Ivan Saverchenko "Eastern Slavs began writing in Polotsk"
The publisher of "Logos" was released that "Old Belarusian literature (XII — XVII centuries).. Invested edition, wrote to him entry and comments, also translated many works for this book Ph.D, Senior Researcher, Institute of Literature of the State Academy of Belarus Ivan Saverchenko. it questioned our correspondent Valentina Aksak.
Valentine Aksak: "This book seems to be — the result of your scientific work even several years and decades. Is this true?"
Ivan Saverchenko: "Indeed, the old Belarusian literature I started in 1980. At that time, we knew almost nothing about the monuments of our old literature. During these 20 6 years, I saw a huge amount of public luxurious masterpieces of literature. This — pearls and art, and intellectual and philosophical. I work together with my colleagues, Belarusian medyyavistami, and use the experience of colleagues from other states. "
Aksak: "you have said that in his own research based on the experience of entire schools of our neighbors near and far. And tell me why so extensively in Belarus were not interested in their own old literature? Or these texts were inaccessible, or for some other reason? "
Saverchenko: "When I started doing this in the 80s, these millennial achievements of our people is not the number of significant, even the number of this rubble. But this does not mean that there were people who did not realize this value. Fomich Alexander Korshunov, Viktor Darashkevich, Nikolai Prashkovich Adam Osipovich Maldis — they understand the importance of this, but not always able to translate their scientific eyes. And that’s really only use self-government, the democratic process that began after 1986, have allowed to make certain centers for research, including These themes in educational programs from that gave the opportunity to go to a more acceptable level of understanding of our cultural, philosophical, literary heritage. "
Aksak: "Or maybe the whole thing in English? These works are not written language which we now call the Belarusian literary language. I recall that one of the researchers old Belarusian literature, namely," The Life of Euphrosyne ", Alexey Melnikov read that this work is written in old Russian language … "
Saverchenko: "Our language spoken Belarusian language millennium. This ancient language. Another thing — the literary language. Writing have appeared in the ninth century, and the first product — the tenth, after the Slavic alphabet made of Cyril and Methodius. Soon after that in Polotsk, Turov appeared first teacher, who very quickly began to expand their literary language. It was largely Old Bulgarian, Old Church Slavonic, or as we now call it, the Old Slavonic. But as soon as he appeared in our land, began a profound effect on her conversational state of the Belarusian language. And all written monuments since we have it figured impact. Walked a very long process of impact — from the tenth to the fourteenth century. And in the fourteenth century has dominated the literary texts specifically starobeloRussian language. There was a long period of — a few hundred years — naysurezneyshyh discussions about it. Shoal Smotritskii, Athanasius Philippovich Zizany Lawrence Francis Scorina — they advocated the need for the development of literature in the national language. Others were that pretty Latin, Hebrew and Greek. It was a philological discussion. And it was not only in our country, she was in Italy, France, Germany, Great Britain. "
Aksak: "The question of genre in which created the old Belarusian literature, models of which are included in this book. Does our old literature such genres as intimate poems?"
Saverchenko: "Even if you take the" Prayer "Cyril of Turov, then Look for it at them. As they are modern, as not much has changed in the knowledge that the man and his relationship with nature, its internal vibrations, his experiences, his trouble. Virtually any of "Prayers" Cyril of Turov — it not only appeals to God, it is the deepest philosophical arguments, this clearance in the most intimate words, it was a person of the twelfth century. And so gentle genres, public relations reflected ladies and men, as we have in our old literature. will call "A Tale of azhenstva Barbara Radziwill and Sigismund II Augustus." This work with elements avanturnastsi, it’s about how majestic prince visited by Barbara NIGHT MODE to his capture her brothers, the story unfolds very exciting. "
Aksak: "And what work in our literature is considered to this day the oldest?"
Saverchenko: "I can only express about their worldview. Our sumptuous monuments of literature emerged in the tenth century, and more earliest known work is" The story of the plague in Polotsk. " Specialists concluded that naturally existed Chronicle Principality of Polotsk. There are certain text units in the chronicle works — stories, short stories, notes — which we consider the following excerpts from Polotsk chronicles from the tenth century. However, between our scientists and Russian is on this score inside, until controversy. They are not willing to accept the fact that our letapisanne our literary culture ahead of Novgorod, and that the Eastern Slavic civilization, of course, began with Polotsk. This was the beginning of writing the eastern Slavs, there were written excellent works. And I authoritatively declare that these works are, they are prepared, and in the recent time with them readers acquainted. "
Creators and works
MARINA Natalich "write in Belarusian Vasil Bykov I recommend"
Own seven books she published under the name Marina Natalich, many 10 others indicated framework of its second name — Natalia Davydenko. Over 20 5 years in publishing "Fiction" and "Logos" she edited the whole library, many classics and novice mention her good word. In prose Natalich Marina is the geographical location of the Pacific Ocean to Minsk … With Belarusian writer that has no Belarusian roots Michas met Scoble.
Michas Scoble: "Marina, you were born already in the Far East, in the town of Vanina. Who were your ancestors?"
Marina Natalich: "My father was a soldier, mother — honey sister. She arrived in Busan on rassredotachivaniyu. There my ancestors met, and — I was born."
Scoble: "You have a perfect Belarusian language. And some Belarusian roots do you have?"
Natalich: "No, no. Only Russian and Ukrainian, my great-grandfather — a Ukrainian Kharkov out. Belarus I came in already a student, I was 20 years old. My way lay through Belarus to the Urals, where I spent my childhood, these places I warmly recall. Later was Arenburskiya steppe, in the town where I graduated from high school, Clear. So it was that place on earth which can be call the family home, I do not. "
Scoble: "Until nedavneshnego time you wrote poetry and prose in the Russian language. Currently writing and Belarusian. Why?"
Natalich: "Learning to write in Belarusian I had in publishing" Fiction ", where I worked for over 20 years the editor. It was a working language. I remember preparing a collection of memoirs about Poltoran Faith, a very dear person to me. Well, I could write about it in Russian? Only in Belarusian! A first own verse in Belarusian, I could not even see how to write. It was a response (as it seemed to me — everyday) on translation of Gregory Baradulin. Was taken in the newspaper "The Banner of youth."
It is written in Belarusian pushed me and review Vasil Bykov, who read one of my books of poetry and said: "It has long been time to write to her in Belarusian." There are times, there are memories, there is a feeling that the soul asks specifically expressed in Belarusian. Clarify that I can not, because the soul itse
lf operates. "
Scoble: "You worked for many years editor. Which most memorable books on your editor’s desk?"
Natalich: "I was fortunate to be editor such people, as Ales Adamovich, Vladimir Kolesnik, Misha Mushinskii Gennady Kiselev, Adam Maldis … In such prominent Russian scholars like Eugene Nemirovsky and Yuri Labyntsav who wrote about Skarina. Were simply unforgettable meeting. All the creators of amazing and memorable to me books. "
Scoble: "You grew up and grew up in Russia, about the same number lived in Belarus. What for you seen differences between Belarusians and Russians?"
Natalich: "Belarusians — more private people. They are more cautious in expressing feelings. It is not always easy to talk with Belarusians do something together. I always obliged to restrain their emotions, as the sincerity and openness at times perceived as something alien. And it makes certain tasks in the relationship. But all this is not very significant, as the basis of human relations lie goodness of heart, sincerity and credulity. If they are, then there is nothing stopping people to be friends. "
Scoble: "You — created four collections of poetry and two books of prose-uh, written in Russian. Somehow it happened that Russian writers were more in the newly formed, pro-government Union of Writers. Did not invite you there?"
Natalich: "I was asked if I wanted to go to an alliance. So I answered — everyone decides where he be friends with anyone where to go. This is a human right. At Alliance Belarusian writers took me. And I was pleased that I was accepted into friendship. And to go with this friendship, I think currently unfeasible. I like to be with my friends in our Union of Belarusian Writers. "
Scoble: "Wanting to write — is to convey information, which does not allow you to rest. This need very soul," — you write in his book "Funky Chunks youth". But to write — it’s not always convey. Either you such writings — currently in the table — do not recognize? "
Natalich: "I admit I admit writing in a box … Write" Me "is released, regardless of my confession. At least, for me. Despite the fact that I was able to publish his book. But I betrayed them for their own means. assistance from the country or from sponsors was not. And with such books once you’re staying abroad to the literature, which they say, which first draws attention criticism. Though I can not say that my books have gone unnoticed. And yet now I from time to time required to write the table. Going with printing nowhere in particular. I offered several Russian publications. But I do not think there is likely to publish. So goes. "
MARINA Natalich. PERASTVORANAE light
Woman watering flowers on padakonni. Was a sunny June. The war began.
— I go to the front, and you’re icing flowers — asked the woman, giving her neighbor room key.
Four years have passed. Neighbor just died in the apartment settled strangers zenitchytsa girl returned from the war alive — mangled, infinitely lonely and ancient, quite ancient. All the people she loved and remembered, died gone, dead.
Dried flowers on padakonni stood as if vypetranyya skeletons.
"I’ll go to war while you glaze flowers …"
How did I remember? ..
Holy hatred — does not exist. She — rotten swamp from which imperceptibly out alive water, escaping from evil. Swamp muffled overgrown grass affectionate, rootless shrubs, saplings curves. Nutro dry, compressed into peat. Enough random sparks — and dark deposits hatred begin to smolder, acrid smoke and the stench of blind eyes, smother all life. Invisible fire devours the insides, and at one point, the ground underfoot falls and ash depths disappear grass, sloppy kids — and the soul, harried hatred.
Holy hatred — does not happen. She — hitretskaya trap hell. She — the destruction of the soul.
Holy is only love that creates, creates new worlds. DO NOT walk misleading soul not ruined.
Foreign language — as the fall. You nadkusvaesh her — Eve apple and forever atruchvaessya stranger temptation, this tricky poison zaniyu others depths and mysteries. You zlizvaesh intoxicating juice of the bite, you lyubuessya grains unknown fact, prasvechvayutstsa through its depth. I zapalvaessya desire to solve it. I did not immediately zdagadvaessya that poisoned unexpected love forever. You’re passionate fans, you stingy thief foreign treasures, you are their captive, you are their faithful servant.
You love someone else as his — no salvation for you.
Funeral Bykov. Who live closer to the Eastern cemetery, came there in advance. Tomb of the platform, covered with reddish. On the ground continued police ribbon with the inscription:
"The police, the entrance was forbidden."
Fit two intelligent grandmother. Stare. Policeman sternly:
— Stepping impossible.
They closely read the inscription:
— So who is not? What did you have for such a smart ass? Read: "The police …" Point at least predict, because the appeal goes to the police. That’s for you just can not go out …
Puzzled grammar police decent words to answer finds. Ladies go, arranged for someone bench. Expected to exchange words. Near relentlessly trampled asanisty man in civilian clothes, but as a former guerrilla razvedchytsa notices, not civilian shoes. Well, the reason shtryfel adtapyrvae jacket. Jokingly pushes sideways friend:
— Look, Maya, careful …
Campaigner who has little znudiusya waiting condescendingly:
— Do not be afraid …
— And why should we be afraid, this is for you still have to fear … And what rank you will — Captain, Major?
— Colonel — not help but brag.
— But service and you …
Well, my grandmother gave reluctantly everything they think — and about the present day, and about power, and about the main-title, which, at night looking better not to remember. Colonel listened with delight.
— Was glad to be seen. 10 reports of materials enough — pasmihnulasya former guerrilla in this sad day …
Michas Tychina. LIBRARY exists eternally
The Library of Babel: Foreign literature in translation Nasha Niva. — M.: Logvinov, 2007. — 270 p.
One of my friend humanities, being retired, fiction, what to do with home library that lovingly collected all his life. Making the end of life is that all wisdom book did not make him smarter and professional than nature gave it all the books evenly drag in second-hand bookshops. Kept for himself only the Bible. Book books, where there are answers to all aboriginal issues that we are looking for and do not find the answers.
The tale of Jorge Luis Borges’ The Library of Babel, "which became the title of a collection of translations of foreign stories posted in the weekly" Nasha Niva ", describes" people Libraries. " In other words, the inhabitants of the book of the universe, who throughout his life wandering in search of a book, "a directory of all directories." In the book of Revelation says about this book, sealed with seven locks. But to take this book and to open its seals can only Son of God, who "with his own blood redeemed us to God out of every tribe and tongue and people and nation" (5:9). Biblyatekary ordinariness, as the same Borges, Director of the State Library of Argentina Like many fans of the book, ultimately fruitless search come to the conclusion that the Library — is a sphere whose center is everywhere and nowhere directly. Library What is eternal. As the number of characters (letters) is 25 digit, random connection and fantastic compositions which and make endless huge number of books that are "on their for themselves do not mean anything."
All of us, including the publishers of "Nasha Niva" live misleading notion that "these books are written by some incomprehensible distant extinct languages." Borges mentions the book, "
incomprehensible, like all others," whose language Deshifrovalschikom resulted as "Samoyed-Lithuanian dialect of Guarani ending with traditional Arabic." In the end, we come to another conclusion: "In all the great library no 2 -hoo similar books. "This confirms the reading almost 3 x 10-s stories in the sample of" Nasha Niva ".
By the way, about the genre of narrative in his more Western version. This is not just our Belarusian uniform description, and that, by definition of Edgar Allan Poe, a novel which opens the book and, "a work that can be read directly in less than two hours, which focuses on a specific, unique action." Anton Chekhov, the creator of the phrase "brevity — the sister of talent", then read on 7 pages, however, drukapisu. Agreed with him Yanka Bryl.
It is about a small literary text with a conventional plot, economic, dense writing, quick interchanges. These were at one time stories storyteller occasionally, "nashanivtsav" Karusya Kagantsa, Yadvigin Sh of early Kolas. In the story of Ray Bredbery "Nothing new or destroyed What dog?" In fact, the story is retold tales of the Belarusian "A man and a gentleman," where Stopak who knows how to read with the gentlemen, all questions are answered neutral "everything is fine" or " nothing new ": it all starts with the fact that broke manor penknife, which beat of a dead dog skin, and concludes the story of that country estate burned down, and Mrs. died.
Ray Bredbery stories, Edgar Allan Poe, Bruno Schulz, Max Frysha, Zhudite Maria de Carvalho, Raymond Karvera, William Trevor Bell Gaynryha belong to the genre that the British call "storu." In other words, a little story, in the base which zhytststsevy phenomenon, an unusual occurrence, unexpectedly, as if lightning moment, suddenly opens the psychology of the person claiming the modern theory of human beings fundamentally zagadkavastsi that not only do not know the other excellent, and the creature itself. Our classics — from Maxim and Misha Goretskogo Zaretsky Janka Bryl and Vyacheslav Adamchik — possessed mastery display types cranks, clowns, Bayduny.
In almost all the stories in the book one degree or another by the presence of mind burning allusions and references to modern Belarusian situation. In the story of Siegfried Lenz "Adherent government" Bella Bonzi delineated character, a man who, even despite the fact that his son was tortured, hard to say, "All governments are, all of them to suffer … This government we know, and those others only promise … We in this government, hear, I — for this government. " Bonzi not out of the cohort of conservatives, which are no arguments. He even own reasoning philosopher: "What are we with the independence, when the country was impoverished. And this government implements our products abroad. He took care of the construction of roads, hospitals and schools. Ennoble He lands and build even more …"
So no one thinks Bonzi. Sprechnikav walked past a man with a scythe, and the questions that are answered by Bonzi, "man angrily shook his head: he was hot supporter of the government, and Bonzi met each of its recognition with a quiet triumph." Almost all behavior these people clarifies final observation of creation: "In the end the men shook hands at each other as if to cement our presence in their shared commitment to the government." Learn fellow Belarusians? It’s about their Janka Kupala time said that their "soul of the public is still asleep," that they are guided by the rule: "You can have a view of the world, to think more, read the third and fourth to do."
In the story Jose Pablo Fein "Country of Fools" Gaynryha Boll "As in bad novels," Ephraim Kishon "A key to reddish", Nicholas Rabchuk "To cling on day of birth"Olga Tocarciuc" Dr. Andrews in Warsaw "reader simply select precise allusions to familiar realities of our daily existence. Kishon In the above story is told about the inquiry why the tragedy with supersamaletam, which in the end it was all about the behavior of ordinary campaigners unclear Rudy: chain vzaemazalezhnastsi people of different professions broke specifically on it, "but Auburn took the key from the box and went down to the lobby, it was found in bufetse, but he left there almost 10 minutes reversed — apparently went to the football, and home phone it does not have a key in it, and what you do here … "
Not recall this line from the letter we Ales Adamovich, Vasil Bykov written immediately after the Chernobyl disaster: "I have to go to scientists in Moscow. Highbrow curious to ask: meets or does not meet the physicist, chemist, etc., if it is terrible gizmo justifies, implements, irresponsible drunk (or hungover) "Uncle John"? "But to answer this question, it is necessary to read texts zabugornyh novelist of the book" The Library of Babel. "