When it appeared alcohol, hard to say. However, it can be assumed that he is not much younger than humanity itself. The Papuans of New Guinea, still not knowing the fire already had their own ways of getting alcohol. Many ancient tribes used it in numerous rituals: with the help of communicating with the gods and the dead. More recently, there was a ceremony of brotherhood. In the cup of wine dripped blood ritual participants and allowed it around. Perhaps it is a tradition here went to collect guests and certainly put on the table a bottle of wine.
With the invention of ceramic (VIII dishes about thousands of years BC. E.) The opportunity to prepare a range of alcoholic drinks made from honey, grapes and other fruits. One of the most ancient beverage — beer. It is known that it was brewed back in Babylon VII for thousands of years BC. e. A cuneiform inscription discovered by archaeologists E. Huber contains recipes 15 varieties of the drink.
In ancient Greece and Egypt, beer was very popular and was used every day along with bread and onions — staple foods most of the population. In addition, it is very natural woven into the culture and religion of these peoples. Many of the diagrams depicted people drinking beer or manufactured, the gods and rulers with cups in their hands. In Greece, even believed in a special god of wine — Dionysus. In his honor were regularly held festivals (Dionysia) with a lot of alcohol, of course. Maybe that's why Dionysus was one of the most revered gods of the Greeks.
Pure alcohol for the first time the Arabs were at the beginning of VII century. The word alcohol is of Arabic origin, means "intoxicating." In western Europe, a strong manufacturing alcohol learned in the Middle Ages by sublimation of wine. Legend has it the first time prepared and drank a drink monk Alchemist Valentius. Sober after drinking heavily, he claimed to have discovered a wonderful tool that makes the old man and the young man adds vitality and strength. One can to say that from that moment begins the active distribution of alcohol for the remaining countries.
The belief that alcoholism — an age-old feature of the Russian people is wrong. In Russia they drank very little. Only on major holidays brewed mead, mead and beer, the fortress did not exceed 10 degrees. Drinks are always cooked for himself and never for sale. The very process of drinking significantly different from the present: a goblet poured drink and put it to a circle. And everyone can do only one or two drinks. Agree, in such circumstances, it is difficult to drink heavily. And if anyone tried Liquor on a weekday, it was a great sin and shame.
In 1386 in Russia brought the grape spirit (aqua vita). However, he did not catch on, and even then was considered harmful to health. Vodka — your own, original Russian drink invented in 1448-1474 gg. Then the vodka was a diluted grain alcohol, so had a different name — bread wine or rye.
A hundred years after the invention of the traditional Russian people drink alcohol in Russia is no drinking was not. In many ways, this contributed to the patriarchal way of life of Russian people and their deep religiosity. "Domostroj" — a book containing the answers to all life's questions is, and gives specific guidance about alcohol, "Drink, but do not get drunk. Drink a little wine for the sake of joy, and not for drunkenness: drunkards will not inherit the kingdom of God. "
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Binge drinking comes to Russia at a time when the government takes control of the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Hence the development of alcohol in Russia has gone two ways: alcoholism among the common people and low-grade vodka production of quality beverages to the higher strata of society.
Since about 1555 all over Russia are beginning to close the tavern (something like a modern cafe), where you can eat and drink. Instead, they were ordered to open taverns (in fact, drinking houses) where you could only drink and eat or just have a snack — you can not. This usage is very quickly led to the formation of alcohol intoxication and alcohol addiction. After some time, a ban on the production of alcohol by the peasants themselves. The state has a monopoly in this area and receives a huge income to the treasury.
At the same time, the right to produce alcohol for themselves remained for the nobility and other upper classes. Almost every family had its own original recipe with the addition of specific herbs and berries. These elite drinks were frequently presents dignitaries. It is known that Catherine II sent Russian vodka as a gift to European monarchs and the famous philosopher and writer Voltaire.
In 1647, in many cities in Russia due to the inability of the urban poor to repay debts taverns and a sharp decline in the quality of alcoholic beverages there are "excise riots." To suppress these riots the king had to use troops. After that, the state is beginning to take action against drunkenness Russian people. On the Zemsky Sobor in 1652, it was decided to limit the number of taverns were identified days when alcohol was forbidden to trade (total they had accumulated more than 180). Vodka Now lets go one Chark (143.5 g.) in one hand. Additions to the royal treasury dramatically decreased in seven years, these prohibitions effectively ceased to be observed.
Despite the fact that alcohol is always present in everyday life, its excessive use is always reprimanded by society. On a stone slab found in Egypt was the inscription "Do not ruin yourself when you sit in a pub, do not lose your mind and do not forget their oaths …". In Russia drunkenness considered a great sin and shame. After Muhammad imposed a ban on alcohol in the Muslim world for 12 centuries it has not produced or consumed. Drunkenness and is today denounced social phenomenon. The clinic "Alkomed" for more than 16 years helping people get rid of the addiction. Make an appointment and ask all your questions, please call 925-05-64.