Clonal selection — at the service of production

Until recently, the assortment of fruit and berry crops is improved due to new breeding varieties. Previous notions of immutability varietal characteristics of vegetatively propagated plants completely outdated.

Gardeners have not learned to consciously control clonal variability and have not studied its sources. Yet direct responsibility of workers of science and industry — the securities selection and elimination of unwanted variation within varieties.

Intravarietal selection greatly enriched the industrial assortment of fruit (especially apple) and berry crops in the Americas and Western Europe. This is accomplished primarily through the introduction of krasnoplodnyh bud-variation varieties of apple and pear partially. Krasnoplodnye clones in foreign horticulture are the subject of an intensive search, competition and noisy advertising. For example, a variety of nursery companies advertise more than 50 clones of apple varieties Delicious, different from the typical Delicious more attractive red color of the fruit. It should be noted that our domestic gardeners from time immemorial taken and diluted variation of the same type. So, Anis scarlet represents krasnoplodny clone varieties Anis gray, Sic blood red — krasnoplodnaya variation variety Sic, Cinnamon pineapple — krasnoplodnaya variation Cinnamon striped varieties. One clonal origin of these varieties are not in doubt. Important evidence of clonal and not the seed of relationship — almost complete coincidence of vegetative symptoms and signs of the fruit, as well as almost complete mutual neskreschivaemost.

Variations with larger fruit varieties such as Antonovka polutorafuntovaya Michurin not received significant propagation. Many of them were usually tetraploid, and their practical use impede their inherent disadvantages: coarse fruit pulp, poor productivity, and others.

Among bud-variation, there are those that have given rise to clones with a modified form, other ripening fruit and the duration of their keeping quality.

Changes occurring within the grades during its vegetative propagation, can affect any signs: morfologicheskie- size, shape, color fruit, leaves and physiological — yield, hardiness and others, although clonal (hereditary) changes in physiological nature are found less often than morphological deviations, and are less pronounced.

Changes can be harsh and weak, visible and hardly noticeable, positive and negative economically. They plant go in different directions and are the plant response to environmental conditions.

Breed characteristics can be improved by selecting varieties of trees and uterine selection of individual branches for cutting cuttings. Careless attitude to the selection of trees can cause tubal blockages grade undesirable deviations. When you create a purebred uterine plants zoned and promising varieties is necessary to consider two things.

First — intravariety selection aimed at maintaining the generated type varieties; This problem is solved by the method of mass selection (within grades) for the best combination of economically useful traits of plants intended for industrial breeding varieties. As a result of this selection, ongoing systematic testing and laying elitist-uterine gardens, nursery economy uterine funds are released varieties. At the same time the number of uterine trees should discard all the plants, which are the main features and properties of a typical representative of a full yield its varieties, in other words, to carry out a careful selection.

The second problem — intravariety selection, aimed at improving the common varieties in production by selecting, securing and comparative study lasting benefits (economically more valuable) deviations from the type variety. This problem is solved by the method of individual selection of trees or their branches sharply evaded type varieties in a positive way for one or more economically valuable attributes — hardiness, yield, size, flavor, color, shape and others.

The primary reproduction and a comparative study of the biological production and varietal variations identified by a special technique leading academic institutions on gardening, nurseries, has qualified personnel, schools and other institutions. Active participation in this work take aprobatory-production workers, as well as agronomists, gardeners experimenters-Michurinists.

Superior by clonal selection as a new variety is made and passes the relevant test.

We indicate permissible error on this issue. Some believe an improved clone of every noticed them in the garden in a positive deviation of varieties, believing that this form is only to multiply and get improved varieties. Meanwhile, science and practical experience have shown that not all changes in characteristics of the variety, which are found in its trees, genetic, that is such a deep and lasting that vegetative propagation transmitted to posterity. In many cases, both positive and negative deviations — a manifestation of the natural variation of the properties and characteristics of the plants with the same heredity. Such changes are unstable, they are not stored in the vegetative reproduction.

Therefore, the identification varietal variation (useful in evading varieties) can not be considered the ancestor clone improved varieties without appropriate checks on its heritability of vegetative reproduction. Varietal variation on a parallel study grafting in the crown (in the equivalent of the situation and development branch) cuttings taken with an emphasis on the type of varieties of trees or branches and typical plant varieties. Alternatively grown in a nursery for the maximum homogeneous suspensions seedlings from cuttings taken from the modified and typical tree, and further exploring the garden (10 plants in each embodiment). As a result of the pilot test should be clarified two questions: Does the varietal variation in vegetative progeny and its value.

Only if you answered yes to these questions, we have reason to talk about an improved clone varieties. In addition, it is necessary to establish whether this is a single varietal variation clonal origin with a typical variety, but not its seedling or other similar grade with him.

Meanwhile, the press often there are reports revealed numerous clones of popular varieties Antonovka ordinary, anise, saffron Pepin, Bere winter Michurin and others. Thus for improved clones of origin issued unexplored and untested on economic value and heritability items. Such irresponsible messages only mislead readers and create a buzz around unwholesome important, complex and very time-consuming work to improve existing varieties through clonal selection.

A great obstacle not only in clonal selection, but sortovedeniya general — lack of training agronomists-fruit growers, the lack of necessary knowledge pomological. This is evidenced by the facts of a serious confusion of varieties in orchards and nurseries and the presence of contaminants off-grade. Some of these impurities due to their greater or lesser resemblance to any known variety is often ranked among the clones, or variations of that class. Such impurities especially among the older local varieties such as Antonovka ordinary, the seeds are often used for growing rootstocks, and they gave a lot of forms, on grounds similar to the parent brand. Naturally, even with high merits of some of them, they do not have a unique taste and aroma of this variety Antonovka, which is quite full can have genuine clones of this variety, that is, the form caused by hereditary autonomic its variability.

In our view, mastering the techniques for successful clonal selection should be widely popularize it among agronomists, horticulturists and nurserymen, introducing specialist manufacturers with scientific principles and methodology of the case, as well as in-depth study of pomology courses on approbation.

However, the need to increase the responsibility of nurseries for pureness and high varietal seedlings produced usefulness, for the creation and proper use of elitist-uterine plants for reproduction in released varieties recommended for the collective and state farms percentages. To this end, in large fruit nurseries need to enter the position of pomology-breeder whose duties should include: organization and management and the proper use of elitist-uterine variety and rootstock-seed plants, providing the required production of the varietal composition of seedlings, testing varieties in the mother liquor, nurseries and gardens surrounding the collective and state farms, all the work to maintain and further improve the recognized varieties.

With such a setting, clonal selection of fruit and berry crops in the country will acquire a mass character, will become an integral part of the production work of nurseries. This will ensure the correct reproduction of released varieties and their further improvement, and clonal selection will be really at the service of production.

Another clone

Vegetative evasion of apple trees in the form of whole, or at least sufficiently large branches are rare. Practice shows that these deviations in most cases do not develop into skeletal branches and leaving only formations are overgrown and fruit bags, usually do not have significant continuing shoots. The identification of such entities, and their reproduction will help greatly enhance intravarietal selection.

In 1957, the crown of the tree Autumn striped varieties (at the farm, «agronomist», Lipetsk region), we found kolchatku with fruit bag and the only fruit; It differed from the typical varieties of this fruit (of the tree) of its unusually bright solid color coating. Kolchatku cut and planted in the crown of a young tree growing strongly. Three short shoots that developed on her fruit bag, planted in the spring of 1960 in the crown of the tree varieties Brother Victory garden Orel fruits and berries Experimental Station. In 1962, on the grafted branches of ripe fruit 7, fully preserving the original characteristics of the fruit. The properties they resemble fruit krasnoplodnogo clone Autumn striped varieties found in the plantations of the farm «Altukhova» Tula region. The only difference between the new clones — later (two weeks), the appearance of the coating on the fruit coloration. However, the benefits are not removable maturity less intense red color. They do not differ in size, shape, taste and ripening period of fruits typical of the original varieties — Autumn striped, but surpass them in attractive colors.

The example shows the usefulness of the selection of small entities and fouling bags of fruit, the fruit of which reveal valuable vegetative evasion. A new clone of rapidly reproduce.

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