Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

According to Col. Matthew Malherna manager applets V-22 Command aviasistem Navy U.S. success in Iraq introduction konvertoplanov eclipsed all expectations. Tiltrotor under fire from the ground fell sporadically, no car got battle damage, but March 24, 2009 the entire fleet konvertoplanov flights were discontinued after technicians Squadron VMM-266 on one of the machines was found weakening of bolting in the swash plate right nacelle. Inspection carried out after the pilots were awarded a «sharp» noise and excessive vibration during ordinary flight. Inspection 84 «Osprey», all devices are in operation, has permitted to find such deficiencies another 4 konvertoplanov who were in Iraq, and one passing regulations on aviation based Marine Corps Cherry Point. Flights resumed after the inspection, but during daily inspection has been increased by an hour.

Implementation konvertoplanov in Iraq has caused excessive wear on certain parts of the structure. Assumed that the first will be subject to wear blade propellers, but the sand is so fine Iraqi deserts that do not actually have a negative impact on the blade, but stuffed in blocks-wire control system and other electrical equipment, causing a rather short-circuit or provoking false alarm about the tragedy. According Malherna data failures came as a surprise. Engines Rolls-Royce «Liberty» AE1107C, mounted on MV-22B, supplied with hydraulic filters Engine Air Particle Separator (EAPS), suctions out vozduhopoglotiteley foreign particles. Tiltrotor sent to Iraq passed revision, during which filters supplied sensors disable the filter when a working water leaks, such as leaks have already become a prerequisite to several fires at an air base in New River. But the software in some cases, turn off the filters during take-off due to improper functioning of the emergency sensors from massive vertical air currents. As a consequence — engines AE1107S «Liberty» is unreliable because of their falling into the sand. To avoid leakage hydraulics proposed transfer hydraulic line in places which are least exposed to heat from the engines running.

Shortage of power and low reliability criteria in heat engines as no surprise. Less than 7 months of operation in Iraq on the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing MV-22 changed more than 6 engines. Colonel Malhern during a meeting with representatives of the industry did not rule out the ability of the coming change existing engines engines created for helicopters CH-53K. Rolls-Royce company a huge amount of time has been criticized because of the low reliability of the engines installed on the V-22. With all of this some experts believe that low reliability is not related to the design of engines, and the peculiarities of operation of the power plant on konvertoplanov. Engine T406-AD-400 was developed based on turboprop engines installed on aircraft C-27J and C-130J, and well-proven in operation. Experts prerequisite low reliability called party getting into engines particles at takeoff / landing, which differ from konvertoplanov inflated dusting. Dusting helicopter at take-off or landing is the norm, but this effect is enhanced tiltrotor. Rotor helicopter drops reverse air flow, while the screws tiltrotor make two streams, one of which is thrown back, and the second is discarded to the side of the fuselage. Flow to the side of the fuselage, increase «zapylyaemosti» engines and spins load placed on the outside of the suspension. Therefore tiltrotor MV-22 transport cargo on the outer suspension only in exceptional cases.

Fear caused relatively rather weak defensive armament — one 7.62mm machine gun mounted on the ramp. This fear, as it turned out, were in vain. MV-22B crews from ground fire went through a sharp acceleration and climb. Crew commander of the 1st konvertoplanov said: «The speed from 0 to 320 km / h can I increment in just 10 seconds.» Survival also contributes to the smallest acoustic visibility V-22 «Osprey»: if the helicopter from the ground audible at a distance of 16 km, the tiltrotor — 3 km.

Experience in operating the V-22 «Osprey» in Iraq as a whole was considered successful. But, despite this criticism note subsequent facts:
— aircraft VTOL used in areas where there was little activity of the enemy, namely tiltrotor in Baghdad did not fly;
— a huge part of takeoffs and landings made on runways with hard coat;
— the vast majority of jobs — transport flights between air bases;
— Iraqi expedition can not be equated to «test under combat conditions»;
— comparable low reliability, which is inherent in all of the latest models, the V-22 «Osprey» is a cop-out, since this is not a tiltrotor «new» machine: the first flight was made in 1989, and mass production was established in 1999 — V -22 «older» military transport aircraft C-17;
— low reliability of units, assemblies and parts made of composite materials, predicted in advance, as before deploying MV-22 in Iraq sent there parts in the amount of 100 million dollars, and to help the squadron VMM-263 maintenance seconded the real part of 10 experienced professionals «Boeing»;
— to avoid falling into the vortex ring modes developed innovative methodology landing: vertical takeoff and landing entered landing on an aircraft and transition to hover in close proximity to the earth, before the touch; This method is applicable only in the lowland areas (such as the deserts of Iraq), but it is unlikely that this technique will bring to urban or mountainous areas, where very limited review;
— missing data on konvertoplanov offensive weapons, although Boeing Company in 1999, which is stated on the tests passed ventral machine gun turret. But from its mounting on serial machines abandoned in connection with the construction of the entire apparatus of overweight — the rejection of this weaponry has permitted to save about 450 kg. Accommodation in cargo-guns impossible because of the small cabin space cab windows and screws on the wing tips;
— machine gun mounted on the ramp has a small sector of fire and lacking caliber serve him uncomfortable during the flight;
— helplessness because of airborne weapons can not be cover fire 1st tiltrotor others, for example, during the evacuation under fire, the type of strategy that is used by helicopters CH-53, having armed onboard 12.7mm machine guns;
— in connection with the probability of occurrence of a vortex ring regime excluded Simultaneous planting 2-V-22 «Osprey», if the distance between konvertoplanov does not exceed 75 meters;
— aircraft VTOL vulnerable to fire even from rifle-caliber guns, as all three line hydraulic systems laid near together in parallel;
— winch for lifting people missing.

Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

Reliability deicing system causes fear. It is not designed to work in the criteria for significant negative temperatures (which are peculiar to mountainous areas of Afghanistan in winter). Anti-icing system, which consists of more than 200 pieces, designed to operate an aircraft in the criteria that are close to the formation of ice on the elements of design, but not in the criteria when it is inevitable. As noted by Colonel Malhren, icing system tribute was never properly worked, and system failures are permanent in nature, but because of falling into water deicing system wiring or mechanical failure caused the highest centrifugal loads generated rotors. Malhern summed up: «The system itself is good for themselves, but some of its elements — are unsatisfactory.»

Operating results for the V-22 «Osprey» in Iraq, Government Accountability Office (GAO, Government Accountability Office of the United States) in its own report noted that konvertoplanov demonstrated the versatility required of him, but the cost per flight hour is two times higher than estimated, nor unable to verify the machine’s ability to do certain tasks combat. In this light, the role of the V-22 in combat operations in the province Gelmland for applets is generally considered critical. It is noted that the criteria of high mountains and heat tiltrotor demonstrate excellent flying characteristics.

Tiltrotor MV-22B «Osprey» 04.12.2009 enacted specific role in the fighting in Afghanistan. 2 tiltrotor MV-22B included in the VMM-261 squadron operated in a combat group of marines «Raiders», providing a landing units Third Battalion 4th Marine Regiment helicopters Sikorsky CH-53 in 3 pt landing in Helmand province. Landing landing was made without enemy fire from the enemy. Total landed 150 Afghan army soldier and 1,000 U.S. Marines. In the upcoming MV-22B lured to transport troops in the interests of, to perform the same tasks as for medium-lift helicopters.

In November 2009, 10 konvertoplanov from the VMM-261, stationed at the air base of New River (North Caledonia), were transferred to Afghanistan. Readiness park «Osprey» on average 82 per cent, but the combat readiness in Afghanistan uniformly managed to bring up to 80 percent, was tasked to bring it to 90 percent.
Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

tiltrotor MV-22 used in the military operations against Libya

USAF

The Air Force planned to buy 55 aircraft vertical takeoff and landing CV-22, but later reduced the number of units purchased up to 50 pieces. It was assumed that the first four CV-22, intended for use in crew training, adopted the 58th training squadron (Kirtland Air Base) will arrive in 2004, and in September of the same year 6 cars 8 Squadron (AFB Halbart Field ) reached initial combat readiness; supply the whole party had to end in 2009. In 1998, the programm was revised to accelerate deliveries — all machines on the brand new plan had to be transferred to the customer in fiscal 2007. Receipt of CV-22 adopted the Air Force United States very delayed due to 3-disasters also delay applets flight tests.

In March 2006, the Air Force received the first CV-22 was created to carry out combat missions. In 2007 tiltrotor entered service Eighth Squadron special forces. 06.03.2009 special forces command of the Air Force United States have reported to and reaching the state of readiness of the initial Eighth Squadron special forces, who had armed VTOL 6 CV-22B. Initial state of alert was declared after 4 CV-22 accepted the doctrine in joint exercises and U.S. 15 Union United States of Africa in Bamako, Mali. V-22 «Osprey» performed nonstop flight to Africa and back, using aerial refueling. Fact was demonstrated ability to self-operational deployment to all regions of the world. Four CV-22 on the African continent were in for a month. During the exercises tiltrotor tossed special forces soldiers from Senegal and Mali.

Technical description

Overview

MV-22 «Osprey» — multipurpose aircraft vertical takeoff and landing, which is meant to exploit the design step in the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps. Later, the United States Army to the V-22 VTOL lost enthusiasm. The main customers are tiltrotor Air Force and Marine Corps aviation. VTOL options that are designed for the Marine Corps and Air Force, are almost identical. Basis for all subsequent modifications — MV-22B Block B. CV-22B, modification for the Air Force, from MV-22B differs priemuschestvenno, avionics. MV-22B and CV-22B airframe similar to 90 percent, according to the power plant — 100 percent, electrical equipment — by 40 percent.

VTOL «Osprey» makes taking off and landing in the helicopter and fly horizontally like an airplane. The transition between «helicopter» and «airplane» modes, turn the engine nacelles filled with huge three-bladed propeller diameter and mounted on the ends of the wing. Vertical takeoff / landing when the engine nacelles are made at an angle greater than 85 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the machine. Sustained flight likely if the nacelle located within the boundaries of 0-85 degrees. Flight «on aircraft» carried out at zero angle of installation of the engine nacelles. «Osprey» is designed to take off and land with one engine running. VTOL is not capable of doing these operations on an aircraft.

Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

Design

«Osprey» has a high wing, having a little corner of the reverse sweep and dvuhkilevoe plumage. At the ends of the wings are mounted nacelle having lobed rotary propellers.

Wing caisson type with a constant chord (2.54 m) and 2 spars. Wing actually quite grafitoepoksidnyh made of composite materials. Upper and lower cladding panels have integral structure. Three-section wing panel socks made of duralumin alloy and have a honeycomb filling «Nomex». The wing is mounted at the top of the fuselage by 2.31-meter radial bearing made of stainless steel. Support provided wing move along the fuselage of the aircraft in case of placement of vertical takeoff and landing on the deck of an aircraft carrier.

Semi-monocoque fuselage structure has a rectangular cross section. Fuselage length V-22 — 17.47 meters. The fuselage is actually one hundred percent made of composite materials, the weight of the fuselage V-22 — 1800 kg. Fairings on the sides met, employees to retract the main landing gear; also located in the fairing equipment air conditioning systems and fuel tanks. Triple crew cabin is located in the bow of the apparatus. The cab has bronekresla that can withstand falling 12.7 mm bullets also overload to 14,5 g in the vertical direction and up to 30 g in the longitudinal direction.

In the cargo cabin 24 fighter may be transported in full gear. In the front part of the fuselage on the starboard side is made Duplex entrance door (lower section flips down outside, top — up inside). On the bottom section has an integrated ladder. At the rear of the cabin is Foldable ramp.

Dvuhkilevoe plumage one hundred percent made of material grafitoepoksidnogo of Hercules AS4. Stabilizer (area 8.22 m2, range 5.61 m) is mounted above the tail fairing. The total area of ​​2 vertical fins is 12.45 m2.

Chassis — retractable, tricycle, with a nose support. Landing gear are twin wheels. Clean nasal support in the front compartment of the fuselage by turning back the clock. Major support was removed in the side of the fuselage fairings. The chassis has a structure which is designed to pick up at a speed of 4.5 meters per second. Wheels main pillars supplied with disc brakes. Track width — 4.62 meters.

Structural materials: fraction of composite materials in the airframe — 59 percent.


Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

Power plant

Wingtip pods installed in the rotating gas turbine turboshaft engines T406-AD-400 (AE1107S) of Rolls-Royce. Most continuous power per motor 6150 HP (4400 kW). Nacelles are rotated in the spectrum 0-97 degrees. AE1107S an annular combustor 14-stage axial compressor, a two stage power turbine and the two-stage gasifier turbine. The engines are equipped with a digital control system FADEC company Lucas Aerospace and analog (spare) electrical control system.

To reduce the visibility of the V-22 in the infrared range of the nozzle engines equipped with exhaust shield-devices company AiResearch.

The engines are equipped with three-bladed propeller. The blades are made of composite material based on glass fiber and graphite. Screw diameter of 11.6 meters.

Screws are connected between the synchronizing shaft which is laid inside the wing. Nacelles are rotated by a hydraulic motor with helical drive.

Fuel system

There are 13 tanks of fuel compartments. In both parts of the front fuselage fairings available on-compartment tank (total weight of the fuel being placed in these tanks in 2860 pounds), the rear right fuselage fairing has one tank compartment (925 pounds of fuel). In caissons taken wing tanks of 10 compartments, 2 exterior used as consumables (305 kilograms) in each of the other eight tanks located on 227 pounds of fuel. Fitting centrally located filling pressure on the toe right wing, the upper surface of each wing has one fuel cap. In the forward fuselage starboard rod attached refueling system during flight. To perform ferry flights 3 additional fuel tanks can be installed in the cargo cabin.

Control system

To control the helicopter during flight mode use control system and collective pitch repeated propellers. Lateral control in cruise flight at the expense of differences 2-outer elevons. For longitudinal control used single-section steering wheel height (4.79 square meters) for acceptable — 2 elevator located on the vertical keels. Management system control surfaces electroremote, drive — hydraulic.

Lift consists of 4 sections elevons (total area — 4.12 m2), an outer pair of which is used to control the slope.

Management is carried out by means of handles repeating steps (knob) mounted in front of the pilots seats, levers engines also established the right of access pilots. On arms control engines available flywheel changing the angle of the engine nacelles.

Onboard equipment

On the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing has 2nd major-independent and 1 spare hydraulic (working pressure 350 kgf/cm2). Electrical system consists of a 2-alternators (power 40 kVA), 2-alternator (power 50/80 kVA), rectifiers, converters, battery. Socks and keels are provided with inflatable wing anti-icing protectors. Front edge vozduhopoglotiteley engines, coca screws, blades and windshield glazing booths equipped with electric heating.

Avionics

Modifications CV-22B and MV-22B have similar main-board electronic systems. In flight control system has triple redundancy. Radio communication equipment consists of a radio communication system ARC-210 (V) having channels satellite (SATCOM), UHF and VHF communications. UHF channel has locked loop. In the navigation equipment includes instrument landing system VOR, receivers GPS satellite navigation system and tactical navigation system TACAN, radar altimeter and inertial navigation system, which has a triple redundancy.

The cabin has 6 mnogofuknktsionalnyh color indicators that are compatible with night vision goggles. IR Vision System frontal hemisphere AAQ-27 Mid-Wave-length Infra Red (MWIR) installed in the lower forward fuselage.

A cargo cabin and cockpit protection system have weapons of mass destruction (filtered air in the interior creates excess pressure).

Airborne defense system consists of APR-39A (V) — Receiver warning about electric irradiation, AVR-2A — receiver laser warning, AAR-47 — device warning of missile launches. Sensors receivers AVR-2A and AAR-47 installed in 4 sectors of the aircraft vertical takeoff and landing. Devices chaff system ALE-47 shooting and thermal traps are located in the side of the fuselage sponsons; used for shooting handheld or 1 of 6 pre-programmed automatic modes.

In the forward fuselage CV-22B is a functional radar APQ-186, which provides flying at different times of day in different weather conditions. Sector scanning station antenna ± 40 ° in azimuth, -40 to +23 ° in elevation. Also on the CV-22B carries two more stations ARC-210 (V) and a multipurpose tactical terminal (Multi-mission Advanced tactical Terminal, MATT). Airborne defense CV-22B enhanced 4th additional blocks of shooting traps that are installed on the sides of the fuselage behind the nose landing gear compartment, also rear side sponsons. On the CV-22B receiver warning about electric irradiation APR-39 replaced the integral counter set in the radio SIRFC, which is capable of automatically pelengovat, organize, and display on the map radio sources (operating radars). CV-22B STOVL to counter missiles, equipment thermal GOS has a system of productions directed infrared interference AN/AAQ-24.

Basing on aircraft carriers

To reduce the space it takes on board the VTOL aircraft, the propeller blades are folded along the wing, and the wing unfolded clockwise along the fuselage. Folding rotor blades and requires reversal of the wing 90 seconds.

Armament

On the lowered ramp M240 machine gun 7.62 mm. In the future tiltrotor can be armed 12.7mm caliber turret.

BAE Systems Company in January 2008 signed a contract with the command of special forces of the Air Force U.S. to integrate into the design of the V-22 «Osprey» remotely controlled defensive Remote Guardian System (RGS, radial firing system). RGS system with a machine gun GAU-17 Minigun 7.62 mm mounted under the fuselage tiltrotor on the outer suspension instead of the mount cargo. Turret after takeoff extends under the fuselage and removed before planting, for release / cleaning requires 2 minute. Used to control the turret joystick aiming means carried camera and screen. System RGS, designed for flight and ground tests for the first time has been set to «Osprey» in February 2008.

Dimensions:
— Stowed Length — 19.23 meters;
— width stowed — 5.64 m;
— fuselage length — 17.48 meters;
— wingspan and spinning propellers — 25.78 meters;
— diameter screws — 11.6 meters;
— Height with pods mounted vertically — 6.74 meters.

Weights and loads:
— maximum take-off during a vertical takeoff — 23,860 pounds;
— maximum take-off during takeoff with takeoff — 25,855 pounds;
— desired load — 8460 pounds;
— on the outer suspension — 4540 kilograms (in the case of double hinged system — 8150 kilograms).

Supplies of fuel in internal tanks located:
— CV-22 — 7710 liters.;
— MV-22 — 6513 liters.;
— in the cockpit in 3 additional tanks — and 1630 l ..

Flying characteristics:
— best rate of climb at sea level — 975 meters per minute;
— maximum speed — 463 meters per minute;
— practical ceiling — 7.62 km;
— practical ceiling at the 1 st Motor — 3140 meters;
— range with 24 commandos on board without refueling — 720 km;
— Ferry range with refueling — 3.9 thousand km.

Crew tiltrotor — 3-4.

Capacity:
— control cabin — 2-3 people;
— a cargo cabin — 24 Marine and borttehnik (12 placed the wounded on stretchers).

Two radio stations and an integrated set of radio frequency counter SIRFC transmitter interference.


USMC aircraft in a demonstration flight over New River Air Base, March 18, 2008 Right Left: MV-22B «Osprey» CH-53E «Super Stellion» CH-46 «Sea Knight» AH-1 «Cobra»

Modifications tiltrotor

CV-22

Modification CV-22 tiltrotor intended to substitute helicopters MH-53J Pave Low, and part of refueling aircraft MS-130p Combat Shadow MC-130E Combat Talon special operations capable Air Force USA. In its own requirements for this modification, the U.S. Air Force special uttered tiltrotor ability to produce a long flight into the black during the day and in the criteria for meteorological conditions at low altitudes with high precision navigation with maintaining the flight path and time to a data point. CV-22 can deliver to evacuate from the area, or in a 18 special forces soldiers in full gear. It is noted that most of the jobs konvertoplanov CV-22 will do NIGHT MODE or / and in adverse weather criteria.

Not counting the basic structure avionics radar are following the terrain and shooting two blocks thermal traps.

Tiltrotor (helicopter-plane) Bell V-22 Osprey (part 2)

USN developed their own requirements to modify the V-22 «Osprey», which received the designation HV-22. Tiltrotor intended for boats and ships at sea, and to perform search and rescue operations. VTOL HV-22 should change the search and rescue helicopter HH-3. U.S. Navy in April 2004 changed the designation of «their» modifications on tiltrotor MV-22 as a Marine Corps aviation.

For naval forces have been working on SV-22, which was designed for anti-submarine warfare vessels in the far and middle zones.

U.S. Navy and Marine Corps presented stringent requirements for these aircraft based on the aircraft vessels (landing ships, docks, landing helicopter). Namely, these demands were size of the unit (accommodation below deck hangars and samoletopodemnikah). Since the diameter of the screw and a wingspan of 22 V-elected on the basis of security requirements when in the takeoff configuration on the flight deck of the small clearance between superstructure peninsula and drive screws on one side (32.5 cm) and cut the deck and turn the screw on the other (12, 7 cm).

UV-22

U.S. Army studied the question of the ability of the acquisition of 231 UV-22 tiltrotor intended for electronic warfare, transport, search and rescue operations in the criteria for enemy countermeasures. Tiltrotor UV-22 were also to change planes RC-12, RU-21, OV-1, and some others.

Army has mentioned the ability to raise the unit loads weighing 4600 pounds (2086 kg) for 4 hours to make the flight at an altitude of 30 thousand feet (9144 m) at a speed of 400 km / h These requirements imply the creation of a larger than for the Air Force and Navy aircraft weighing about 18 thousand kg unladen more massive engines. The U.S. Army in the spring of 1983, and revised the requirements emerged from applets.

Export

There is information that the interest in the MV-22 show the air force of Israel, which implies use tiltrotor to perform search and rescue missions and in the interests of special operations forces.


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