Attention manifested in any conscious human activity to a greater or lesser extent. Warning — this concentration of consciousness and its orientation but anything of value to humans. Attention improves the result of other mental processes — such as remembering, thinking, imagination, but does not exist by itself.
To focus properties include its stability, the concentration distribution, and the volume change.
Concentration means that how often a person is able to focus and get away from all that is not in the focus of attention. Deep focus is useful when working on a task, as well as in cases where a person is not required to fast operation. But there, where fast switching of attention, deep concentration can lead to errors.
The distribution of attention we need to when to perform several actions — for example, when driving instruction. The main condition for the successful allocation of attention to the fact that at least one action should be automated, has been brought to the level of skill. For example, just listen to music and knitting. It is much more difficult to perform multiple types of mental activity: for example, think about the problem and listen to speech on a completely different subject.
In the experimental study of attention, and it is taken into account volume. This is the number of unrelated objects that can be perceived at the same time, clearly and distinctly. In the adult, the amount of visual attention is 3-5 (rarely 6) objects. Younger pupils 2-4 object. Volume auditory attention usually one less. Train results only stabilizes at the upper limit. However, the amount of attention also depends on exploring the material of interest.
Shifting attention different from the distractions that it is satisfied the person consciously. Therefore, you can not simple shift of attention to another object considered switching: it must be related to the formulation of a new target. Initially it was thought that the ability to switch attention is innate and is accessible to few people. Later it was shown that the special training can improve Switchability attention.
At high concentration, it is difficult to switch. This leads to scattering, which is of two types.
First, there is the inability to focus for any length — it is always "slides", the person is distracted all the time. One reason for the distraction may be all sorts of excess shallow interests.
Second, there is a distraction as one-sided focus of consciousness, when people do not notice that from his point of view, it is insignificant. Classic example — the distraction of the scientist absorbed with his work and ignores the various "little things in life."
Sustained attention — Is the length of focus of consciousness. What does it depend on? When the object of attention does not deliver new experiences, attention is diverted from it. Consequently, the attention can be held only by continually revealing the object of attention in the new content.
Georges Cuvier says that genius — is first and foremost consideration. He wrote that intelligence, poor knowledge, motionless and unoriginal, will hardly be able to focus for a long time on one subject. Therefore, we can say that no attention creates a genius and genius can maintain sustainable attention, find all the new aspects in the usual things.
Other factors sustainability focus are:
— interest in the material
— connection with the study material needs of the individual
— richness and complexity of the work performed
— comfortable or distracting environment in which the work takes place
— personality characteristics (eg, temperament and willpower).