In Tajikistan

In Tajikistan

Natural and economic conditions of the Tajik SSR favor the development of horticulture and viticulture. In 1962, orchards and vineyards in the collective and state farms of the republic occupied 48 thousand hectares.

After the September (1953) Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee area of ​​orchards and vineyards in the Tajik SSR, especially in specialized farms, increased significantly. If the country as a whole from 1953 to 1962, the area of ​​the gardens increased by 2.7 times and 1.9 times in the vineyards, in sadvinsovhozah respectively — 7.1 and 5.3 times. Each year, farms produce about 10-12% of fruits and 30-36% of the grapes collected in the country.

Sadvinsovhozy become highly profitable model farm. Their success is due to specialization in the production of fruits and grapes, the most efficient and economical housekeeping, the introduction of mechanization and innovative agricultural practices.

In these farms can be more efficient use of favorable natural and economic conditions to increase production of fruits and grapes and reducing production costs.

Economic indicators in sadvinsovhozah significantly higher than in non-specialized state and collective farms.

On average in the republic on the farm accounts 101 hectares of gardens and vineyards, in the non-specialized farm — 230, and sadvinsovhoz — 557. The average yield fruit in sadvinsovhozah 2.3 times, while grapes in 4.7 times higher than in non-specialized farms.

Backlog of horticulture and viticulture in many collective and state farms specialized mainly due to organizational reasons. In these farms due to their specialized attention to all cotton. For this culture, they have good performance. For perennial plants are not well looked after, the vineyards are conducted vrasstil, t. E., Without tapestries, which excludes the possibility of mechanization; poorly organized fight against pests and diseases, resulting in a loss of commercial properties at 50-55% yield; thinning forests, in some cases up to 25-30, and in the collective Ura-Tube and Penjikent — 40-50%. Among other deficiencies should be noted landing nerayonirovannyh grades, violation of the size between rows and rows, no seals, poor work organization.

The possibility of increasing the economic efficiency of horticulture and viticulture in the country is enormous. This is confirmed by the experience of a number of advanced orchard and vineyard holdings. For example, in the four years (1958-1961) at the farm «Shahrinau» average fruit yield was 79 quintals of grapes and 187 quintals per hectare at a cost of quintals of fruits 8 rubles 70 kopecks and grapes 6 rubles 90 kopecks. Over the years, each hectare of fruit-bearing orchards gave an average of 1383 and 2917 rubles vineyards net income. For each ruble of production costs in horticulture is obtained 2 rubles 5 kopecks and viticulture 2 rubles 27 kopecks net income.

During the period from 1958 to 1961, State Farm has made significant progress «Isfara-Lyakkan.» Apricot orchards are given an average yield of 46.4 quintals per hectare at a cost of 7 quintals of fruits rubles 50 kopecks; per hectare received 926 rubles of net income and expenses for the ruble — 3 rubles 10 kopecks net income.

State Farm «Kurgan-Tube» on average over four years (1958-1961) grew grapes 217.2 tons per hectare; the cost of one quintal of 6 rubles 80 kopecks; the net income per hectare — 2867 rubles; on invested ruble received about 2 rubles of net income.

Advanced farms «Shahrinau» and «Kurgan-Tube,» the first in the country switched to neukryvnyh culture; all fruit-bearing and vineyards come into fruition in the two-plane trellis raised on concrete pillars. It is much more economical than a simple vertical odnoploskostnoy and improves yield by almost 2 times. Vineyards in these state farms are located mainly large blocks (15 — 18 ha) suitable for mechanized processing and irrigation.

The farm «Shahrinau», «Isfara-Lyakkan» and «Kurgan-Tube» differentiated approach to the choice of sites for fruit and grape plantations, depending on the requirements of individual varieties and breeds to soils and terrain conditions. It allowed greatly increase the economic efficiency of orchards and vineyards, and receive from each culture more products at a lower cost.

Widely applying mechanization, specialized farms is much reduce labor costs for the production of fruits and grapes. State Farm «Shahrinau» reduced labor costs for the production of fruits with 2.2 quintals of man-days in 1953 to 1 person-days in 1961, State Farm «Isfara-Lyakkan» respectively, from 3.2 to 1 person-day. In 1953 the farm «Kurgan-Tube» is spent on the production of grape quintal 4.5 person-days, and in 1961 1.1 person-days, or reduced labor costs by almost 4.1 times.

State farms earn high profits in the economy, «Isfara-Lyakkan» for four years (1958- 1961) the average selling price quintals of fruits was higher than the cost of 23 rubles 10 kopecks, «Shahrinau» — 17 rubles 50 kopecks. The average selling price quintals of grapes for the period exceeded the cost of the farm «Shahrinau» 15 rubles 60 kopecks and «Kurgan-Tube» for 13 rubles 20 kopecks.

The larger the area of ​​orchards and vineyards in the farms, the higher the cost-effectiveness of horticulture and viticulture.

It should be noted that the farm «Shahrinau» and other advanced economies the size of the impact of production on its effectiveness is enhanced more in the case where the individual stands recognized varieties occupy a single array without large gaps that hinder organizational and economic maintenance of gardens and vineyards.

It requires that the sadvinsovhozah and collective area of ​​orchards and vineyards were large and housed a single array, which will greatly improve the efficiency of horticulture and viticulture.

In the republic until 1970 under orchards and vineyards is scheduled to take more than 45 thousand hectares, of which 36 thousand irrigated. It is advisable in these lands organize specialized garden and winegrowing farms.

In the collective and state farms are not specialized in the production of fruits and grapes, it is necessary to conduct on-farm specialization, organize gardening and winegrowing team.

The creation of new specialized state farms will provide an opportunity to significantly increase the production of fruits and grapes. This will contribute to the implementation of the intensification of farming through the introduction of comprehensive mechanization, extensive use of fertilizers and chemical measures to combat pests and diseases of crops, the use of irrigated land, the introduction of scientific achievements and advanced experience.

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