A test pilot on the eve of the MAKS-2013 told about why the Yak-130 does not need armor and can be smarter airplane pilot.
- Yak-130 does not need armor
MAKS air show, which opened today in Zhukovsky near Moscow, is not only a place to display the newest aircraft, but also the meeting place of the most famous pilots from around the world. Russian aces are recognized masters of aerobatics, they have something to show the public and to share with the young, novice "flyers".
On the eve of the group's flagship air show test pilots OKB Yakovlev, Russian Roman hero Taskaev said in an interview with RIA Novosti on why the Yak-130 does not need armor, can be smarter airplane pilot, and why Russia needs a new aerobatic team.
— Roman, you experience the Yak-130 for 15 years, but before entering the Yakovlev Design Bureau for the first time raised to the sky its main rival — the MiG-AT. How it all began?
— In 1992, a competition for the creation of training aircraft, and in 1996 selected the Yak-130 and MiG-AT has been built almost at the same time. Funding for these programs are not carried out, and both aircraft were like a thistle in the field. The government at that time is rapidly falling apart, along with the aviation industry, and the aircraft was neglected until 2002. At that time, the MiG-AT was supported by France, and the Yak-130 is being followed with the Italians.
From the Yakovlev design bureau in 1998, received an offer to do the Yak-130 tests, and there is such a situation that I was forced to accept it. In 2002 was held the final stage of the competition. To our delight, the Air Force chose the Yak-130.
— Improvements aircraft are still going?
— In order to improve his fighting qualities, decided to modernize the aircraft and the installation of additional equipment such as a laser range finder, which will allow more precise strikes against ground targets. Also, there is a development component base and software. We are getting better and aerodynamics — just trying to correct the shortcomings that have emerged in the course of testing and trial operation. In particular, the installation on the aircraft provides additional fuel tanks increase the range and duration of the flight, which so far is three hours.
— Is it possible to equip it even more?
— More weapons to take all of us could not get out without increasing the size of the aircraft. Reservations negatively affect the speed and maneuverability. Although there is such a demand for a light attack aircraft, which flies above the battlefield, but from serious and missiles armor save.
Additional quality Yak-130 is due to their "intelligence." Our task — to resist guidance systems, so that it was not shot down by the enemy. To do this, there are different systems: infrared "traps" noise radar guidance systems, chaff, which disrupted guidance. There are active agents of interference that has worked and could be used on the basis of the latest digital technologies — active suppression of funds targeting.
Also, work on how to improve the thrust plane. There is a study to increase engine thrust. And if you set the afterburner, then we would all become like the MiG-29. But there is an important caveat — any innovation must be certified and verified during flight tests.
— At Le Bourget this year, much has been said about what the Yak-130 has a lot of potential. What did it good for?
— In my opinion, this aircraft has to be long-lived and part of the training and combat use. His life 30 years, 10,000 flight hours. The shape of the aircraft is implemented on the basis of the latest achievements of fundamental science. This aerodynamics — the integrated circuit. But the main component of his intelligence — computers. I want to say a special word about the people involved in developing software that is installed in the control plane. Under the leadership of Paul Moskalyova there is a group that was born in the Sukhoi Design Bureau and deals with these algorithms. They helped us get the handling characteristics, which we will demonstrate to the max. These algorithms can be further developed, and we are just doing that — for the development of large angles of attack are now closer to the plane of the fifth generation.
A small plane is always much more difficult to do, because to him the requirements are the same as the big, only to push it all the desired equipment is almost impossible, because the place is something a little! To all the "rassovat" — a great art need. We have to rely on the implementation of ideas through engineering intelligence.
— Is such a "smart" aircraft humbled young inexperienced pilots who will be in it to learn?
— Even the pre-flight, when a person is sitting in the pilot's seat, is in the foreground with the aircraft. Before you sit and read a prayer — nothing if not forgotten. And now the plane itself reminds you of everything. For students, I think it's very important.
We are proud of the creation of the security system that will prevent erroneous actions of the pilot. The algorithms control the threat of a collision with the surface of the pilot switched off the aircraft control and display it in a horizontal flight. This algorithm is already embedded in the plane, but we have not yet completed its tests.
— It turns out that today, the Yak-130 — is, in fact, the only modern training aircraft for the Air Force?
— There is talk that the selection of candidates for initial training of pilots and need a small light aircraft, smaller and cheaper than the Yak-130. OKB proposed Yak-152. Now, together with the customer (Russian Air Force) we are working on the technical requirements for this aircraft. It may be decided that we will build it for the selection and initial training of pilots. It will be a piston, but it will save money on production and operation. Dimensions he would like the Yak-52, but it will take into account new technologies and the requirement that the succession was to go to the Yak-130.
— Hard to be modified Yak-130 for the flight team?
— It will have improved aerodynamics. Some constructive things in it have been made. Second — increase range. We had not provided for two additional fuel tanks and four. Since aerobatic plane, a system dymogenerirovaniya — will be colored smoke. Specifically on the machine that acts, we test the system are not held, and at the MAKS Yak-130 "smoke" will not. But we expect that over the next year and a half such trials were conducted. The implementation of smoke will make a spectacular aerobatics.
At the request of Air Force pilots on it installed radio equipment, which allows you to fly both in Russia and abroad, and came in to land at foreign airports. Additionally, a second radio station, since it is necessary to conduct the radio in the group. Lights will be installed system, which enables to perform a flight at night.
Since these planes are not supposed to be used in battle, it is likely to combat use of algorithms will be removed and replaced will be implemented algorithms that allow the pilot to more accurately and efficiently solve navigation tasks.
It is assumed that the aerobatic team should have 10-12 samolttov.
— What will be the highlight of aerobatic team on small training and combat aircraft? After all, the audience is spoiled "Swifts", "Hero", "Russian Falcons" /
— The characteristics of our aircraft like the MiG. The highlight is that, probably, at Jacob still life a little more, and they will be able to work much longer than the Su-27 and MiG-29. On those planes, unfortunately, ends life.
Of course, the Yak-130 is much cheaper to operate, even kerosene he spends half compared with the MiG-29. And the cost of incommensurable. Although the entertainment of flying high can be achieved. Chill piloting good guys can fly no worse than big fighters, and then everything will depend already on their imagination — they will come up and offer the viewer.
— Which countries are interested Jac?
— The interest of the country show that traditionally interact with Russia on arms deliveries. This is Venezuela, Nicaragua, Bangladesh, India. Interested in Belarus, Ukraine — at the current MAKS we supposed to show the aircraft Ukrainian side. We have flown with the countries of Central Asia. In principle, the Irkutsk Aviation Plant is possible to ensure the supply of interested parties. We expect that there will be contracted to supply.
In 2011, we have trained Algerian pilots and 16 aircraft Yak-130 went to Algeria. There is, of course, is not without problems, but in general they are very successfully master these machines.
Virtually all foreign customers interested in the functions of combat employment, and educational properties of the aircraft they are interested less. It is in our Air Force so far to combat capabilities, the Yak-130 are cool, seeing it solely as a training aircraft. Perhaps this is justified because the one training aircraft fleet, which now is, has exhausted itself, and to teach is now virtually on anything. L-39, which exist in the ranks, out of date, and there is no spare parts.
— You have experienced more than a dozen new MiG, flew almost all "Mikoyan" machines. In an interview you once said that all aircraft flying the same …
— And yet they are all different. For example, the Yak-130 and MiG-AT — one with a straight wing, the second — with swept. That's different characteristics. In the case of Su and MiG difference begins with setting goals. If you take the MiG-29 and Su-27, the requirements for them were completely different. For Mikoyan firm has been tasked to make a plane that could be on the front edge and engage immediately without restrictions. A dry — do interceptor that could be a long patrol, fly away, carry a greater load. Although modern aerodynamics leads to approximately a similar external appearance.
Another object of the MiG — airplanes for high supersonic speeds — the MiG-25 and MiG-31. There's a serious technological solutions have been that allow aircraft to use large number of M (Mach number — the speed of sound — Ed.). This particular design requirement. Now I hate to see that in this direction, we begin to lose the experience. I'm afraid that technology, used in the years may be lost.
— What future for our air?
— The road to the future is through the development of what we have not yet passed. Americans, unfortunately, have long made the F-22 and has already stopped its production, because it is very expensive aircraft. But the experience they have acquired, and we do not. And we need to master the technology of invisibility, super maneuverability. T-50 is needed for the experience, but it's an expensive plane, and a lot of them do not.
Military aircraft are now moving toward unmanned vehicles. But, unfortunately, the UAV is limited algorithms laid down in it, and there are illogical situations in which the right decision can only accept people. I think people will stay in the air. But in the use of hyper, capability to intercept fast-moving targets should be a major breakthrough. Next — the improvement of guidance systems, the development of new types of aircraft armament, improving the accuracy of its application, detection capability, range flights.
— What feels a test pilot during overload?
— A certain heaviness feels. Need to strain, as blood pours from his head. G-suit put on, the group helps, have physical techniques. There are special ways of breathing.
Without G-suit, which compresses the abdomen and legs, can tolerate an overload of up to 5 units (g). Because otherwise comes oxygen starvation of the brain — the blood does not flow, and at first sight is lost (in the eyes of the dark), and then the person loses consciousness. Such things have happened, I do too. At the trials we endured a lot of things. And in times of cadet happened — outweighed the control knob — and time faded. The most dangerous thing in these moments the plane remains uncontrolled. It should be as soon as possible neatly reset overload and regain control.
— On one of the planes you have achieved the world record for altitude?
— Yes, the MiG-29. The absolute record Alexander Fedotov found on the MiG-25 — more than 36 miles away, and now these planes, and no one to heights not fly. It's easy to explore the airplane, its possibilities are very exciting. I then scored 27.5 kilometers.
— You ejected twice and fault planes were planted. It was terrible?
— When doing something, we have to work, and there is no time to be afraid. During one of the flights on the MiG-AT, the aircraft broke off a wheel height control was nothing. I came out of the spin, fuel developed, centering leveled off, then at least he came down with an overload. And all the time overload was three units, I'm 20 minutes sitting with her and did not know what to do. Can not fly, but also reluctant to jump. Sel …
There were emergency landing — the MiG-31, for example. The engine bearing support collapsed in the air. Various defects happen. This is just a new engine was being tested. Flight director recommended the jump, but we got the last bucket of kerosene. Fuel is left, because there was a broken pump, and fuel is passed under the bridge. They sat down, and kerosene leak stopped on the runway.
— How does your family think about your profession, lifestyle?
— When I served in the regiment, like everything was fine — the baby was born, lived quietly. And when here came in Zhukovsky, was just such a time when the disaster happened a few row. Wife anxious and discouraged work. But then I got used. Stopped asking why I did not call. I explained that it is in any case the first to know — if that.
So, essentially, it was: when we Fedotov in 1983 catapulted, it is still just climbed down from the trees, and it has a girlfriend went to report. Them well on the road caught my friend, Sergei Tresvyatskaya, and said: "Go, girl, for a moment, I'll tell you everything." They entered the apartment, and he had locked them in the key and left. Released only when we have brought the living and healthy.
I have two daughters. Grandson and granddaughter. There is hope for his grandson, he this fall in the second class will go. Maybe it will entice aviation, but do not know yet.