Atherothrombosis — must act

Atherothrombosis

Most people are aware of the consequences of heart attack and stroke. Many people know that this peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities. But very few people are aware that among these diseases have a lot in common: they are based on atherothrombosis.

What is atherothrombosis?

Atherothrombosis — a progressive disease that starts withatherosclerosis. In atherosclerosis deposits form of fat, connective tissue and minerals that cause increasing thickening of the walls of the arteries. The most catastrophic consequences resulting rupture of atherosclerotic plaques, which is accompanied by activation Platelet and the formation of a blood clot (thrombus). If a blood clot blocks a vessel of the heart, can develop a heart attack. If it affects the blood vessels of the brain develops insult. Violation of blood flow in the vessels of the legs accompanied by pain, and in the most severe cases, causes blood vessels to carry out the operation or leg amputation. In all these cases we are talking aboutAtherothrombosis.

The problem is that if a person develops atherothrombosis, it affects more than one organ. For example, peripheral arterial disease, most patients are asymptomatic, but at the same time is 6 times increased risk of death from heart attack or stroke. In patients who have had a heart attack increases risk stroke, and recurrent myocardial infarction. After a stroke, also noted an increased risk of heart attack and stroke recurrence.

Who is developing atherothrombosis?

Atherothrombosis is the cause of more than 28% of deaths in the world. Its frequency is increasing, in favor of which shows a sharp increase in the incidence of heart attack and stroke. Signs of atherothrombotic events can be detected even in their teens. The rate of progression and heredity depends on the availability of a number of risk factors. The presence of multiple risk factors even more increases the risk of atherothrombosis. For example, if the patient of hypertension, diabetes and vascular lesions of the lower limbs at risk of stroke increases tenfold.

Risk reduction

Fortunately, the control of risk factors gives a real result. Besides lifestyle changes can be used drugs that reduce cholesterol, blood pressure, platelet aggregation and the warning with each other. Found that antiplatelet drugs reduce the likelihood of thrombosis. Scientific studies have shown that aggressive control of risk factors in people belonging to high-risk patients, to reduce the likelihood of cardiovascular complications in the next 5 years by 50%.

Hearty attack

Heart attack develops when atherothrombosis causes partial or complete vessel occlusion of the heart, which leads to disruption of the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle. A heart attack can cause sudden death or complicated by heart failure or arrhythmias. Furthermore, it increases the risk of stroke, and recurrent myocardial infarction.

The main symptoms of a heart attack:

  • Chest pain that lasts for a few minutes or goes out, then resumes.
  • Sometimes the pain gives in one or both arms, back, neck, jaw or stomach.
  • Chest pain is often accompanied by a feeling of lack of air.
  • In addition, there may be a cold sweat, nausea or dizziness.

Insult

Atherothrombosis cerebral leads to ischemicstroke. The cause of ischemic stroke may be thromboembolism — In this case vessel blocks thrombus which separates from the plaque in any part of the body and transferred to the brain from the blood. If the blockage lasts vessel least 24 hours and not accompanied by persistent symptoms or brain damage is diagnosed transient ischemic attack, which is a precursor of stroke. Another option is a cerebrovascular accident hemorrhagic stroke, which develops as a result of vessel rupture and bleeding in the brain.

Recent studies have shown that 25% of patients with stroke in the next 10 years die of recurrent stroke, and 33% — fromcardiovascular disease.

The main symptoms of a stroke:

  • The sudden appearance of numbness, weakness in the muscles of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body
  • Sudden disturbance of consciousness or speech
  • Sudden blurred vision in one or both eyes
  • The sudden appearance of gait, balance or coordination, dizziness

Peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremities

Violation of the blood flow in narrowed arteries of the legs can lead to different consequences. Approximately one third of patients with walking a certain distance there is pain or discomfort in the buttocks, thighs or legs, which then pass through. Such pain is called intermittent claudication. Some patients complain that their feet were cold. In two thirds of patients with peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremities there are no symptoms, which makes this threat particularly dangerous. In fact, 75% of patients with peripheral vascular disease of the lower limbs die fromcardiovascular disease or stroke.

Diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremities

Peripheral arterial disease of the lower extremities is often asymptomatic, which makes the search for other ways of his diagnosis. If you focus only on the classic symptom (intermittent claudication), the diagnosis is established only in10-15% Patients. A simple measure that allows to diagnose narrowing of the peripheral arteries of the lower extremities, is the index of the relationship of blood pressure in the leg and arm. This method is simple, inexpensive, and not burdensome for the patient. The research can be carried out for about 10 minutes in a doctor's office. In elderly people and patients with diabetes use more elaborate studies such as Doppler method, angiography or Magnetic resonance tomography.

According to Sanofi-Aventis Russia

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