AD-1 aircraft with variable sweep wing asymmetrically «scissors»

AD-1 aircraft with variable sweep wing asymmetrically

South American aircraft designer Burt recognizable (Elbert Leander «Burt» Rutan), recognized during the life of a genius (he’s only 69 years old at the moment). He did not KB and employs thousands of people and without a huge financial concepts 367 aircraft, and 45 of them climbed into the sky. One of his creations is a unique aircraft Ames-Dryden AD1.

Swept wing design allows the aircraft to fly at subsonic and supersonic speeds, even at the expense of the least efficient operations at low speeds. Introduction of variable sweep allowed to make a number of revolutionary aircraft, such as Grumman F-111, F-14, Rockwell B-1, Panavia Tornado, the MiG-23 and Tu-160, but they all suffer from the difficulties of the wing structure and the weight of the wing rotation mechanism.

 AD-1 aircraft with variable sweep wing asymmetrically

NASA engineer Robert T. Jones (Robert T. Jones) in 1945, the year suggested the idea of ​​turning an entire wing on one pivot pin, which should provide more light and sturdy construction. Supposed to rotate counterclockwise wing (if you look from above), in other words the right wing unfold nose of the airplane, and the right-to-tail. Variable sweep wing asymmetrically or rotary, oblique wing (Oblique Wing) has been called in the people-wing shears. Plans to create huge supersonic transport aircraft appeared here now realized. In fact, he was not the discoverer of the rotary-wing ideas. In 1944, the year of several German companies engaged in the development of such aircraft for Merit larger velocities. The first of them was a Blohm und Voss BV P 202, then became Messerschmitt Me P 1109 with 2 pivoting wings, upper and lower.
According to the calculations of Jones, with an oblique wing aircraft had to allow increment take-off weight of 17 per cent or increment range by 29 percent while maintaining the weight of the aircraft. Tests aircraft model in a wind tunnel, held in Ames Research Center in Moffett Field (Moffett Field), CA showed that the plane with a similar scheme will allow the wing at supersonic speeds lead to twice the fuel economy compared with ordinary aircraft with wings, will be even less boomy during takeoff and during the transition of the supersonic barrier. In addition, the sweep in the wind tunnel showed that the aircraft wing with «scissors» at speeds up to Mach 1.4 (1.4 times faster speed of sound) will hold much the best aerodynamic features than airplanes with conventional wings. Based on these encouraging results, it was decided to build an experienced reference.

AD-1 aircraft with variable sweep wing asymmetrically

Many aircraft companies lusted undertake the development of this aircraft, but as usual, no one had funds for this project. There was no money on him and NASA. Yet, in 1975, two classmate Rutan, one operating at Edwards Air Force Base in other NASA came to him with a proposal: «We have heard that you did VariEze plane for 3 months. Why do not you design for a rotary wing aircraft? » Soon signed a contract with the company Rutan Aircraft Factory to develop a low-speed aircraft design for a series of test flights and research of this unique mode of flight outside the wind tunnel.

Creating AD-1 started in an active manner by Rutan Aircraft Factory to please the requirements of NASA in December of 1975. In December 1976 Rutan Aircraft Factory said that they «finished working design for NASA research aircraft with the introduction of technology VariEze. NASA plane went miniature, odnopilotnym created to test maneuverability features coming (in the 1990s) with a rotary wing aircraft. » NASA chose the design based on the geometric configuration provided by Boeing. The plane was made in the scale 15% of the planned Boeing transport aircraft. Oblique wing remains perpendicular to the centerline of the fuselage band while flying at low speed and rotated at angles up to 60 degrees with increasing speed of the aircraft.
AD-1 design has allowed the project to reach all the major technical problems. As expected, the plane showed aeroelastic phenomena, also link pitch and tilt movements, which contributed to a bad maneuverability sweep angles above 45 degrees. Fiberglass limited hardness wing, which could significantly make better maneuverability aircraft. So Makar, after the project AD-1 remained as before need to study oblique wing at supersonic speeds to evaluate the effect of compressibility, structural strength analysis and flight characteristics at supersonic speeds.

Rutan made a detailed design of the AD-1 in the period from May 1976 to February 1977 as part of the contract only $ 12,000. Company Ames Industrial Corp Long Island (New-york) won the contract to build and started the construction of the aircraft in December 1977, with a fixed contract of $ 240,000. AD-1 was the first aircraft is not homemade, made with the implementation of structural methods developed for VariEze. In fact his whole design was similar to the main VariEze, about the same width, but was 12 meters long, 2 meters in height and wingspan 9.8 meters. It was made of fiberglass reinforced plastic and weighed 658 kg empty. The plane was equipped with 2 micro turbojet engines, each of which developed 1.8 kN of thrust at sea level. Wing rotated electromechanical drive placed inside the fuselage ahead engines. The wing was able to spin 60 degrees to the horizontal. Lightweight design failed to provide the desired hardness, to exclude not a good maneuverability. Due to security and judgments pair of weak turbojet aircraft engines was limited speed 274 km / h
Ames Company in the construction of AD-1 Place in the budget and schedule, the final contract price was only $ 239,000. While the aviation industry did not believe that it can be to design and build a manned, 2-motor prototype with rotary wing less than a few million bucks. «It is interesting to note that the work done by Rutan Aircraft Factoryi Ames Industrial Corp was carried out at a profit, and at still lower prices for taxpayers than NASA spends on supervision of contractors and conducting simulation» — commented Rutan in 1979th year.
The aircraft was delivered to the Flight Research Center Dryden Edwards, California in February of 1979 and immediately underwent tests include jogging and static load test. First flight took place on December 21 of 1979 and the last on August 7, 1982. Both of these flights were carried NASA test pilot Makmurti Thomas (Thomas C. McMurtry). In total, 1 AD-79 sorties during isspytany applets.
NASA carried the project wing shears to projects with the highest risk. Motivate them more with the behavior of the aircraft wing at low speeds. The tests lasted for 18 months and uniformly increasing the angle of rotation of the wing. By mid-1981, has been made the rotation angle of 60 degrees. Recent aircraft flights were made on a yearly exhibition Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, Wisconsin, performing there for eight missions in order to demonstrate the concept of the wing. At the trials plane reached the height of 3,800 meters.
Flight technical properties:
Modification: AD-1
Model Number: 35
Type: reactive, 2-motor, the most experienced, with variable sweep wing asymmetrically
Board number: N805NA
Customer: NASA
Manufacturer: Ames Industrial Corporation
First flight: 21 December 1979
Wingspan: 9.84 m
Length: 10 m
Height: 2.05 m
Wing Area: 8.64 m2
Empty weight 658 kg
Weight 973 kg maximum take-off
Engine type: 2 THD Microturbo TRS18-046
Link: 2x 1.8 kN
The highest speed: 274 km / h
Fuel tank capacity: 320 l.
Service ceiling: 3800 m
Crew: 1
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