Everyone knows that if bitten by a stray dog, they do forty shots in the stomach. Actually that knowledge about rabies in the vast majority of the population to an end. So what is this disease and what it is like to face it treated?
What is it?
Rabies— Is disease viral nature that occurs after the bite of an infected animal, characterized by severe damage to the nervous system and the ending is usually fatal. Rabies virus (Neuroryctes rabid) refers to a group of myxoviruses kind Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. Detected in the saliva and in tears and urine.
Virus is unstable in the environment — killed by heating to 560With 15 minutes at the boil for 2 minutes. Sensitive to UV and direct sunlight, to ethanol and to many disinfectants. However, resistance to low temperatures, to phenol antibiotics.
After penetrating into the body rabies virus spreads along nerve endings, affecting almost the entire nervous system. Observed edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and degenerative changes in the nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord.
Sources of infection
The source of the rabies virus are both wild and domestic animals. To include wild wolves, foxes, jackals, raccoons, badgers, skunks, bats, rodents, and to home — dogs, cats, horses, pigs, sheep and cattle. However, the greatest danger to humans of foxes and stray dogs in the country in
Considered contagious for animals
In recent years, described
What if this happens?
The incubation period (time from bite to onset) is on average
The first stage begins with a general malaise, headache, slight increase in body temperature, muscle pain, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sore throat, dry cough, may be nausea and vomiting. In the site of the bite an unpleasant sensation — a burning sensation, redness, dragging pain, itching, increased sensitivity. The patient depressed, closed, refuses to eat, he has the inexplicable fear, anguish, anxiety, depression, rarely — increased irritability. Characterized as insomnia, nightmares, olfactory and visual hallucinations.
Then comes the third stage of the disease, which is typical for the beginning of solace — disappear fear, rabies attacks, there is hope for recovery. Thereafter, the body temperature rises above
How to treat?
Treatments such as rabies is not present. If the disease in the first step, another outcome than lethal, probably would not. Although in the world are single cases of cure for rabies. But as long as it is exotic. However, there is a way to prevent the disease by killing it in the bud. This particular method of prevention — the vaccine against rabies, not later
The vaccine is administered intramuscularly in 1 ml of 5 times: the day of infection, and then at 3, 7, 14 and
What to do if you are bitten by an animal?
The first thing you need to do is to immediately wash the bite with soap. Wash have intensively for 10 minutes. Deep wounds recommended flush the soapy water, for example using a syringe or catheter. No need to cauterize the wound or suture. Then you need to immediately contact the nearest fracture clinic, because the success of rabies vaccination is highly dependent on how quickly you sought help from a doctor. It is advisable to inform the doctor in the emergency room the following information — a description of the animal, its appearance and behavior, the presence of a collar, the circumstances of the bite. This is followed by a course of vaccinations prescribed by a doctor. Forty shots in the stomach for a long time no one does, you will introduce the vaccine and go home. And so five or six times.
If the owner of the dog or cat can not provide proof of vaccination, there are two ways of determining whether the pain animal rabies. In the first case the animal is killed, a tissue sample to obtain its brain. In the second case, the animal is placed in quarantine for a veterinary clinic for 10 days. If during this time the symptoms of rabies in animals do not appear, it is considered healthy.
In a hospital may leave the bitten when the state is particularly difficult, as well as persons with diseases of the nervous system or allergic diseases of people re-grafting, graft other vaccines in the past two months pregnant. At the time of vaccination and at 6 months after it is necessary to abstain from drinking alcoholic beverages. Also, if you are undergoing rabies vaccination, you can not overwork, supercool, or, conversely, to overheat. During the vaccination should be carefully monitored for health. And for all the complaints on the deterioration of the need to see a doctor, and to suspend the vaccination. Only after inspection neurologist and therapist decided whether to continue vaccinations.
There are two Russian rabies vaccine — "culture rabies vaccine" (CAV) (concentration of 0.5 IU / ml) and "concentrated culture rabies vaccine"(COCA) (concentration of 2.5 IU / ml). At CAV vaccine has another name —
In the Russian market still represented the French Verorab vaccine (manufactured by Aventis Pasteur), which contains an inactivated virus (strain Wistar, Rabies PM / Wi
There is a French vaccine, called Imogen rage. This immunoglobulin, which is entered only once, at the same time with the vaccine and is indicated for persons with suspected infection with rabies, especially in the case of significant damage (in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO — Single or multiple transdermal bites or scratches with a violation of the integrity of the skin).
The side effects of the vaccines at approximately the same and include local reactions such as pain, swelling and induration, swelling of the lymph nodes, malaise, weakness, headache, disturbance of sleep and appetite, fever, and sometimes it happens allergic to components of the vaccine.