Belarusian Dvina

"Pilgrimage began in the afternoon of August 13 Reddish church in Minsk. Way lay through the deepest through Braslaw through the land of blue lakes. Latgale also called land of lakes. First acquaintance with Latvia came in Daugavpils. We went into the church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, where we were greeted by the parish, and in turn we learned that once served in this church and our priest celebrating Mass — rector of the Church of St. Simon and St. Lena in Minsk — Vladislav Zavalniuk. pays homage to Moms of God, bowed before the altar, talked prayer thanks and moved on.
A few miles to the village of our buses braked because it was decided to enter into Aglona foot. In the evening, under the rays of the setting sun, a column of several 10’s of people slowly moved toward the basilica. The breeze waving flags with the emblem of Minsk — the figure of the Virgin on a blue background.
Mother of God Aglona, Belarusians welcome you!
"The voice of the soul," 25 August 2007 ".
Vyacheslav Rakytskyy: "And in the Minsk studio without barriers we talk with historian Oleg Troussov. Sovereign Oleg already the third year in Latvia sent pilgrims from Belarus. Why?"
Oleg Cowards: "They go to their native land. A principal place of Belarusian Latgale long been the Dvina, which the Germans called Dinaburg and Latvians — Daugavpils".
Rakytskyy: "When did this city and why he has different names?"
Cowards, "the first Slavic inhabitants near the place where he later built the Dvina, appeared in 10 — 11 centuries. This time, Polotsk was when the government of the Baltic Sea and had two of its colonies, two vassal principality — Gertsyk and Kukenoys. But the situation has changed dramatically first 13th century, when the Crusaders captured Polotsk colony. In 1214 Polotsk prince Vladimir recognized this fact. To consolidate his power, the Crusaders in the late 13th century laid the strong castle, which is dubbed Dinaburg. And later appeared around a big city, which has long called Belarusians Dvina. "
Rakytskyy "So makarom, the city belonged to the Livonian Order. Neuzh something Belarusians do not want to connect the city to the state of their own? "
Cowards, "hope. So, in times of Vytautas the city was twice taken by his troops — in 1403 and 1418 respectively. But forever hold in their hands the Dvina Vytautas failed."
Rakytskyy: "And if I was able to?"
Pant: "If I could, Belarusians would have strong port, through which came to trade with ganzeyskimi towns."
Rakytskyy: "And when the situation has changed in favor of the Nation?"
Cowards, "During the Livonian War. Then there is another colony of Belarus, and the capital of the principality Zadvinskaga or Inflyandkaga became Dinaburg. "
Rakytskyy: "But we know that the city passed from hand to hand, and in the late 16th century, the city and the castle captured troops of Ivan the Terrible. As is reflected in sight town?"
Pant: "The city has long consisted of several parts. First knight’s castle built between the Germans and the lake probe Western Dvina. Dünaburg in New Castle built our lord Stepan Batura in 1582. Both the current city is located next to the castle."
Rakytskyy: "What orders were established in a new Belarusian colony?"
Pant: "Former medal possession lord gave his people, and the power of the German feadalav significantly decreased. State religion here again became Catholicism, built new temples and Jesuit college. But soon the war with Sweden, and the first blow dealt specifically Swedes Zadvinskae duchy . After the war, the southern part of Estonia and Latvia with Riga captured Swedes, and there was only ON Latgale ".
Rakytskyy: "18th century. Who were the owners of these lands — the descendants of Germans, Russian or local know?"
Cowards, "It was kind of famous Belarusian Earls Plater. They had this town from 1730. Especially famous last Mstislavsky governor Louis Plyater. In 1752 he built a beautiful palace here with a garden in the town — the town hall with a tower, hotel courtyard, hospital and Convent of Sisters of Mercy. "
Rakytskyy: "As fate Dvinska after the partition of Poland?"
Pant: "Our homeland Latgale captured back in 1772 during the first section. Specifically, at this time the Belarusian population here has increased substantially. Dvinshchyna very very hit in 1812, at the time of the Napoleonic Wars. French troops killed this place. And the center of cultural life becomes neighboring Kraslava. There Adam Plater — a graduate of the Institute of Vilna, a member of the Vilna Archaeological Commission — in his estate did the museum, library and archive. Prosperity — the first third of the 19th century. Russians are building a strong fortress here. regular event — it is the railroad construction . Immediately was built and the river port to trade on the Western Dvina. Apart Belarusians there were Jews, Latvians, Russian Old Believers who fled here back in a couple of Rzeczpospolita. Dvinska All the villages around were largely Belarusian. received the title of City in Dvinsk 1893. So he was called up in 1920. "
Rakytskyy "feel themselves Belarusians Dvinske Belarusians? There Is there a Belarusian movement?"
Pant: "There was also, curiously, very early. Origins of this movement — in the Dvina school, which was opened in this town back in 1831. Blossom Belarusian movement on Dvinshchyne seeking after the 1905 revolution. Acted more intensively Belarusian revivalists in Dvinsk and Lucyna. Prior to this all-Epimah-Shipil and Gavronsky. Ignat also worked here Buynitsky Konstantin Ezovitov, Karus Kaganets Vaclav Lastouski Ivan Lutskevich. Also here worked extensively Yevdokim Romanov, who conducted excavations Lutsin famous cemetery. Rezhytskim county was born in an eminent scientist Boleslav Brezhga — one of the founders of archival work in Belarus, a famous archaeologist, philologist and historian. According to the census of 1897 in 3 counties today Latgale lived about 80 thousand Belarusians.
Before the first World War I Dvina went to second place among Belarusian cities in terms of population. In Vilnius, whereas there were 200 thousand inhabitants, in Dvinsk — 120 thousand, in Vitebsk — 115 thousand, and in Minsk — 110 thousand. In 1920 in Riga was a government headed by Lastovskaya. Specifically on the areas of Latvia were written first Belarusian brand series "Private Order BPR." And on August 11, 1920, Lenin gave Latvia occupied by Polish troops three districts of the Vitebsk region — Dvina, Rezhytski Lutsin and also 4 million gold rubles. And later in 1921 and handed over Latvia Lithuania has almost 300 square miles in the county in Ilutskim Dvinska with more Belarusian population. "
Rakytskyy: "And what would happen if this does not happen?"
Pant, "I think that at the moment we would have what we wish so sparingly. We would have had a large river port on the Western Dvina. We would have had a very profitable economic situation and even less dependent on the neighbor to the east. "
Rakytskyy: "I remember my childhood, which took place near the border with Latvia. I remember with Glybochchyny, Mershchyny, Polochchiny Belarusians went to Riga or the same on the Dvina rubber galoshes. States there sausage and more, and it tastes better. Many went back to work, so yes there remained. Indeed whether in Latvia for Belarusians has always been a paradise? "
Cowards "Specifically so. Especially in the 1920s and first 1930s Belarusians Latvia was better than at home. Belarusians There were about 70 thousand. There were cultural and educational organizations" Fatherland "and" Belarusian House ", the Belarusian scientific -Lovers’ Society. Dvinska There then and Lutsin Belarusian gymnasium and a number of schools. Already in 1922 Belarusians got 46 schools, which taught in their native language three and a half thousand kids. "
Rakytskyy: "As Belarus is in modern Latvia?"
Cowards, "Even during the German occupation Belarusians Latgale had their starting school. Out and the magazine "New Way". But later, with the advent of the new Council of the Belarusian cultural life here braked. And yet Russian newcomer in time wave Belarusians moved to Latvia. They really went for rubber overshoes and sausage. And so makarom when there in 1959 was 62 thousand Belarusians, at the end of the existence of Russian Union — already 120 thousand. Of them — in Dvinsk enrolled Belarusians as many as 10 thousand people. After the restoration of independence of Latvia in Riga Belarusian gymnasium opened again, and came into existence in Daugavpils Cultural and Educational Association "up" and the Belarusian Sunday school. Also, there is a community of the International Fund Yanka Kupala. But in modern textbooks on the history of Latvia Belarusians are not even in terms of the peoples are presently live in Latvia. And some leaders of our common history have acquired such names that never Belarusian not find out in their own Polotsk princes. "
"To really gain a foothold in the lower reaches of the Daugava River, Bishop Albert forced ruler neighborhood Koknese Vetseke arrange
d in his own castle of the Crusaders squad. Waited Every moment Vetseke Knights defeated and drove them out of his own castle. Reactivate that forms the Albert in Riga more troops to destroy the castle, Vetseke burned the castle and with his people and belongings went to Russia. Koknese people bishop built stone castle. "
The "Conquest of Latgale". Textbook "History of Latvia", Riga, 2002 "

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