In May 2012 at the Irkutsk Aviation Plant (branch of JSC «Corporation» Irkut «) flew recognizable by the world aviation pilot and immediately press journalist Peter Collins. His Siberian voyage was associated with flying on combat training aircraft of the latest generation of Yak-130.
After graduating from a career military pilot and test pilot, Collins practiced on the evaluation of the different aircraft in the world. Its output is the product of the articles published in a noble English journal Flight International. Collins listened to the views of a broad aviation circles. His positive evaluation of the aircraft in an article posted the other day air show «Farnborough-2012», of course, play a role in promoting
Yak-130at an outdoor market.
Yak-130at an outdoor market.
Last year was a turning point for this machine — implemented first export shipment and signed «Irkut» with the Ministry of Defence to 55
The company believes the new aircraft own promising military products. In this regard, completely natural, that on July 31 the president of «Irkut» appointed Oleg Demchenko, who ran the company in 2005-2011 and from 1994 headed «OKB Yakovlev». With all this he retained the post of senior vice president of the «United Aircraft Corporation».
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As noted in the statement of the KLA, «election O.F.Demchenko under management were initiated and successfully developed such major applets as MS-21 and Yak-130 will allow to ensure continuity in the management and higher efficiency of JSC» Corporation «Irkut» .
Middle of May I had a unique opportunity to travel to the city of Irkutsk, located in Eastern Siberia, to conduct an assessment and there is a test flight of the Yak-130.
Yak-130 — a promising training and combat aircraft of Russian Air Force, created to prepare students for flight and maintenance on the modern battlefield frontline fighters and fighter-bombers, including MiG-29/35, Su-27/30/34/35 continue PAK FA T-50.
In November 2011, the Company «Irkut» has received an order for a hard 55 Yak-130, and an additional option for 10 cars from the Defence Ministry. In addition, the company also achieved the first of success in export deliveries of the aircraft by placing 16 Yak-130 Algerian Air Force last year.
I was honored to be the first Western test pilot, invited to Russia for the assessment of this kind. This is a landmark event in the desire to re-built Russian aerospace industry openly compete in the global aviation market and freely show design, technical, technological and manufacturing capabilities possessed by our homeland.
Creating planes at the Irkutsk Aviation Plant, located between Moscow and Vladivostok, was launched in 1936. Since then, the factory built aircraft above 6700 developed Antonov Design Bureau, Beriev, Ilyushin, Mikoyan, Petlyakova, Sukhoi, Tupolev and Yakovlev.
Now company «Irkut» — is one hundred percent built aerospace company with headquarters and engineering center in Moscow. The company provides more than 30% of revenue Russian aviation industry and 15% of Russian arms exports.
Company «Irkut» — it is a public company with a market capitalization of about 1 billion. dollars and general knapsack orders above 7 billion. With a staff of up to $ 14,000 highly skilled employees and establishing ties with Russian institutions, research and development offices in Irkutsk and Moscow; Company «Irkut» has enormous potential in the global aerospace industry.
Not counting the Yak-130 performed in Irkutsk and other aircraft being upgraded. These include the Su-30MKI with thrust vector control for India (also available in collaboration with HAL), Su-30MKM for Malaysian Air Force and modification for the Algerian Air Force.
For the production of military purpose in the current time is added start production of the Airbus single-aisle MS-21 with capacities ranging from 150 to 212 passengers. Design of the aircraft, commissioning is planned for 2016, is headed by a particular company «Irkut». Features of MS-21 project are extensive use of composite materials in the airframe and international cooperation with Western avionics suppliers. The company also «Irkut» each month delivers on enterprise company Airbus 12 sets of keel beams, niches in the front landing gear, flaps and guides for the Airbus A320 family.
Sightseeing Tour for production in Irkutsk, which was held by CEO Alexander Veprev plant, was impressive. And without that huge plant being built in conjunction with the newest production line for the MC-21 aircraft was a living creature. The technical level of performance and it is comparable or even superior to anything I’ve seen before in other manufacturing plants in Western Europe.
In general, Irkutsk Aviation Plant made me a recollection of a massive locomotive aerospace industry with modern English, French and German machining complexes with computer-controlled operating round the clock, and performs processing and final finishing of panels and components from solid billets of duralumin alloy, titanium and stainless steel.
TRAINING AND COMBAT TRAINING
Aircraft Su-30MK (of 294 aircraft ordered by foreign customers more than 200 have already been delivered) and the Yak-130 densely filled areas of parallel production lines. In the final assembly shop length greater than 500 m were more than 20 Yak-130 and more than 10 Su-30MK, ready to equip the engines and avionics. Other planes located at the open car park and a flight test hangar, waiting for ground and flight tests.
According to the results trips and after a 30 minute cab reference Yak-130 in the hangar was saying that the plane that I had to estimate, designed to the latest standards. History of the aircraft goes back to its technology demonstrator Yak-130D. Its development «Yakovlev» began in 1991 for submission to contest the Russian Air Force to establish a promising trainer aircraft, created to spoof the production of L-39 Aero Vodochody.
From 1993 to 1999, «Yakovlev Design Bureau» and the Italian company Aermacchi together led the development of aircraft, which eventually embodied in the 2-models — Alenia Aermacchi M-346 and Yak-130. They look outside, but M-346 (which I did for the estimated flight magazine Flight International in 2006) was designed as a purely modern training aircraft with Western avionics and engines. Yak-130 was created not only as a modern training aircraft, and as a real combat training machine.
These are the results achieved through the use of open architecture avionics compatible with the data bus in 1553, it is a digital «glass» cockpit, four-channel digital remote control system (CDS) redundant digital channel. The latter allows an instructor pilot to modify the characteristics of the CDS to simulate the weight of languid, medium and light aircraft.
YAK-130 also has nine points of the suspension: two — on the wingtips, 6 — on the wing and one — under the fuselage. The aircraft can carry a wide range of weapons and other attachments, including fuel tanks, bombs up to 500 kg, guided aerial bombs with television homing rockets, a container with a combined 23-mm automatic cannon, rocket R-73 «air-air» with infrared homing containers and electronic countermeasures devices release chaff and infrared traps. Most combat load is 3000 kg.
The aircraft display on the windshield (HUD) and helmet-mounted target designation system (NSTS), dual-mode GPS / GLONASS receivers, inertial navigation system for ring laser gyros for precision navigation and targeting systems. All these systems convert Yak-130 owns the highest potential for modern light attack / fighter.
Hopefully combat training Air Force Roscii Yak-130 in the sky Farnborough.
Photo courtesy of the Company «Irkut»
Company «Irkut» is also proud that the Yak-130 is designed as an element of the training complex, including computer classes and fitness equipment. Systematic approach to the design made it possible to upgrade the software update. Also provides one hundred percent computerized network service logistic support. Current price cycle aircraft in four to six times less than the combat-capable version of the MiG-29 or Su-27.
Such a systematic approach to training, logistics and supply similar to western, but the Company «Irkut» declares that the Yak-130 also has a significant cost advantage compared with at least any other modern jet training aircraft of this class.
Resettled plane with 2 engines AI-222-25 Ivchenko-Progress overall thrust 11,000 pounds (49 kN) with a digital control system, fire alarm system and fire. In the future, likely setting the engines of the same manufacturer with index -28, having increased to 12,300 pounds of total thrust.
Normal take-off weight with full internal fuel refueling is 1700 kg 7250 kg thrust 0.70 for engines with index -25 and 0.77 for engines with an index of -28. For comparison: the thrust of the aircraft from BAE Systems Hawk is 0.65 and the Czech L-159B Aero Vodochody — 0,49.
The greatest weight of fuel in internal tanks and a 2-mounted fuel tanks is 2600 kg. Most real speed 572 unit / 0.93 Mach, service ceiling 41,000 ft (12,500 m). Airframe design withstands overload from +8.0 to -3.0, the aircraft can withstand an overload of 7.0 at a speed of 450 knots (830 km / h) at an altitude of about 3,000 feet or overload 6.0 at an altitude of 10,000 feet.
Takeoff speed and distance to the runway configuration without suspension assemblies are respectively 113 and 550 m, landing speed and distance run — 103 site and 750 meters Restrictions crosswinds — 30 knots. Leading edge flaps, flaps in the take-off and firing position and stabilizer trim tabs are controlled by automatic means of CDS, while setting the flaps in the landing position and management of huge airbrake at the top of the fuselage by the pilot.
Other design features of the aircraft is onboard oxygen plant (BKDU), the auxiliary power unit (APU), which provides start-up engines, ground and cabin air conditioning system board spare Energy.
Russian plane different from the M-346 that can be used on unpaved airfields due to a combination of several technical solutions:
— Protective flap vozduhopoglotitelya managed CDS on the ground;
— Upper air intake opening when lowering the flaps of the main;
— Landing gear lever type with low pressure tires.
The plane is equipped with modern on-board integrated automatic control system to reduce the need for technical support. Instructor pilot in the rear cockpit, as in the M-346, sits above a cadet pilot in the front cockpit. Cabs are separated from each other and locked common lantern. For both pilots provided ejection seats K-36, allowing to leave the plane at zero values of speed and height to control the bailout. Any section of the lantern is equipped with recoil charge for breaking the lamp during ejection.
My fear was a senior pilot pilot ipytatel «Yakovlev» Hero of the Russian Federation Oleg Kononenko. I had to take a frontal chair and perform absolutely fly as a military pilot, the aircraft performing the assessment. My goal was to try to evaluate the list of tasks that the Yak-130 is able to actually do in the context of the needs of the Air Force XXI century.
This flight from the runway airport Irkutsk Aviation Plant 12 km from the center of Irkutsk, exceeding 1470 feet above sea level.
Weather conditions for the flight: the lower edge of the cloud — 600 m, the top — 2000 m, visibility — 8 km, wind — 320 degrees / 25 knots gusting to 30 knots, pressure — 948 hPa, and ambient temperature — 10 º C.
We did a flight on pilot demonstration swatch Yak-130 «Yakovlev», serial number 02, registration number 131. Aircraft made in accordance with the technical criteria for all that it is running more control and recording equipment. From 1600 kg of fuel in internal tanks and 8 pylons our common flight mass, including 2-pilots was 8040 kg. CDS option of the aircraft were set to the average mass of the aircraft.
I was on flying gear Russian production, including antigravity suit and helmet ZS equipped with a bracket for mounting a monocle NSTS, although in this flight, he had not been established. The cockpit is spacious and comfortable, not unique, but modern, with a logical assembly, large keys, which can be switched gloves. All switches are located in the zone «3-9 hours» from the strip housing pilot.
In the device in the front cabin — three in a row electrical functional display (MFD) 6 x 8 (15 x 20 cm). The left display shows a typical set of devices flight of information. Tactical situation and navigation information displayed on the central display. Right LED displays information from the built simulator radar, weapons status, EW systems and aircraft systems. Pilot can change the information displayed on all MFIs menu keys.
Display area on the disk imaging IFI the Yak-130 is almost twice as much as the aircraft Hawk 128, which established the MFI size 5 x 5.
IFIs placed on the combined remote control, and above it — HUD. On each side of the remote control sensor is located NSTS for targeting missiles R-73. As in the M-346, I really liked the controls engines (ORE), mounted on horizontal rails on the left wall of the cabin, leaving such Makar, lower left free for other control switches.
Management system «without taking your hands off the lever control sliders and knobs control aircraft (RUS)» MiG-29M2/35 imitated. Management Simulator radar HUD selection modes with guns, brake flap switch located on the throttle, and the control buttons and armament flight regime — in Russian. Despite the fact that the plane with the number 02, which I did the flight had Russian digital cockpit with the metric system of measurement (meters, speed in km / h), the Company «Irkut» can create the Yak-130 with Western Digital unit with Russian measurement system (ft, knots). At the request of the customer can also be set indicators and controls the throttle and RUS, MFIs used on other front-line fighters. This will be a very key moment in the probability of sale for export.
Log cabin in a little platform was used, although the plane has a foldaway ladder. Strapped and turning my head, I could see the tip of the tail feathers. So Makar, in my estimation, my region of the radial angle was 320 degrees, which is perfect for the training of air combat.
Lantern, filled counterweights, disclosed on the right side and locked manually for simplicity and reliability of operation. The motor is in our case from the electronic ground power with alternating sequential automatic inclusion of both engines by pressing only one button start.
With loaded navigation systems we were ready for taxiing after about three minutes after launch. CDS has established automatic leading edge flaps, flaps and trims in take-off position, which, in my opinion, is an additional advantage of the training and it is very necessary for at least some fighters who could potentially carry a wide arsenal of weapons of different masses and sizes.
CDS manages automatic doors and upper vozduhopoglotitelya vozduhopoglotitelya opening them during takeoff and landing closing dependent on speed, and completely inconspicuous pilot and have no effect on craving.
Acceleration was quite sharp with a margin of front wheels at speeds of 190-200 km / h reached in about 12 seconds after removal from the brakes and 800 meters runway. After separation of the front wheel plane began a rapid rise to the pitch angle of 20-25 degrees. Flaps and leading edge flaps were driven CDS machine without noticeable balancing configurations. The plane was put in level flight at an altitude of 3000 m and a speed of 400 km / h
Efforts on the control handle of the axes were very small, and the centering RUS (spring acts) was strong. Small differences RUS led to a clear reaction of the aircraft, so that consistency in the management of ailerons and elevator was just awesome, close to the traditional 1:2 ratio. Large installed in the upper part of the fuselage speed brake (or released in the retracted position) was very effective and caused minor vibration on the keel.
In conjunction with the uniqueness RELIABILITY
With the loss of 3 four-channel system CDS machine crosses on alternate digital channel, in addition, instructor pilot may elect this alternate CDS in training mode. With all of this, even in alternate mode plane accurately controlled. This is different from the previous generation fighters, which provide a common CDS in case of failure only return to the point.
Evaluation of the CDS mode «heavy aircraft» and «light aircraft» showed obvious configuration effort on RUS, but the general feeling they were also quite a fighter type.
With the return to the «middle plane» at an altitude of 3000 m plane slowed down to low speed and align the horizon in the «first stop» CDS began to pick up the pitch angle of 25 degrees. This was accompanied by a sound alert on the British language «limiting the angle of attack.» With advanced training limiter can be set at an angle of attack of 35 degrees, which is almost twice higher than that of many other jet trainer aircraft of the same category.
In all modes, the restrictions provided antispin plane CDS protection. We gained altitude of 10 000 m, and with all limiters disabled CDS I went into a tailspin left with 2 turns. Spin mode was quite measured as pitch and yaw with uniformly low speed yaw. Output from the spin was immediate when the pH of the central position and return RUS almost neutral. Coming out of the dive with overdrive four units, the aircraft was aligned at an altitude of 6,000 m for the first time in my life I did a spin on a jet plane with the CDS, and felt that this is a very impressive multi-functional capabilities of the aircraft.
Most tilt angular velocity was 160 degrees per second, which was set to the Russian Air Force, but as required angular velocity can be increased. When barrels fixations accurately set start / end tilt angle of 90 degrees. When the loop on the entry speed of 550 km / h with an angle of attack of 15 degrees needed to 1700m, and with maintaining the angle of attack of 25 degrees only took only 1,000 m
In addition to other functionalities CDS created for security, there is a button on the plane, «leading to the horizon» to align the aircraft nose-up mode and dive. In both cases, the system was highly effective.
Weather conditions did not have allowed us to assess the implementation modes weapons «air-surface», but the Yak-130 is able to machine out of the dive in the attack, if there was danger of collision with the ground.
During the flight, I used the HUD, similar preinstalled on most of the MiG-29 and Su-27 Russian Air Force and similar aircraft on the HUD Tornado GR1. In this regard, my only advice «Irkut» (especially in cases of modernization for future exports) — Wide-set modern HUD, which supports widescreen display of flight, navigation and combat of information. Such indicator corresponds to the potential of this aircraft.
We came back to Irkutsk with autopilot engaged and indicated the direction of the tool system for ILS landing runway. The aircraft has an impressive ability to perform additional automatic landing in pairing mode the autopilot and instrument system of automatic landing. But the criteria tailwind approach with non-long pass at an altitude of 60 m has been replaced by two visual range. With all this I drove the plane manually. Speed on the second turn was 300 km / h, at the base turn — 270 km / h, and the final entry — 250 km / h with an angle of attack of 10 degrees on landing.
This pilot flaps 40 degrees led to a small wind shaking the stabilizer, but its impact was minimal. I delivered a true pleasure to fly a plane manually with clear visual scheme, Myagenkaya touch. After departure, which lasted a little more than an hour, we taxied to the parking lot and turned off the engines. Remaining fuel to be 450 kg.
Opportunity to evaluate the Yak-130 has become for me an epiphany. I believe that the aerospace industry is coming to the end of the period, when the planes were divided into western and eastern. Design, engineering and manufacturing competence demonstrated in Irkutsk, at the present time are Western. Sighted consumers will use the maximum capacity offered this fact.
Some of the planes that I have flown, are decent trainer aircraft, some of them are decent light attack aircraft. But the Yak-130 in full makes both of these functions, showing originality of design solutions combined reliability, manageability management coupled with power.
Though what the Air Force commander would be glad to be armed with such versatile aircraft as the Yak-130. This explains the huge range of tasks that the aircraft can do perfectly applicable price and capabilities built-in digital equipment.
Our homeland has received virtually perfect plane own class, and for many of this training and combat aircraft is very close to, to ensure the formation of their own Air Force XXI century on the basis of one brand of aircraft.