Biochemical analysis of blood — the method of laboratory diagnosis, which allows us to estimate the internal organs (liver, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, etc.) to obtain information on the metabolism (the exchange of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates), find out the need for micronutrients.
What are the indications for blood chemistry?
Biochemical analysis of blood is important for diagnosis of diseases of almost all, so it is administered first.
What is included in the standard blood chemistry?
1) Glucose (blood) — basic test in the diagnosis of diabetes. This analysis is very important in the selection of therapy and evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of diabetes. Lowering glucose levels observed in some endocrine diseases and disorders of the liver.
Normal levels of glucose in the blood:
Glucose, mmol / l
3.33 — 5.55
14 — 60 years
3.89 — 5.83
60 — 70 years
4.44 — 6.38
4.61 — 6.10
2) The total bilirubin — yellow pigment of blood, kotoryyobrazuetsya by the breakdown of hemoglobin, myoglobin and cytochromes. The main reasons for increasing the amount of bilirubin in the blood: the defeat of the cells of the liver (hepatitis, cirrhosis), enhanced dissolution of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), impaired bile flow (eg, cholelithiasis).
Normal values of total bilirubin: 3.4 — 17.1 pmol / l.
3) Bilirubin (Conjugated bilirubin related) — fraction of total bilirubin levels. Increased direct bilirubin with jaundice, which developed due to violation of the outflow of bile from the liver.
Normal values of direct bilirubin: 0 — 7.9 mmol / l.
4) Unconjugated bilirubin (Unconjugated bilirubin, free) — the difference between the rates of total and direct bilirubin. This rate increases in the amplification of the collapse of red blood cells — in hemolytic anemia, malaria, massive hemorrhages in the tissue, etc.
Normal values of indirect bilirubin <19 mmol / l.
5) AST (AST, aspartate aminotransferase) — one of the key enzymes synthesized in the liver. Normally, the content of this enzyme in serum is low, since much of it is in the hepatocytes (liver cells). Increase is observed in diseases of the liver and heart, as well as chronic administration of aspirin and oral contraceptives.
The normal values of AST:
- Women — to 31 U / L;
- Men — up to 37 U / l.
6) ALT levels (ALT, alanine aminotransferase) — enzyme synthesized by the liver. Most of it is running, and in the liver, so normal ALT concentration in the blood is low. Increased mass loss observed in liver cells (e.g., hepatitis, cirrhosis), severe heart failure and diseases of the blood.
The normal values of ALT:
- Women — to 34 U / L;
- male — 45 U / l.
7) Gamma-GT (Gamma-glutamyl) — enzyme contained mainly in the liver and pancreas. Increase its amount in the blood observed in diseases of these organs, as well as chronic administration of alcohol.
The normal value of gamma-GT:
Men <55 IU / l
Women <38 U / L
Alkaline Phosphatase — An enzyme that is widely distributed in human tissues. Most clinical significance liver and bone shape alkaline phosphatase activity which is determined in serum.
The normal values of alkaline phosphatase: 30-120 U / l.
9) Cholesterol (total cholesterol) — The main blood lipid, which enters into the body with food, and is synthesized by the liver cells.
Normal levels of cholesterol: 3,2-5,6 mmol / l.
10) Low density lipoproteins (LDL) — One of the most atherogenic, "harmful" lipid fractions. LDL cholesterol and very rich, transporting it to the cells of blood vessels, trapped in them, forming plaques.
Normal levels of LDL: 1,71-3,5 mmol / l.
11) Triglycerides — neutral fats found in blood plasma, an important indicator of lipid metabolism.
Normal levels of triglycerides: 0,41-1,8 mmol / l.
12) Total protein — an indicator of the total amount of protein in the blood. Its decline is observed for some liver and kidney associated with an increased excretion of protein in the urine. Increase — with blood diseases and infectious and inflammatory processes.
Normal values of total protein: 66-83 g / l.
13) Albumin — important blood protein, constituting about half of all whey proteins. Reduction of albumin may also be a manifestation of certain diseases of kidneys, liver, intestines. Increased albumin is usually associated with dehydration.
The normal values of albumin: 35-52 g / l
14) Potassium (K +) — an electrolyte contained primarily intracellularly. Increase the level of potassium in the blood is most often seen in acute and chronic kidney failure, a sharp decrease in urine output or total lack thereof, often associated with severe kidney disease.
The normal values of potassium 3.5-5.5 mmol / l.
15) Sodium (Na +) — electrolyte is contained mainly in the extracellular fluid, and to a lesser extent — within cells. It is responsible for the functioning of the nervous and muscular tissue, digestive enzymes, blood pressure, water metabolism.
16) Chlorine (Cl-) — One of the main electrolytes in blood which is ionized and plays an important role in maintaining the aqueous electrolyte and acid-base balance in the body.
Normal values of chlorine: 98-107 mg / dL.
17) Creatinine — a substance that plays an important role in the energy metabolism of muscle and other tissues. Creatinine is completely eliminated by the kidneys, therefore, the determination of its concentration in the blood has the greatest clinical relevance for the diagnosis of kidney disease.
The normal creatinine values:
Men — 62 — 115 pmol / L;
Women — 53 — 97 mmol / l.
18) Urea — substance which is the end product of protein metabolism in the body. Urea is excreted by the kidneys, so the determination of its concentration in the blood gives an indication of the functional capacity of the kidneys and the most widely used in the diagnosis of renal disease.
Normal values of urea: 2,8-7,2 mmol / l
19) Uric acid -one of the end products of protein metabolism in the body. Uric acid is completely eliminated by the kidneys. PAccelerating Uric acid is found in kidney stones and other kidney diseases occurring with renal insufficiency.
Normal values of uric acid:
Men — 210 — 420 mmol / l;
women — 150 — 350 pmol / l.
20) C-reactive protein (CRP) — sensor blood fastest reacting to tissue damage. Having reactive protein in serum — a sign of inflammation, injury, foreign body penetration into the microorganisms — bacteria, parasites, fungi. The more acute inflammatory disease activity, the higher the C-reactive protein in the blood serum.
Normal values of C-reactive protein: 0 — 5 mg / l.
21) Iron (serum iron)— A vital trace mineral that is part of hemoglobin, is involved in the transport and deposition of oxygen and plays an important role in hematopoiesis.
The normal values of serum iron:
- Women — 8.95 — 30.43 mmol / L;
- men — 11.64 — 30.43 pmol / l.
How to prepare for the study?
One day prior to the taking of blood biochemistry to exclude alcohol intake, for 1 hour — smoking. Blood collection is desirable to produce an empty stomach in the morning. Between the last meal and taking a blood sample should be at least 12 hours. Juice, tea, coffee, chewing gum is not allowed. You can drink the water. Necessary to eliminate the increased psycho-emotional and physical stress.
What are the dates of performance analysis?
How to evaluate the results of the biochemical analysis of blood?
The use of different diagnostic methods in different clinics leads to different results may also be different units of measurement. Therefore, to properly decrypt the result of biochemical analysis of blood physician should be consulted.