From time immemorial Russian people gave birth arranged for beauty. The songs and legends, in the thread and embroidery, they sang the world surrounding them, decorated the world. How many original artists gave our land! And each of them create an image of Russia, drawing on their own experience, seeing her majestic lines in those places where he was born.
For many of our poets, writers, painters edge inspiration was my native Tver Region; They saw in him the whole of Russia — Motherland. Here — all the signs of her, «her boundless forests quivering, flooding it, these seas,» here and «wind song, and patterned boards up to the eyebrows,» and roads, roads, roads.
Ordinary Russian nature, does not seem anything remarkable — marginal lands, fields, studded with stones, but at the edges of birch alder, small river, swamp … How far all of the motives of the formal style that then prevailed in art. But this nature inspired Aleksei Gavrilovich Venetsianov landscape to create masterpieces. In order to fully devote favorite work, he resigns, throwing a career portrait of the capital and leaving his wife and two young daughters in Tver village Safonkovo. Getting used to new surroundings, the artist painted portraits of peasants and their children. Then there is the famous «Barnyard», which is already in full force problem is solved by the artist: «Do not portray otherwise than in nature is, and obey it alone ‘Venetsianov .Poyavlenie paintings at exhibitions in St. Petersburg, was an event. Talk about them, arguing wrote. «Finally we waited for the artist who drew a wonderful talent on the image of domestic, to represent objects around him, close to the heart, and our», — wrote the journal «Notes of the Fatherland.»
Venetsianov elated with success. He is passionate about the world opened before him, he is inspired by that world, the characters of peasants, scenes of life, unassuming, but the native landscape, every detail of which is dear to him, because it is Russian. And as if afraid to miss even a small line, the artist from any Pushkin directly transmits its signs: Christmas tree and alder bush, barn and river and infinitely family gave her. His inspired simple peasant faces, full of dignity, nobility and strength. His image of the peasants — not only the types, is the nature of this imagery.
Most famous was the picture Venetsianov «on the land. Spring. » It Venetsianov created a sublime image, bright and kind, in which the classical rigor and serenity combined with the popular notion of beauty — the beauty of motherhood, work, beauty, childhood, nature, life. The high-light the sky in the meadow with alders along the edges, running in regal peasant, in the baby — so Russian!
However, the top creative Venetsianov is the painting «On harvest. Summer. » Picture piercing and eternal truth, its advantages related to the best creations of Russian national school.
That deep truth that lies at the heart of creativity Venetsianov, fully consistent with his painting. It is so obvious simple as deep and complex. In it there is no «glamor» skill no «temperamental» strikes, dashing any whistling strokes. Hand and eye directed temperament true that all the terms of craft purposefully led to the truth.
From the very beginning of creative activity in Venetsianov he showed a tendency to vospitatelstvu, commitment to teaching activities, especially in front of him was an example of his teacher Borovikovsky. Arriving in Safonkovo he adopted for the creation of their school, which will be a unique phenomenon, both in domestic and in the world of art. Just a school artist-teacher went to seventy students. The last time a disciple of Venetsianov was Grigory Soroka — an artist of clear, bright talent and tragic fate.
Soroka was a serf N.P.Milyukova with which Venetsianov was long friendship and correspondence. His manor Islets are also on the Tver ground. A large landowner, the leader Vyshnevolotsk nobility, educated man who loved science and art, Milyukov, noting the ability to draw Gregory marked Venetsianov, brought him to the house, did the gardener, while permitted to engage and drawing. His vanity, perhaps flattered by the painter’s own possession. However freestyle Soroka did not want to give the owner, despite requests Venetsianov. Some historians believe that the persistent refusal to release Milyukova Soroka was the result of some fault of the artist in front of the landlord. What was the fault? And if it was not the reason that the land artist committed suicide?
Few works remain after him, but they were so full of love and harmony clear that the name of it is called now a number of talented local artists …
Tver region its poetic nature attracted the attention of Isaac Levitan, inspired him to create images of the deepest Russian landscape. Several years in a row he spends traveling along the Volga, along with friends of the artist. After Levitan went to Volga Tver province in the same place where once visited Pushkin, in the former «Vulfova ownership.» It’s hard to say why there was Levitan desire to travel to this region. He loved poetry, he loved Pushkin. Maybe someone told him about the beauty of the Tver land. Anyway, the spring of 1891, the artist comes here. There were created his outstanding works «The whirlpool», «Eternal Rest», «Dull Day», «March».
In the film «Eternal Peace» with great force showed a constant and painful desire to Levitan’s generalized image. «The terrain and the entire motive of the whole have been taken from nature — demonstrates Kuvshinnikova (…) Only the church was different in nature.» Indeed, the Church attributed to the scene, which was made Levitan during a trip to Ples.Okazavshis Udomlya in those places where Levitan «took» this motive, I was amazed at the creative processing of his way as a freelance artist subdued nature of its design. It was similar, and yet it was not so.
The lake Udomlya do not have such high banks, which offers to such a wide horizon. As for the «oval island», it is possible, Levitan wrote there «Dull Day» or something else with a low horizon, but this island barely rising above the reeds and sedges, and even more so his cape, of course, no way could serve as a kind of land, which is shown in the picture in the foreground. Levitan At the edge of the earth, it seems, almost a bird’s eye view, windswept. It captures the spirit of the height from which the artist looks at all. There probably occur in the memory bank of the Volga and the Volga steep expanse.
It emerged in the soul under the influence of the ideas and attitudes of time under the influence of poetry and music image vividly brought before the artist. He saw Levitan, probably one of the trips on horseback after a storm storm, when giant, fantastically shaped clouds covered the ground, heralding a new, perhaps more terrible storm. What person in front of the eternal and powerful element! It has arisen in the minds of the image was subordinated everything fell many of the details, will break away and was raised by the horizon, there were new contours of land and coastline, it is replaced by the church. It was created a generalized image of Russia. In the film sounded universal, eternal ideas and feelings.
Difficult birth process design. Sometimes he nurtured for years, and sometimes occurs suddenly and immediately, as if a spark steel whip, like autumn something. And the stormy day Udomlya Levitan dawned suddenly inspired, and he painted, which Pavel Tretyakov could say: «I’m all in it with all his psyche, with all my content.»
A year later, in mid-March, Levitan again comes to Tver land in the estate A.Turchaninovoy slides, and creates a «March». Only a year separates the «March» from the painting «Eternal Rest» and if two periods stood nearby. Glare of the sky, the snow, the rustling of the falling drops, tinkane tits squelch water, heat of the sun burst on the canvas. With excitement urged the artist to appreciate life above all else, it claimed, he was delighted with it.
«March» Levitan had a great influence on the young landscape Zhukovsky Byalynitsky-Birulya, Grabar and others. They were all passionate about this picture. It saw a new way of working on the landscape-painting. Straight from nature it opens the possibility to transfer the most complex mental states through the state of nature.
The beauty of the land of Tver won the heart of the artist. Is it not seen landscapes Levitan in France, in Nice, where he wrote AMVasnetsov: «I can imagine how lovely we now have in Russia — the river overflowed, all come to life (…) There is no better country than Russia! Only in Russia can be a real landscape. «
By this time the idea of the painting «The Lake.» Levitan brought to him thinking about Russia, about her life, which he lived in those years Udomlya. In the picture is seen Udomlya landscape, learn Udomelsky coast and countryside.
Solemnly float in the blue sky over the lake half-day clouds. They float on the beach with him sprawling on villages, swim, seems on the whole Russian land. Reflecting on their shaky surface of the lake, no, no yes and disrupt a light breeze, or a surge fishes — diverge circles, and then — silence and expanse of space. In the silence of blissful hours you can hear and feel a lot: and distant bells and harmonic modulations and cheerful song, and desperate cries — «pain and suffering, and happiness to live.» Looking at this picture, remember Nekrasov’s words: «Mother Russia.»
The intention now call «Russia» suggests that it was a special Levitan. He put in all this work is their understanding of Russia, all the love for her and all the faith in it — the picture was essentially the result of his life. And what was the moral demands of the artist, will not allow him to put the name.
Stanislav Zhukovsky, too, came out of the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Feeling great influence Levitan, for which he blamed the criticism, Zhukovsky persistently sought its way. This way he had seen in the picture to follow nature. Indelibly in his memory was «March» Levitan, who appeared for many artists revelation, a new word in Russian landscape painting. The painting, seen in nature, has become a cherished goal for Zhukovsky. Fidelity reported nature canvas particular spontaneity and grace, made it possible to solve the finest pleneristicheskih tasks. This method is intended to limit the strong-willed discipline, concentration of all creative forces, the crystallization of thoughts and feelings while working in nature, but above all, it requires a high spiritual world of the artist, his personality. All this was in Zhukovsky. This method is consistent with his temperament, though many this way led to the indiscriminate etyudopisaniyu that to this day makes itself felt in our landscape painting.
In the method as if Zhukovsky joined impressionistic quest with the principles of building a pictorial, with concrete represented world, the fortress forms rigor pattern so typical of the best examples of Russian art.
In the fall of 1899 in Venetsianov places in the village Poddube, Zhukovsky wrote landscape «Indian Summer», showing the way to Poddube. In this work, as it has shone a real Zhukovsky. In these places he painted «Moonlit Night», which brings him great success. The painting was purchased by the Tretyakov Gallery. For her, the author was awarded a large silver medal and was promoted to the class artist.
After graduation in 1901, Zhukovsky Tver runs on the ground — in Poddube, then in Vsesvyatskoye. There was still living heirs Milyukovs, treasured memories of Venetsianov and forty. Zhukovsky many around the county, is in the lake Udomlya, in places, glorified by Levitan. He writes, «Autumn Evening» in the snow, so similar to academic cottage, a long time the landscape was considered a written there. In Voronihe Zhukovsky creates a «March sun», «a touch of sadness.» It finally decided on the nature of creativity of the painter, his ability to be sensitive nature, to hear her quiet and see how the time goes. V1907 was awarded the title of academician Zhukovsky.
Criticism is no longer imitation Levitan wrote about it in his celebrated work «fresh, young, poetic feeling.» It is especially evident in the landscape «Dam». In this work, Zhukovsky claims to love the most ordinary Russian life. She transferred here to touch the air, to the sense of smell. Judging by the general silvery coloring of the day, the rapid melting of snow stop light frost. They keep the land along the layer of hardened snow will not see water. Murmurs in the dam cold dark water, pulling from-somewhere to smoke, rye aroma yes horse navoztsem … Everything in this picture is familiar and dear to every Russian.
One critic rightly observed that Zhukovsky «has secrets that possessed Kuindzhi, Levitan.» This is purely Chekhovian manner generalize landscape, subordinate it to the prevailing mood of almost the entire country. And it seems that’s the average Russian with dull, shy and poor nature.
In the spring of 1910 in Zhukovsky Vsesvyatskoye writes «The first harbingers of spring» — one of poetry. This picture will open the first page of the particular favorite genre in Russian art «windows», combines and still life, and interior and landscape. But the real masterpiece with a «window» will be created later in 1912, when the artist visited the estate of islets, in a house where there was Venetsianov, where he worked Forty where their work hung in the same places as seventy years ago.
An acute sense of a bygone life, the fate of people, reopen the era of the artist’s soul, it is excited, fascinated, inspired. The artist immediately started work. I think the first thing that Zhukovsky wrote here, then, was the interior «Poetry old noble house.»
And once in a large hall on the windows curtains were raised, and the bright spring sun shone all the time. Through the open window smelled warm, the smell of the awakening of the earth, the first greenery life. In those days, and was created by «Joyful Day» — one of the masterpieces of Zhukovsky, striking and still feeling the force of poetic mastery and brilliance.
All the best works of Zhukovsky is heat Pushkin’s poetry. They are invisibly present man, a man of high Russian culture, smart and slim, beautiful and fragile, there is his soul, born of the dream of the artist. Zhukovsky later admitted that he was — a great lover of antiquity, especially Pushkin’s time. All the better that the artist created, it was created on Tverskaya land. His works are imbued with a sense of anxious love for Russia, Russian culture and homeland. The artist said: «It is time to go to Paris for the modes, it is time to shake off centuries-old slave relationship, it’s time to have your face. Let us invoke the aid of national pride, self-acceptance, self-esteem and love more deeply his inexhaustible beauty of their homeland. «