U.S. — China: a new strategy of containment

U.S. - China: a new strategy of containment
To solve this puzzles are encouraged to use ground-based anti-ship missiles, deployed in the West Asia-Pacific

In one of the speeches on the formation of U.S. strategic doctrine in January 2012, President Obama said that South American interests in the economy and national security tightly intertwined with the processes of a different nature, which occur in the space between the western part of the Pacific, South Asia and Indian Ocean . He noted that the United States will give this part of the planet and attention as a result of the alleged change the strategy of using U.S. troops and their allies in the event of armed conflict in the region.
The need for such configurations in East Asia has been described in the scientific literature, in which the possibility of the United States to protect and defend their interests in this part of the world was called into oscillation. In a couple of years some spetsy justify that China by the deployment of weapons, barring access to certain areas (anti-access/area-denial, A2/AD), representing the true fundamental enthusiasm for the Yankees and their allies, changed the strategic balance in the region of the western Pacific in their favor. According to the views of other analysts, due to progress in the field of armaments regional powers can significantly threaten the dominance of the Yankees (including at the global level).

As a result, the South American army at the present time introduces various new concepts that will ensure a measured military-strategic balance in ordinary armed forces. One of them is «Air Sea of ​​Battle» (Air Sea Battle), uniting the efforts of the U.S. Navy and Air Force to protect U.S. bases in the region from the danger of rocket attacks, a change in the balance of offensive weapons, improve the stability of submarine operations, elimination of various types of vulnerabilities satellite systems, command, control, intelligence and surveillance, improving the interaction of different kinds and types of troops, improving abilities of conducting electrical intelligence and cyber operations. The main way of its implementation will be the integration of the Army, Navy, Air Force, of cosmic art units cyber warfare to deter and, if necessary, destruction of enemy troops intended using an improved weapons to shut out access and blocking a certain area (A2/AD).

Despite the fact that such land-based weapons play a significant role in the strategy A2/AD, their role in the concept of «Air Sea of ​​Battle» at the present time are not completely understood. Coupled with the fact they could significantly and with relatively small cost increment ability of U.S. forces in the region. One approach is to develop such weapons cheap for a significant increase in military costs in China and in this case, if deterrence fails and the system goes into open conflict stage, to reduce the harm that could cause China to Asian countries.

Efficiency of the implementation of RCC ATP
In connection with the above-mentioned changes in the strategies of the U.S. and China is the burning question on the use of anti-ship missiles (ASM) ground-based. If South American troops stationed in the region will be able to use their potential, they can be used across a broad range of combat missions: to protect the interests of the countries — the U.S. allies and partners in the region before the creation of a naval blockade of a potential aggressor in the event of warfare.
In the current time in the region located about 45 types of missiles facing the armies of China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Brunei. Tactical and technical characteristics of their more vserasprostranennyh and planned to the adoption of the grid.
Analysts of «RAND» (RAND) evaluated the effectiveness of the implementation of RCC, with an emphasis on their technical abilities and the impact of the U.S. strategy to block access PLA Navy in this case, if they choose to conduct active hostilities against U.S. allies and partners in the Asia-Pacific Region (APR ). The main approach of analysts was a provision under which the greatest deterrence PLA Navy in the territorial waters of the PRC (ie land-based RCC should be placed on the first ridge of the island, blocking access to the upcoming China in the Pacific) will have a decisive impact on the conduct of combat operations in the region. They recognized that the approach to contain the PLA Navy with the introduction of ground-based anti-ship missiles only is ineffective, and therefore analyzed the role that this type of weapons will be able to play in the all-encompassing strategy of containment.
By views of «RAND», introduction of ground-based anti-ship missiles significantly complicate the act of the army and the PLA Navy at the beginning of open conflict with the states — U.S. allies and partners. It is highly mobile weapons (except when it is applied permanently) and its relatively simple to use. As a consequence of the PLA Navy will have to use many more military resources for the detection and interception of ground-based anti-ship missiles. In addition, anti-ship missiles would greatly help if the U.S. and its allies decide to install a naval blockade of distant China.
Spices «RAND» was a full analysis of the role of the aforementioned type weapons in military strategy to contain China. It is believed that in the process of equipping the U.S. contingent, which may be located in countries — allies and partners in East Asia, ground-based anti-ship missiles will be spent relatively little material means. For their normal operation except U.S. troops will need role armies of those states on the ground that will accommodate these RCC. It will also be necessary to access the system in these countries, which will provide identification purposes, managing acquired missiles based disk imaging, functioning batteries RCC.
It is understood that the above-mentioned complexes based on American and local parts will protect all the passages which may have access to China. Besides land-based anti-ship missiles in case a naval blockade of China will use the interception and inspection of commercial vessels such as aircraft or helicopter coast guard vessels regional countries. In this case, if in the course of discussions of strategy choice will fall on the implementation of local and non-US PPH ground-based, they have to integrate into a single management system.

In an analysis of the probability of introduction of the blockade of China Spice was painstakingly investigated the possibility of ground-based RCC cover each of the passages through which the PLA Navy in the event of the outbreak of hostilities can break into the Pacific Ocean.
Malacca, Sunda and Lombok Straits
Relatively narrow Strait of Malacca is of strategic importance. We are located near Indonesia and Malaysia have significant land-based anti-ship missiles arsenals that can intercept targets in excellent over the entire length of the Strait 730 km. Although RCC battery can be destroyed, but guaranteed settlement of these weapons without the participation of the PLA ground forces will be very difficult because of the small size of launchers (PU) RCC. Ground-based anti-ship missiles, which owned most of a range, such as the C-802 ASM Indonesia (adapted version of the Chinese anti-ship missiles YF-2) are able to provide more effective resistance. C-802 ASM can hit a target at a distance of 120 km, making it the long-range ground-based anti-ship missiles, deployed in the region. PJ-10 anti-ship missiles «BrahMos», which is a joint Russian-Indian development, distance increment can defeat a potential enemy ships up to 1500 km.
Together with that closing the Strait of Malacca does not guarantee to maintain the measured naval blockade of China in the region. To ensure it is necessary to make such measures in the Sunda and Lombok Straits. Because their width is relatively small, not behold the experts at no problems in their protection of ground-based anti-ship missiles.
Japan, Taiwan and the Philippines
If Taiwan and the Philippines will be involved in the alleged conflict, ground-based anti-ship missiles, featured on their local area will also serve as a means of limiting the freedom of the act PLA Navy. For example, the rocket, located on the peninsula, Taiwan and owns 100 km radius of the act, along with missiles that can hit targets at a distance of 200 km, will provide monitoring of the traffic to the south of the island of Okinawa. Another option to protect this area is to base RCC 200-kilometer radius of the acts on the peninsula Ryuykyu. Place between Okinawa and Japan can be overridden with RCC 100-kilometer range, located in the Japanese countryside. Luzonsky Strait area of ​​the island of Borneo and the Philippines can protect RCC established on the peninsula, Taiwan and Malaysia area and / or the Philippines.
But, According to experts, this blatant case remains aqua place located between Australia and Indonesia. This problem can be solved by using the PJ-10 anti-ship missiles «BrahMos» in the terrestrial version posted on the areas of Indonesia and / or Australia.


Korea and Japan


PLA Navy can also be used for the transit of ships between South Korea and Japan, the Korean Strait. Its just a block using ground-based anti-ship missiles with a radius of 100-200 km acts, located on the territory of these 2-countries. According to experts, to merit a reasonable level of security of the Strait need simultaneous introduction of ground-based anti-ship missiles in service with these 2-countries.


Balanced version of RCC placement


Specialists believe that the ground-based anti-ship missiles positioned on all the above areas on a temporary basis will be comparable snap. In contrast, the deployment of such weapons in the same database will cause a negative reaction from China and presumably would have a negative impact on US-China talks of various kinds. For normal operation of ground-based anti-ship missiles as deterrents need to work closely with the states in whose area they are located, is also a factor, for which the United States, According to experts, you should not aggravate the case with China. So Makar, better option is to use the RCC training places from which they are to be run, and the placement of this type of weapon depots in the terrain of Asian countries or else preparation for the transfer of critical ground-based anti-ship missiles from the United States.
Several RCC can be installed not only in the ground, and in several other versions that will allow flexibility to increment their implementation. Coupled with the fact there is a question regarding the mobilization and the development of effective governance structures RCC panels arranged in a variety of criteria. According to experts, is a good scheme for mobilizing and transferring units SAM «Patriot», developed by the U.S. Army. Small part of the 1st Division of the complex has two launchers with 4 launchers on each container, eight machines supply, radar control center, additional equipment required for the normal functioning of the complex, the respective payment. All these components can be transferred to C-5 aircraft 5 or 7 as the C-17. When moving complex also really use speed boats.
Taking into account the high level of development of different market-based RCC (including land), spices believe that these structures similar units RCC can be designed for at least some types of these missiles without much effort.
Assessing the impact of the situation on the international strategy of using ground-based anti-ship missiles to deter the PLA Navy, analysts note that not all Asia-Pacific countries are fully States — allies and / or partners of the United States. More striking example — Indonesia, which, despite the provision of U.S. military aid, secures deal with China. Maybe, like the need to assure the country to have its own local ground-based anti-ship missiles will be a big problem of American foreign policy in the region.
Cooperation within the framework of the creation of a common defense ground-based anti-ship missiles can significantly make a better cooperation between the U.S. and Asia-Pacific countries in the field of national security. Together with those burning questions, whether these countries will be able to use the excellent ground-based anti-ship missiles for the PLA Navy blockade. Specialists believe that because the U.S. Army does not have enough experience and logistical base for their very efficient use of cooperation with Asian countries in this direction can be much more difficult.
Now the Air Force and the U.S. Navy’s own funds, which can produce deterrence aspirations PLA Navy without using ground troops. But mostly they are expensive and their location can be difficult efforts in China. Ground-based anti-ship missiles, which starts from a relatively small in size installations located in inaccessible areas, can significantly make a better South American containment system without introducing expensive equipment. The introduction of these missiles can facilitate tasks by patrolling U.S. Air Force and Navy. Total occupancy launchers terrain countries — allies and / or partners of the U.S. complicate the work of Chinese management and control systems and intelligence agencies. Application of ground-based anti-ship missiles as part of the strategy of «Air Sea of ​​Battle» would significantly increment South American ability to shut out China’s strategy of confrontation access to certain areas (A2/AD). Also, it will facilitate cooperation with Asia-Pacific countries in the framework of the placement and the potential introduction of weapons, according to the company, «RAND».
Awesome report
Thought the potential introduction of ground-based anti-ship missiles the U.S. and its allies and partners in the Asia-Pacific region as a significant deterrent to particularly topical in the light of the growth potential of a PLA Navy.
Naval nuclear deterrent China for the first time in the history of the country are making the initial level of readiness. Report this information was published by the U.S. Congress subcommittee dealing with China.

According to the rough draft of the report, cooked US-China Commission for Economic and Security (US-China Economic and Security Review Commission), Chinese solid fuel ballistic missile for launch from submarines (SLBM) JL-2 can achieve the level of combat readiness of the original at the end of 2013. Range of SLBMs presumably be 4,000 nautical miles (7408 km). The complex nuclear submarine ballistic missile (SSBN) 094 (code «Jin» — Jin) missile JL-2 would be a danger area specifically for the United States. Currently, the PLA Navy own 3-SSBN this type planned accommodation has 2-boats in 2020.

The report contains information according to which China is developing two new projects of nuclear submarines (NPS) — a nuclear submarine with missile torpedo (CARDS) Project 095 and Project 096 SSBN. Expected SSBN 096 project implementation significantly increment range, mobility, stealth and efficiency of the Chinese nuclear deterrent.

Buildings belonging to the South American armed forces on the peninsula Guam recently will be under threat from the Chinese land-based missiles, experts say.

Despite the fact that in the current time, China can not use cruise missiles, land-based, PLA Navy, said experts at developing the capacity to attack ground targets with the help of sea-based cruise missiles. Special role in this context will be playing dress-095 project and guided missile destroyer with a weapon (URO) project 052D (code «Luang-3» — Luyang III). This will facilitate the Chinese side attack targets located in the western Pacific, including Guam and the peninsula.
As indicated in the above-mentioned report, the PLA Air Force bombers have acquired 15 new H-6K (an improved version of the machine H-6). Aircraft H-6K can carry on board cruise missiles to destroy ground targets and have increased range compared with the previous one. Airborne cruise missiles allow the PLA Air Force strike virtually all objects in the western Pacific Ocean.
The report contains information that the PRC’s current developing an improved version of a ballistic anti-ship missiles DF-21 — DF-21D. Its estimated range will be 810 nautical miles (1500 km). As a result it fails to hit targets on the peninsula Guam, remote areas of China from 1600 nautical miles (3000 km).

Other innovations in the midst of the PLA Navy analysts pay more attention to the construction of China’s first aircraft carrier «Liaoning», which is made from the deck off and landing fighter J-15 «Flying Shark» (Flying Shark). In June 2013 during the exercise was certified first group of pilots and officers of carrier-based aircraft control for takeoff and landing of aircraft carriers, and in September the 2013th check made takeoff and landing aircraft on the ship deck. The implication is that the training of the crew will continue until both arms of the PLA Navy in 2015-2016 will come first Regiment, kitted fighter J-15.

The report also contains information on other new ships PLA Navy. In 2012, China introduced two new classes of surface ships: destroyer ORP «Luang-3» and the frigate «Tszyandao» (Project 056). Resumed construction destroyers ORP «Luang-2.» Last batch production guided-missile frigates «Tszyankay-2» (Project 054A). Analysts believe that most of these ships will be commissioned by 2015. In their opinion, by this time, China will become the second power in the world by number Launched large ships, and by 2020, despite the increase in production of the South American fleet — the largest builder of naval vessels in the world and will be a year to create the largest number of submarines and surface ships.
Position professionals expressed in this report follow: in the next 5-10 years, making China’s military will significantly change the strategic balance in Asia. Together with the strengthening of US-China relations China increases its ability to strike at U.S. bases and ships and their allies in the Asia-Pacific region.



Dmitry Fedyushka
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