Staff Physico-Technical Institute of Irkutsk State Technical University received patents for a method of processing solid waste ftoruglerodsoderzhaschih electrolytic aluminum production and the method of allocation of carbon nanoparticles.
One of the authors of the project, Head of Laser Physics and Nanotechnology PTI Nikolai Ivanov explained that the carbon nanostructures (nanotubes, astralenes) are effective modifiers of various materials, which significantly improves their strength characteristics (steels, alloys, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, concrete mixtures, the polymer-bitumen coating, carbon fiber reinforced plastics, etc.).
"Carbon nanotubes help improve many properties of the materials to which they are added. For example, some concrete strength increases nearly twice become conductive plastic products by reducing the accumulation of electrostatic charges, the wear resistance increases considerably reduced coefficient of friction »,- Ivanov said.
He said that the electrolytic process for producing aluminum ftoruglerodsoderzhaschie generates solid waste, which include: coal foam, carbon waste overhaul of cells (spent lining), dust and sludge from gas cleaning sludge from the sludge fields, etc. These wastes are lost valuable elements: fluorine, carbon, aluminum, sodium. Unprocessed waste or residues of them are partial processing of danger class 3, for storage use expensive slurry pits, which represent an environmental hazard and occupy large areas.
Scientists IrGTU propose to use waste as a raw material for carbon-carbon nanoparticles. This method will not only recycle waste generated, but also to return to production previously accumulated in the sludge fields, improving the environmental situation, as well as other environmental problems will solve the aluminum industry, for example, reducing the funds for the operation of storage facilities for secondary waste.
"We have an allocation of carbon nanoparticles of carbon-containing materials. The essence is that the electrolysis of aluminum are formed by the carbon foam electro carbon electrodes, from which we further extract fluoride salt, amorphous carbon, and carbon nanostructures " , — Ivanov explained.
According to the information retrieval method of this nanotubes favorably with existing world expensive technologies.
"If they produce in special plants, as is the case all over the world, the cost can be up to 60 thousand rubles per 1 kg, we can reduce it by almost 10 times, — Ivanov stressed. — In As the carbonaceous material using sediment formed after leaching of solid waste ftoruglerodsoderzhaschih electrolytic production of aluminum. Sludge treatment are an aqueous solution of an organic acid, followed by a heat treatment, ultrasonic treatment and mechanical two-stage separation. Our invention is to reduce energy and material costs for implementing the process, simplifying the technology of carbon nanoparticles. Reducing the cost of nanoparticles will give a push to their more widespread use as modifiers of materials ".
At the end of April on the basis of Technopark IrGTU scheduled to open small innovative enterprise for the production of carbon nanotubes "Nanotehtsentr". The main goal of the company is to create a pilot technology. The estimated production capacity at this stage will process approximately one ton of waste to produce several kilograms of carbon nanomodifier.
Photo Anastasia Slepnevo