numerous rivers of Western Siberia. Tyumen became a source and transit point for cargo delivery to the North, an outpost of the development of Western Siberia. At that time, the city built a new specialized companies, design institutes, institutions of higher education. In 1970 he appeared on the streets of Tyumen, the first trolley, opened in 1973, Oil and Gas University.

Modern Tyumen — is a major industrial center, the city of science, culture and sports. In recent years the city changed dramatically. Built new neighborhoods were built roads, bridges, streets widened.

Memory Area.

 


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BC "Gazoil Plaza"

 


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BC "Ovental Tower"

 


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Agricultural Academy

 


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House Merchant Kolokol'nikova

 


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House N.I.Kozlova

 


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Tyumen State Philharmonic

 


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Church of the Saviour in 1796

 


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Palace of Arts "Pioneer"

 


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Clouds over Tyumen

 


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TC "Kalinka"

 


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Cable-stayed pedestrian bridge over the Tour

 


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Unique Tours embankment, 4 levels, the height of 25 meters, one level annually flooded flooding.

 


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Thanks for watching. All photos are mine. To be continued.

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