In 1951, the meetings of the Scientific Council of the Institute of Linguistics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR was protected by four doctoral and nine master’s theses.
February 22, 1951 defended SP Gorsky thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philology. Thesis — «Essays on the history of the Chuvash literary language (pre-October period).»
Work SP Gorsky is a historical overview of the emergence and development of the Chuvash literary language to the Great October Socialist Revolution. In the development of the Chuvash literary language the author establishes the following four periods (which correspond to the four chapters of the thesis): 1) 1730-1861 years. — From the emergence of the Chuvash writing before the abolition of serfdom; 2) 1861-1904 gg.- by the abolition of serfdom to the first Russian Revolution 3) 1905-1907 gg.- period of the first Russian revolution; 4) 1908-1917 gg.- from the first Russian Revolution to the Great October Socialist Revolution.
The first chapter is devoted to the origin of the Chuvash literature and includes a description of the initial period of the Chuvash language. The author analyzes the content of the first grammar of the Chuvash language, published by the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1769, then reissued in 1775, and other Chuvash grammars of this period, describes the Chuvash dictionaries and primers, as well as giving its assessment of the first Chuvash translation. SP Gorsky stresses and illustrates the position of the actual data that the origin of the Chuvash people writing obliged to advanced Russian science and Russian scientists. The second chapter contains an assessment of the activities and performance of the Chuvash language and NI Zolotnitsky IY Yakovlev, as well as analysis of language ballad «Arsyuri» Chuvash writer M. Fedorov. The third chapter examines the Chuvash terminology borrowed from the Russian language in the period of 1905-1907., Describes the language and style journalese speech that period; the bulk of this chapter is devoted to the analysis of language, mainly syntax, poetry Chuvash writer Konstantin Ivanov and defining its role in the history of the Chuvash language. The fourth chapter contains a description of scientific activity NI Ashmarina in the study of the Chuvash language and its dialects.
Official opponents: Academician. BA Gordlevsky, corresponding member. USSR Academy of Sciences EE Bertels, prof. VM violence and the doctor filol. NABaskakov Sciences, gave a generally positive assessment of labor SP Gorsky and noted its indisputable relevance, pointed to a number of significant shortcomings thesis is in violation of compositional harmony, in some non-uniformity of presentation, a number of ambiguities in the wording.
The big gap in the discussion was the thesis, according to EE Bertels, that the author was not touched on the question of the relationship between the Chuvash language with neighboring Turkic languages.
Prof. VM Nasilov noted that the work of dissertation incomplete answers common questions about the Chuvash language, folklore, seems insufficient systematic characterization of basic lexical fund of the Chuvash language, poorly designed question of syntactic functions cases.
Pointing out that the SP Gorsky basically correct a scheme of periodization of the Chuvash literary language NABaskakov expressed the opinion that the thesis should not be singled out as a particular period of time span from 1905 to 1907 N. A. Baskakov drew attention to the incorrectness of the author’s claim that the Chuvash literary language of the pre-October period was a collection of all the local dialects of the people’s spoken language, formed spontaneously on the basis of the interaction of dialects among themselves (as we know, every written language is based on the basis of a single dialect). The opponent also pointed to the existing SP Gorsky underestimating the role of NI Ashmarina in the study of the Chuvash language.
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May 10, 1951 Scientific Council of the Institute discussed presented for the degree of Doctor of Philology SA Koporsky thesis on the topic — «From the history of Russian language literature 60- 70s of the XIX century (the vocabulary of the works of N. Uspensky, Sleptsova and Reshetnikov). «
The primary goal of this study — to show on a particular material, the vocabulary of the works of writers Democrats P. Uspensky, Sleptsova and Reshetnikov how to use their national language, its styles, folk dialects and jargons as one of the tools of fiction to express the social and aesthetic views Democratic tendencies 60-70s.
Thesis SA Koporsky begins with an extensive introduction, which sets out the views of Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov and Pisarev language and the science of language, the general characteristic of creativity N. Uspensky, Sleptsova and Reshetnikov, and provides an analysis of types of speech used in the works of writers -demokratov. Further, in the ten chapters of the study, an analysis of those aspects of the vocabulary of the works of writers of the Democrats who, in my opinion, are the most typical of their style. In the first six chapters, the author describes the collected lexical material distributed over the parts of speech; Chapter seven describes the natural-scientific terminology in the works of writers Democrats; the eighth chapter contains dialect imposed writers Democrats in their work, and show them the social and stylistic function; ninth chapter of the thesis is devoted to the speech of characters in the works of Nikolai Uspensky, Sleptsova and Reshetnikov; the tenth chapter, final, containing the conclusions reached by the author as a result of his research.
Speaking as an official opponent Acad. SP Obnorsky indicated that the thesis Koporsky SA — the first substantive work in the vocabulary of the Russian literary language, striking primarily attracted to the study of the abundance of material. Although there are some oversights in the work, as well as some controversial provisions, it is in general may serve as a basis for awarding its author the degree of Doctor of Philology.
Official opponents doctor filol. Science and R. Avanesov also praised the work of SA Koporsky. Literary language 60-70s of the XIX century. author presented on a broad background of history of the Russian literary language of previous eras, and partly also the subsequent era; He collected and analyzed extensive factual material and made many valuable observations on previously unknown or little-known material; the thesis as a whole is a valuable contribution to the study of the history of the Russian literary language. However, Professor. RI Avanesov pointed to a number of shortcomings of the dissertation, the most significant of which — its empiricism, the absence of the section, which reveals the basic concepts of lexicology, in particular the concept of basic lexical fund and vocabulary of the language; Overworked phonetic, morphological and syntactic material, a certain vagueness in the presentation of the material and terminology. RI Avanesov stated that the lexicological character, which is the thesis SA Koporsky little to justify the distribution of words in grammatical classes: opponent said that the study Koporsky SA should submit such a dissectively qualitatively different problems as problems of lexicology in the strict sense, the problem of style and problems of poetics; wrong, according to RI Avanesov, was conducted in the thesis opposed to the author’s speech, on the one hand, the question of dialogue, on the other. The term «democratic realism», the use of SA Koporskaya in applying creativity Sleptsova, Reshetnikov and Nikolai Uspensky, RI Avanesov admitted failure.
Official opponents doctor filol. Sciences AI and E m p o in correctly pointed out methodological position Koporsky SA, basing their study, the researchers Stalin on language as a social phenomenon, as well as his teaching about the laws of development of the vocabulary of the Russian language . By the author of the literary language came as a national language, masters treated and developed in close cooperation with the language of the whole people. However, the author has given a clear idea of the uniqueness of the individual syllable language and studied their writers. In a study of SA Koporsky passing e main issues raised and resolved some private issues of great interest for the history of the Russian literary language, such as the question of the relation of language fiction to popular language, the question of the relation of language to the dialect vocabulary and some fiction others. The disadvantages of the work carried opponent overload factual material some of its sections, the advantage in some cases, literary analysis of linguistic inaccuracy of certain formulations. According to AI Efimova, the author paid little attention to the composition of phraseological language writers Democrats. The opponent argued that SA should hold the Comoros in its work more clear boundaries that define the individuality of language and syllable of each of the studied writers; in analyzing the names, nicknames, it would be useful to emphasize how writers Democrats deliberately strengthened their expressive characteristic function.
Official opponents doctor filol. Sciences PS Kuznetsov, joining the positive evaluation of the dissertation SA Koporsky other opponents and their opinion that the work in question is a very valuable contribution to the study of the history of the Russian literary language, made a number of criticisms, both general and privately. Thus, according to prof. PS, Kuznetsova, it is not justified by the authors on the location of the lexical material parts of speech; analysis of individual words used N. Uspensky, Sleptsov and Reshetnikov, in many cases turned out to be incomplete; in some cases, matching the material discussed in the works of writers Democrats with the material extracted from the works of other writers of the same period, clearly ledostatochno; is used in relation to the notion of dialogue speech «phrase» is not given a precise definition; in some cases, the grammatical analysis of the proposals tampered logical; Some provisions of the thesis presented is not clear, or are disputed.
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Doctoral dissertation EI Karataeva «subordinate to the Union in the literary language of the second half of the XVII century (from the history of the formation of a complex sentence in national Russian literary language)» was discussed in the meeting of the Academic Council of the Institute July 2, 1951
In their study, EI Karataeva followed the formation of the union hard-slave supply in Russian literary language the second half of XVII century-era, when it began to develop a national Russian.
The work consists of a brief introduction, six main chapters and a conclusion. In the introduction the general characteristic of Russian literary language of the second half of the XVII century, indicates what the purpose of the work is determined by the role of complex sentence in the Russian literary language, The first chapter deals existing in the second half of the XVII century the structure of complex sentences, the transition from the coordinative to subordinative. The second chapter defines the role of words in the correlative formation of subordinate structures. Chapter Three deals with the question of the place of a subordinate clause in relation to the master. The fourth chapter describes the time-dependent complex sentences. It is established that temporal relationships are expressed by a large number of different unions, and observed the process of replacing old with new alliances. The sixth chapter is devoted to the Union, expressed the relation of cause, the goals of the investigation. The final chapter summarizing the study, describes the process of forming hard-subordinate clauses in the second half of the XVII century.
The main conclusions reached by the author of the thesis on the formation of complex structures, subordinate clauses, did not cause fundamental objections on the part of the official opponents: doctor filol. Sciences VI Bor -kovskogo, BA Larin and A. Shapiro. Opponents acknowledge the considerable scientific value of the work EI Karataeva devoted not yet developed in the historical syntax of the Russian language and topic based on extensive factual material.
However, opponents noted in the discussion of the dissertation of a number of shortcomings and controversial provisions.
Prof. V. Borkowski disagreed with the statement of the author, it is difficult to offer a slave-only «category of the national literary language,» and pointed to the thesis available in underestimation of the importance of the processes that occur in the syntactic system of the Russian language at an earlier time there was a language nation, and not the language of the nation. Opponent recognized incorrectly drawn in the thesis the idea of matching under feudalism grammatical and stylistic categories pointed to the lack of validity of the author’s claim that unions are «a distinctive quality of the national literary language», drew attention to a number of existing in EI Karataeva inaccurate and unfortunate wording .
Prof. BA A and P and pointed to the existing EI Karataeva cases of improper or questionable interpretation of the author of texts on some sections of the work overload factual material weaknesses noted style of presentation.
Prof. A. Shapiro suggested that the work on a historical theme, which is the thesis of EI Karataeva, it would be better to choose the narrower subject of research (for example, only the cause or just a targeted complex sentences) and trace the development of this category in the For several centuries. The disadvantage of operating profit. A. Shapiro acknowledged the absence of the chapter or section containing the account of the author’s views on the concepts, which it operates in its work. The opponent did not agree with several statements EI Karataeva, in particular with the statement that coordinative unions perform subordinate functions. It is not clear, according to the opponent, it is set out in the question of how the change of some other forms of language: the impression is that this change is the nature of surprise once. Not only persuasive and not proven facts of language was the position of the author of the ambiguity in the language of the union that they study period.
In the discussion of the dissertation Karataeva EI also attended the doctor filol. Sciences EM Galkina-Fedoruk and PS Kuznetsov,
Protection VG Egorov doctoral dissertation on the topic — «Modern Chuvash literary language in comparative historical light» was held at the meeting of the Academic Council of the Institute October 26, 1951
Thesis V. Egorov is a fundamental study of modern Chuvash language, including the historiography of the issue, the general genealogical and typological characteristics of the Chuvash language, a summary of its history and dialectology, information on the history of the Chuvash literary language, considerable material on its vocabulary and idiomatike and finally a description of its morphology and phonetics. The work consists of an introduction and four chapters. Introduction is dedicated to general issues of the typological characteristics of the Chuvash language and its place among other Turkic languages, its relation to the territorial dialects, as well as to the history of the Chuvash language. The second chapter presents the basic vocabulary questions Fund and the vocabulary of the Chuvash language. The third chapter examines the phonetic its structure. The fourth and final chapter of the thesis is devoted to the morphology of the Chuvash language. As the author, his work has a special practical purpose — serve as a guide for the Chuvash language for students, school teachers and university professors, teaching students in the Chuvash language.
Speakers at the defense of the dissertation VG Yegorov Official opponents: Corresponding Member. USSR Academy of Sciences NK Dmitriev, the doctor filol. Science NABaskakov and VI Lytkin — noted the obvious relevance and of great scientific value of the work VG Yegorov, representing, in addition to the theoretical and great practical interest as a guide for high school. Opponents felt the feasibility early printing of the labor VG Yegorov.
As positive aspects the dissertation VG Egorov corresponding member. USSR Academy of Sciences NK Dmitriev noted an interesting and convincing attempt to locate the author’s thesis is historically Tatar, Arabic and Persian borrowings in the Chuvash language, a detailed description of Russian lexical borrowings in the Chuvash language, perfectly compiled an overview of the Chuvash language dictionaries, interesting observations on the dynamics of linguistic phenomena, . n. However, NK Dmitriev expressed regret that the Labour VG Egorov did not presented in a separate section, the syntax of the Chuvash language. According to H, K. Dmitriev, it lowers the dignity of work and the fact that the drink is available in a rich comparative material involved in private and specific occasions, not as an expression of any fundamental research method. The opponent has criticized the interpretation of the author of some of the values and forms of case (for example, VG Egorov defended traditional Chuvash grammar terms «accusative and dative unformed», whereas in reality it is not the individual case, for a private function and the basic case), he noted admitted VG Yegorov, in some cases mistakes in explaining the etymology of individual words and affixes.
The doctor filol. Science H, A, Baskakov pointed to the fact that VG Egorov, finished work on this thesis in 1947, recently subjected her to a thorough revision of the recycling and, as a result the work has been released from the methodological errors that It was caused by the impact of the «new doctrine» of the language. The advantages of working VG Egorov are: the widespread use of the author of the historical and sravvitelnogo method in the analysis of the phenomena of language, consistent application of the principle of historicism, the correct interpretation of the question of the history of the Chuvash language, thorough and interesting analysis of the Chuvash language. Among the shortcomings of marked opponent — the use of the texts translated by the author, not the original literature as examples to illustrate the facts of the Chuvash language; no references to sources in the comparison and comparison of facts with the facts of the Chuvash language other Turkic languages; some shortcomings on the part of the thesis of her literary and technical design. NABaskakov expressed as a number of specific comments on individual aspects of the history of the Chuvash language, its vocabulary, phonetics and grammar. Thus, the opponent pointed out that in the section of vocabulary author increasingly -osvetil question of lexical convergence Chuvash language with other Turkic languages and to a lesser extent lead materials characterizing lexical differences with these languages. Listing the means of expression of grammatical meanings, VG Egorov noted only the system and the system of inflection affixes affixes forming and allocated affixes word formation, as a special system, which defines the border between the basic vocabulary and grammatical structure of the language. It would be better, said NA Baskakov, system affixes considered as forming part slovoobrazovaviya, and not vice versa, as did the author of the thesis.
Prof. VI Lytkin, noting that VG Egorov successfully resolves the main set in his thesis the problems focused on the issues that still require further in-depth study. Opponent pointed to contradictory understanding asker origin of the Chuvash language and ethnogeny Chuvash, made a number of comments on the principles underlying the review of the sounds of the Chuvash language, as well as about the sections of the dissertation devoted to ancient Russian borrowings in the Chuvash language, word-formation suffixes of foreign origin, and others.
As an unofficial opponent for thesis defense VG Yegorov made a senior fellow at BA Serebrennikov.
By adhering to the positive assessment that was given to the VG Egorov official opponents, BA Serebrennikov criticized the position expressed by the authors that membered form of the adjective in the Chuvash language is exactly the corresponding term in the form of Indo-European languages, as well as stopped PA his interpretation of the category of definiteness in the Chuvash language and on an analysis of past values unobvious time. BA Serebrennikov also considered the presence of a great intimacy between the structures of the Chuvash and Mari languages.
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Presented for the degree of candidate of philological yaauk SA Burnasheva dissertation on the topic — «The changes in the vocabulary of the Tatar language in the Soviet era,» is one of the first attempts to flesh out the concept of basic lexical fund of the Tatar language, and to outline the history of the vocabulary of the language during the Soviet era . The thesis consists of four chapters. In the first chapter we raised the question of the formation of the vocabulary of the modern Tatar literary language; Here’s how over several historical periods enriched, developed and polished the vocabulary of the language. The second chapter is devoted to the structural elements of the vocabulary of the pre-revolutionary Tatar language and provides an overview of basic lexical fund of the Tatar language, the consideration of borrowing from Arabic and Persian, characteristic Russianisms in the Tatar language, in the third chapter discusses the changes that have taken place in the vocabulary of the Tatar language in the last 30 years , reduced to three main processes: 1) the completion of the existing vocabulary with new words and expressions; 2) changes in the value of a number of words and phrases; 3) the death of obsolete words. The last, fourth chapter contains a description of the main ways of formation of new words in the Tatar language (affixation, compounding, hard-abbreviated words, tracing paper).
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PhD thesis TI In the introduction to the work of the general characteristic of the area studied dialects and a description of their phonetic features. The main body of work consists of three chapters, analyzes the characteristics of inflection (category number, the main decline, personal-possessive declension) and derivation of registered categories verhnevymskih dialects, as well as conclusions with respect to existing verhnevymskih dialects differentiate the category name. The author states that in this thesis marked morphological differences verhnevymskih speak on Komi literary language date back to ancient times,
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VA Sorvacheva in his master’s thesis on the topic — «Morphological features verhnevashskogo Treaty» provides a detailed morphological characteristics of the border Udorsky dialect dialect of the Komi language, the basis of the work put personal observations of the author. The thesis contains a description and analysis of the morphological features of nouns, the so-called Fine words, adjectives, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, which are characteristic of verhnevashskogo says in contrast to the literary Komi language; here considered as postpositions, particles and alliances with other use than in the literary language. In addition, the VA reported Sorvachevoy brief ethnographic information about the inhabitants of the study area and describes the main phonetic features which distinguish verhnevashsky speak on literary Komi language.
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One of the important questions of historical morphology of the Czech language is dedicated to the master’s thesis BV on material written monuments of the Czech language XIII-XVI centuries. the author explores the syntactic function of short participles active voice and sets the causes of the change in these sacraments in gerunds. EV Nemchenko proves that history education gerunds associated with a gradual change in the syntactic function of short participles active voice. The thesis consists of an introduction and three chapters. In the introduction, the author defined the methodological position, angle of view, which she considers the works of Czech and Russian linguists who have studied the history of short active participle in the Czech and Russian languages. The first chapter («it is the real form of the sacraments in the most ancient monuments of the Czech language») provides an overview and characteristics of the studied monuments of Czech Literature XIII-XIV centuries., As well as consideration of the functions and values in their use of short active participle. In the second chapter («Personal Communion active voice in the monuments of Czech Literature XV and XVI centuries.») Describes the study of linguistic phenomena in the monuments of this period and defines the functions of short participles active voice (and the comparison with the previous period). By author study shows that in the formation of categories gerunds crucial role played by the use of short participles active voice in the secondary function of the predicate; predicative use of the sacraments was combined with the fact that they passed as the value of the circumstances of the main action expressed by the verb, which in turn determines their transition into the category of predicative adverbial words, t. e. gerunds. The third chapter («gerund in the modern Czech language») explores the use of gerunds in the dialects and the literary works of contemporary Czech language. It also addresses the issue of adverbializatsii gerunds.
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B. Kuzmin on the material of the monuments of different genres explores the question of the use of different verb forms as predicates incentive offers. The first four chapters of the work the author examines the use of different verb forms in the proposals of the general meaning of motivation. The first chapter describes the proposal, which forms the motivation expressed imperative. Chapter Two contains observations I have the author’s conclusions about the expression of motivation, desire, obligation verbs, present, and future of time, combined with the causative-desirable particles without the particles. The third chapter is devoted to the question of the terms of motivations in using the subjunctive (surreal hypothetical) mood. The fourth chapter deals with the expression of obligation and motivation using independent infinitive. IB Kuzmina seeks to define the terms of modal shades, expressed via verbal forms of different inclinations, the breadth of the use of forms that express the motivation in the language of the various sites and the correlation between them of these forms. In the fifth, the last chapter of the thesis describes some events from the history of shapes imperative.
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Presented for the degree of Candidate of Philology dissertation NM Aleksandrov entitled: «On the writing and submission of proposals.» At the beginning of the thesis the author considers the peculiarities of works proposals and offers its classification difficult-composed sentences (Chapter I). Further, given a critical analysis of available literature syntactic views on the essence of obedience and how it differs from writings (chapter II- VIII). Considering features sindeticheskogo (union) works in contrast to the submission, the author concludes that the composition is carried out incomplete connection between the proposals, while the submission represents a complete connection between them (Chapters IX-X). The author explores then the development of different types of Union subordination of works: the emergence of a correlation of proposals, development differrentsirovannyh subordinating conjunctions of the original undifferentiated multi-valued parameters submission, the development of hard-subordinate clauses of verbal-nominal constructions, as well as cases of borrowing unions languages undeveloped hypotaxis (chapters XI-XV). Special chapters of the dissertation (XVI and XVII) are devoted to relative clauses, indirect speech and indirect questions. Further analyzes asyndetic form of subordination, in particular asyndetic Identification, additional, conditional sentences and grammatical markers (accent, intonation, word order, the special mood — conjunctiva, the sequence of times) (Chapters XVIII-XXII). The final (XXIII) the head of the study, which contains the main conclusions, raises the question of the historical reasons for the origin and development of hard-subordinate clauses, and proposes a scheme of classification, which prefaced criticism of classification schemes of other authors. The problem of coordination and subordination of proposals considered NM Aleksandrov on comparative material language of Indo-European (German, French, English, Italian, Russian, Old Slavonic, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit and New Persian), with the assistance of some examples of the languages of other systems (Turkic and Mongolian ).
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In the master’s thesis BG Gafarov on the theme — «The system of conjugation in the Gagauz language» material developed by the Gagauz language, nor yet very little is known in the art. To study involved recording folklore VA Moshkova he published in 1904, and personal records BG Gafarov he made during his visit to the Gagauz. The first chapter of the thesis contains a brief information on the history and characteristics of the Gagauz people Gagauz language, and the author joins the opinion of scientists, recognizing the Gagauz autonomous Turkic language group. The second chapter describes the history of the study of the Gagauz language. The third chapter describes the grammatical structure of the Gagauz language, its phonetics and vocabulary of the highlights and specifics of the language, which distinguishes it from other Turkic languages. The fourth chapter is a direct introduction to the main part of the work — the description of verb conjugations Gagauz; This chapter provides a general analysis of verb forms as a special part of speech and verbal description of the system of word formation. In the fifth chapter on the system of verb conjugations, the analysis of the main verbal categories: categories of persons, the inclination, the time and the collateral. In the last, sixth chapter contains the characteristics of verbal moods: indicative, imperative, conditional and desirable. It also addresses the issue of the expression in the Gagauz language conventional modalities, as well as a summary of the infinitive and the modalities on-Mouse. By dissertation attached diagram verb conjugations in the Gagauz language and texts of folk records.
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PhD thesis NT Pengitova — «Communion in the Mari language,» is a detailed elaboration of a little studied in the science of the issue of grammatical features and functions of the sacraments of the Mari language. Communion considered by the author as a special verb-noun form, which has symptoms similar to those on the one hand, with verbs, but on the other — with adjectives and nouns. In the first, introductory chapter of the thesis, in addition to presentation of the history of the issue, a brief outline of grammar and phonetics of the Mari language in the next four chapters examine the lexical-morphological features and conditions of use of the main groups of the sacraments in the Mari language: active, passive, participle future tense and negative participles ; incidentally made observations on those features in the formation and syntactic use of participles of these groups, which characterize, on the one hand, the meadow-east and, on the other hand, mining and adverbs Mari Mari language.
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Historical research in the field of Turkic languages is the thesis AM Shcherbak — «Legend of the Oguz (the history of the Uzbek language)», which he submitted for the degree of candidate of philological sciences. Material for the study served as the oldest list of Oguz-name, which belonged to Charles Schaefer and is being kept in the Paris National Library. After a brief introduction, including the historiography of the issue, the description of the manuscript, a list and comparing handwritten version of the monument, the author in the first chapter of the thesis a detailed analysis of the language of «Tales»: its phonetic, morphological, syntactic features — compared with the linguistic features of Uighur and starouzbekskom texts. The second chapter of the study is a lexical commentary on the studied monument. In the following, the third chapter, the author sets the time of writing the monument -XII or XIII vv.-language and belonging of the monument language Uighur khanate Karakhanids, who had features common for old Uzbek language. The fourth chapter («The language of legends and problems "Uighur Chagatay" linguistic ties «) sets the language considered the proximity of the monument to the» Chaghatay «language, which, in the interpretation of the author, literary, book form old Uzbek language.