Tests and examinations during pregnancy

What tests and inspections needed to pregnant women?

Diagnosis of pregnancy

The first and most basic sign of pregnancy — is a missed period. If you delay menstruation is recommended to test for pregnancy. This test is a strip of paper that should be dipped for a few seconds in the morning urine (it bolee high concentration of "pregnancy hormone"). According to the number of strips that have appeared over time, a woman can learn — she is pregnant or not. Two strips mean that the pregnancy is, one of the bars — no pregnancy. If the test shows the absence of pregnancy and menstruation less, then it makes sense to give blood from a vein in the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The content of this hormone in the blood rises sharply against pregnancy and, therefore, considered to be one of the most reliable methods for early diagnosis of pregnancy. You can donate blood at any medical diagnostic center.

In addition, as a rule, is carried ultrasound (U.S.) of the uterine cavity. His goal — to determine the presence and duration of pregnancy, and to exclude the diagnosis of "ectopic pregnancy".

First trimester (0 to 12 weeks)

After determination of pregnancy, a woman should be registered at the antenatal clinic in the community. However, observed during this period can also be a paid medical centers specializing in the management of pregnancy.

During the registration gynecologist issues list of analyzes, to be let. Typically, they are: blood for AIDS, syphilis, hepatitis, blood group andRh factor, general and biochemical analysis of blood, blood sugar, urinalysis, a swab from the vagina. According to the testimony shall be tested for reproductive tract infections and analysis on hormones. At the risk of rhesus (If a woman has a negative Rh factor, and the husband positive) woman's blood several times during pregnancy investigated for the presence of antibodies to red blood cells of the fetus and is determined by their number. To32 minutes week of gestation the analysis is carried out once a month, with32 minutes to35th— Twice a month, and then weekly until delivery.

In addition, pregnant need to pass the following professionals: physician, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, dentist, and do an electrocardiogram (ECG).

Visit the gynecologist pregnant woman should be once a month. Each attending physician must pass urinalysis, the results of which will be evaluated by a gynecologist the kidneys pregnant. During each visit will be conducted weighing, measuring blood pressure in both arms, the measurement of the height of the uterine fundus, listening to the heartbeat of the fetus.

The second trimester (13 to 24 weeks)

For the period 12-14 weeks woman sent for an ultrasound. On this term with the help of ultrasound, you can:

  • determine the period of pregnancy;
  • determine the number of fetuses;
  • identify possible malformations of the nervous system, organs of the abdominal cavity or extremities;

For the period 16-18weeks expectant mother can pass the so-called "triple test" intended to explore the "genetic health" of the child. In the blood levels were determined AFP (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated estriol (NE). By the deviation level of these substances from the norm can be suspected some chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus (eg, Down syndrome). Some people recommend to take this analysis twice, with an interval of1-2 Between weeks 15th and20th weeks of pregnancy. This study is considered to be unnecessary, therefore, as a rule, pay.

Do not panic if the results of the "triple test" show the deviation from the norm. According to the literature, the test may give misleading results in about 9.3% of cases. To refine the result of a woman sent to additional tests — amniocentesis. Amniocentesis — the study of amniotic fluid, which is used to confirm the presence or absence of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus. Research is conducted under ultrasound guidance. Before this survey doctor should warn you that in a small percentage (about 1%), amniocentesis can cause a miscarriage.

In the second half of pregnancy a woman should visit the gynecologist often: 1 every 2 weeks (in the normal course of pregnancy).

The third trimester (24 weeks before delivery)

For the period 24-26 weeks Pregnancy is appointed next scheduled ultrasound. During this examination, the doctor examines the body structure kid looks — whether congenital malformations of the internal systems of the body determines the sex of the child, the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid, placental location and status.

At the same term shall complete blood count, which indicates the level of hemoglobin in the blood and, therefore, the presence or absence of anemia.

After 30 weekswoman begins to visit the gynecologist every two weeks. Then the doctor gives the pregnant card exchange, which fit the results of all tests and examinations. From now on, with this card it should go anywhere as birth can happen at any time, and without the exchange maps doctors can take the laboring women only to a specialized hospital, where women come of no fixed abode, without analysis, nonresident without a residence permit, etc. .

After 32 weeks gynecologist draws maternity leave if the woman works.

In 33-34 weeks held Doppler — research, allowing to evaluate blood flow in the vessels of the uterus, placenta and major vessels of the child. Modern ultrasound technology let you accurately find the vessel under study, to evaluate the nature and conduct of Doppler blood flow — a quantitative assessment of blood flow in the area of interest. The study allows to know if there is enough oxygen and nutrients to the baby receives. If the blood flow is reduced, the gynecologist may prescribe cardiotocography (CTG).

With CTG determined tone of the uterus and the presence of its contractile activity, motor activity of the child. On physical activity assessed the possible intrauterine fetal hypoxia. To carry out the pregnant CTG laid on the couch on her stomach with a fixed belt sensors. Within 30 — 40 minutes readings printed on paper tape, or recorded on the monitor screen.

At 35-36 weeks shall re-analysis of blood for AIDS, syphilis, blood chemistry, a swab from the vagina. Then do the last ultrasound, by which the doctor assesses the state of the placenta, height and weight of the child's position in the uterus (the head or breech presentation), the quantity and quality of amniotic fluid (polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, water transparency).

If the survey results are normal, then a pregnant woman should visit the gynecologist weekly blood tests and urine tests, waiting for the onset of labor.

If the results of tests or examinations revealed some trouble in a state of pregnancy or child, a woman is taken under special control. Namely — to prescribe drugs that improve blood flow through the placenta, a further ultrasound and Doppler velocimetry in a week or two. Two recent surveys are also conducted when the estimated date of delivery (EDD) has come, and labor does not begin.

However, nervous and panic that labor delayed, it is not necessary. At each visit, the doctor will assess your conditio
n and if necessary provide direction to the hospital.

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