Allergy

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What is it?

First term allergy Austrian pediatrician was introduced K.Pirke in 1906, he comes from two Greek words: allos — different and ergon — acting.

Allergies — is inadequate reaction organism to various substances, manifested in direct contact with them. Today, allergic reactions are considered one of the most common diseases. At the same reliable methods of treatment, allowing to get rid of allergies at the moment does not exist.

About allergies say when the action takes the immune system and the body responds violent reaction and exaggerated protection for substances which are themselves quite harmless. That is an allergy — it's increased sensitivity, the modified response of the human body on the impact of certain factors — allergens.

The prevalence of allergic diseases (more than 20% of the population of the planet) says about allergies, as a global health problem. In the past 30 years the prevalence of allergic disease doubles every decade. Currently in Russia different kinds of allergies suffer an average of15-35% Of the population.

Why did this happen?

Can cause allergic reactions all around us: house dust, mold, insects, latex, household chemicals, animal dander, pollen, sperm men, foods, drugs, cosmetics, and even cold and sunlight.

One of the main "culprits" allergies — histamine. Molecules of this and similar substances in large quantities released into the blood when, for example, pollen provokes an immune response. The result — the expansion of blood vessels, exudation of small vessels, redness of the skin. The nature of allergy remains largely a mystery. Allergies can occur suddenly and just as suddenly go (unfortunately, the first is much more likely than the second). In addition, a predisposition to a particular type of allergy is inherited, so that if one of the parents suffers from allergies, there is a 25% probability that his child will develop allergies. A chance to get an allergy increases to75-80% If both parents suffer from allergies.

What's going on?

In response to entering theorganism an allergic reaction to an allergen. It has three stages:

  1. sensitization to the allergen and the body to produce antibodies or lymphocytes specific to it;
  2. formation of histamine and similar substances;
  3. Clinical manifestations of allergy.

The first contact with antigen passes only the first stage of the reaction. Development of antibodies or lymphocytes is protective in nature — the body recognizes the alien substance and is preparing to fight it in the future.

Repeated contact with the same antigen it binds to antibodies or lymphocytes formed and the second stage of the reaction — the release of histamine and other similar substances.

And if as a result of failure of the immune system produces too much — begins the third stage of the reaction — damaged cells, tissues, organs, and develops, in fact, allergic to.

Similar to allergy symptoms may appear different pseudoallergic— Diseases that are similar in manifestations of allergy, but does not have in its development stage of formation of antibodies:

  • pseudoallergy caused by an increased release of or insufficient destruction of histamine in the body, as well as excessive intake it with food — can occur when consuming foods rich in this substance (for example, some types of cheese, sausage like "salami"), solar radiation, effects of cold, etc. ;
  • pseudoallergy caused by disorders of the immune system — can occur when administered to an X-ray contrast agents;
  • pseudoallergy caused by violation of the exchange of certain substances in the body — for example, intolerance to aspirin and other analgesics.

Allergy

Depending on where and how you experience an allergic reaction, you can talk about the manifestations of allergy in the form of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, urticaria, angioedema, dermatitis, asthma or anaphylactic shock.

If after meeting with the allergen you have a runny nose, sneezing, itching of the nose — it says that you have allergic rhinitis. The classic manifestations of allergic conjunctivitis are "the tears", "feeling of sand" in the eyes, burning and photophobia. Food allergies in adults manifested in different ways, until suffocation, and the children most often in the form of a diathesis. Skin manifestations of allergy are hives, and atopic dermatitis.

Worst case of allergic reaction is anaphylactic shock (from the Greek. Ana — back and philaxis — protection). This sudden and severe allergic reaction usually occurs in response to medications or insect bites, usually bees or wasps. In anaphylactic shock there is a sudden state of itching, immediately followed by difficulty in breathing and shock caused by the sharp drop in blood pressure. A sign of anaphylactic shock is also a weak thready pulse, pallor, and perspiration (sometimes redness of skin). In severe cases, anaphylactic shock is possible swelling of the lungs and brain, which can lead to death.

And it behaves unpredictably body during pregnancy: allergy, or may not appear at all, or appear in its original absence, or when an existing allergy you enter a period of significant improvement in health.

Diagnostics

About the beginning of allergy say the following features:

  • runny nose and watery eyes that occur each year in the same period;
  • prolonged (more than a week), runny nose;
  • repeated regularly dry night cough.

If you notice these symptoms should seek immediateallergist.

In the search for the cause of your allergy doctor may be interested in your place of work — perhaps here lies the cause of your suffering — or ask to start to keep a special diary in which you will celebrate the start of allergy, manifestations and the possible cause. If you avoid contact with the allergen, the treatment may not be necessary.

To identify the "culprit" is used a number of methods for diagnosis of allergy: skin tests, the method of the study of specific antibodies IgE, provocative tests, tests of elimination, cold and heat tests, etc. If you want to get tested for the full program and get the most information about allergic preferences your body — you can pass a comprehensive allergy and immunological study.

Treatment and prevention

Up to now there is no one treatment that cures hundred percent of allergies, so the fight against allergic diseases is either to suppress immune reaction itself, or in the case of allergy neutralization produced substances that cause inflammation. However, with proper treatment and respect for allergy prevention methods can be reduced to a minimum.

To prevent the initiation of immediate allergic attack, there are a number of medications — antihistamines. If a severe allergic reaction, blood is purified by immunoadsorption methods and plasmapheresis.

Knowing about your predisposition to allergies, you should always have drugs with them, while about their selection and use should be consultedallergist.

The most promising method of treating allergies is allergen-specific immunotherapy. To this were injected increasingly concentrated solutions of the allergen in a few weeks. This gradual introduction causes the body to produce a kind of antidote. However, the process is very long — up to several years.

To further prevent allergic attacks, depending on the reasons for their doctor will help you choose the individual hypoallergenic diet so that you do not mix with food allergens, or to make the seasonal schedule of your allergen. He may advise you to change jobs or offer other ways to avoid the danger factor for you.

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