Beautiful, in the northern severe lead-dark Neva. But forget about it as soon as you see the Volga, Russian beauty, greatest river of Europe. Fade, however, and the beauty of the Volga, when a stone vysyami Ural River will be a succession of majestic giant Siberia. I recall the words of Chekhov: «… No offense to be said jealous admirers of the Volga, in my life have I seen a more magnificent Yenisei river.» Furious hero Yenisei no one in Siberia and the Far East — has Angara, Ob, Lena, Irtysh, Cupid, Kolyma …

In Soviet land flowing with approximately hundred and eight thousand rivers th rivers. An enormous amount of blue ribbon, which can be fifty times girdle the earth, if you combine all of these rivers and streams The total stock of water — hydraulic-power in our country is estimated colossal figures: according to the latest data, the potential capacity of only X 500 major rivers of the USSR more than 300 million kilowatts.

E. grouse

Decades ago, the great Russian soil scientist Dokuchaev introduced the important concept of «water management». He meant by this farm accounting and use of all water resources, regulation of the flow of its rivers, and bringing them into a state suitable for navigation. The scientist argued that the well supplied water management planning will use the river flows not only for navigation but also for electric power generation, irrigation, water supply of cities and industrial centers.

The rulers of old Russia rejected the idea of ​​a wise Dokuchaeva. It was then against the scientist — the royal legislation and argued violently defend the rights of landlords and capitalists on the «rock-solid» power over the water, as well as over the land and its subsoil. This meant that the owner of Lada Count Orlov-Davydov could prohibit learn «their» Volga. When at a meeting of the Technical Project Engineer Company considers Krzhizhanovsky on the construction of hydropower stations in Lada, managing illustrious Earl said Earl is alive and owns the Volga, he will not allow to build on their lands and waters are no hydro.

The same was declared categorically ban the owner of the Dnieper rapids force to study the Dnieper. «This affair demonic, not the Lord God) wills» — he said.

«The owners of water» is abroad now. They shamelessly exploit everyone who needs to «their» water. British colonialists take the population of Sudan about half of the crop is only for the use of water, «owned» monopolies. They took in Egypt, ancient irrigation system and kept in constant dependence on his will and whims of their primitive e agriculture African country. Modern technology allows us to «rein in» abounding Nile series of waterworks and uniformly supply water fields and plantations to yield still a huge amount of cheap electricity. But a possible reduction in the price of water scares colonizers, and they spend the construction of Nile hydraulic units slowly, preferring to keep the wretched chigir driven by muscle power or even buffalo people. Anyone who saw the documentary «Africa», obviously paid attention to these little irrigation device.

«Handmade SEA»

Volga aimlessly dumped spring basic water supplies, and in the summer because shoaling that at its upper reach of completely stopped shipping. The «old» Dnepr raged on the doorstep, and through the stones were at great risk, only a few ships and rafts. Other rivers of Central Asia, rapidly spreads through the spring, summer disappearing in the sand. For many years it was impossible to swim steamers on the upper and middle Don, spend, like the Volga, its water wealth in the spring. * The cut on two thresholds, Angara and now does not allow to go to the upper reaches of the steamers ugtya.

The Soviet people, becoming the owner of the lands, waters, mineral resources, forests, intervenes in the lives of big and small rivers, subjects them to his will, his plans. Water — the whole people. It was approved by the Constitution and the special water legislation. In the Soviet Union created a single powerful water management: registration taken all the rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, and the water wealth seriously studied. Since 1931, water management created an inventory of the USSR — a set of characteristics of water resources and full information about the use of water. This is not unparalleled, topped by a monumental work of the publication of the hydrological atlas of the Soviet Union.

According to the plan, with full knowledge of the water flow in the USSR constructed irrigation systems, feeding on moisture field in the drylands, «handmade river» — shipping channels — and artificial sea for power stations.

Why do I need an artificial sea?

If you put a dam across the river — a wall made of concrete or earth, water, inundating the coast, will be accumulated before the dam, will rise to its height. Water is so much that the level of the newly constructed «sea» will be much higher than the level of the river lying below the dam. It is enough to keep the water from the dam, it will fall flow boiling, the ability to move electric cars.

The more water in a «sea» and the higher will be the level, the more it will provide electrical energy. Water accumulated in the «sea», also create favorable conditions for navigation and timber floating, provide irrigation fields in arid regions, the supply of cities and factories.

Now no one seems weird and wonderful expression: «Sea build», «sea poured», «here is the sea» — we booming new area of ​​gigantic creative work — Sea-structure. On the map of the country there are many blue and blue dots and spots, meaning waters in large and small rivers. Some of them seem to be very small, while others are so great that they can compete with the large lakes created by the nature.

The first Soviet «needlework sea» before the dam spilled Volkhov hydroelectric station Lenin. It rustled among the northern forests and obomshelyh stones on the way from Ilmen in Ladoga, flooded lowlands and groves. December 19, 1926 he was brought to the water turbine Volkhov hydroelectric station. Reservoir helped establish normal shipping across the Volkhov.

A year after the launch of the first hydraulic unit has been laid on the Dnieper Europe’s largest hydroelectric plant named after Lenin. In 1932, she was ready. Here lies the

Volga near the Gorky hydroelectric construction: at the top — the beach where Gorky hydroelectric power station is being built: the bottom — Kineshma; Here are built earthen dikes to protect the lower part of the city from the water pressure of the future reservoir.

sea, absorbed in their depths Dnieper rapids. It began through the movement of vessels on the Dnieper River from Smolensk to Kherson.

In our country, we built since then a lot of hydraulic power plants. They work on the Volga and the Dnieper, the Don and Kama rivers and the North Caucasus, in Central Asia, the Altai. Some had to build two hydroelectric — the Soviet people rose out of the ruins and, in fact, re-erected DniproHES destroyed by Nazi thugs.

Now the Soviet Union built and expanded at the same time 711 power stations; many of them will operate on the «white carbon.» Only one, not the biggest, Gorky hydroelectric station on the Volga give electricity than all the power plants in Russia in 1913.

In order to ensure «water fuel» the greatest in the world of the Kuibyshev and Stalingrad hydroelectric, constructed huge sea — Kuibyshev and Stalingrad. Grandiose reservoir: Angarsk — on the Angara River, Big Irtysh — on the Irtysh, Novosibirsk — on the Ob. Recently we put into operation Kama, Mingechevir and Small Irtysh sea. The day is approaching when they start to fill Gorky and Kakhovka reservoir.

Socialist economy requires a reasonable use of complex reservoirs. And it is not easy: come into conflict conflicting interests of water users. Energy, for example, require that the water in the summer (and flood and rain in particular) accumulated in a maximum amount for spending her winter when hydropower work with special stress. Sprinklers boatman and, conversely, requires the maximum flow of water is not in the winter, and in summer, when navigation starts and fields require watering. All these requirements have to be taken into account.

An example of a multilateral wise use of water can serve many of our hydro. The sea, created the Don drives a turbine Tsimlyanskaya HPP has on their ships and waves irrigate fields. Powerful Dam, stop violent Kourou, forced her to spill the sea and the rotating electrical machine Mingechevir hydroelectric power station. At the same time it gives water to irrigate one million hectares of cotton plantations in Mil- tion and Muganekoy steppes.

A classic example is the reconstruction of the whole of the river Volga. Structures in the upper ‘Reach her three reservoir-Volga, Rybinsk and Uglich — completely transformed the headwaters.

Klyazma reservoir — one of the many small «seas» surrounding the capital of our Motherland — Moscow (above). DniproHES Lenin. Gateway hydropower (below).

Gone aground, rolls, and captains have forgotten about the time when even the punt could not swim there, where there is now the deep-seated vehicles. The water of the Upper Volga drives a generator powerful hydroelectric power stations, for example Shcherbakovskaya HPP, the second largest in Europe.

In the summer of 1955 will be ready to stage the fourth stage of the Volga — Gorky hydroelectric. Fourth Sea Volga — Gorky — Shcherbakovskaya come to the dam and continue to ship runs deep. We have already begun to create the fifth sea — Cheboksary. It will be «prop» Gorky Sea and to Cheboksary, in turn, will approach the greatest water Kuibyshev reservoir. Below that is built Zhiguli Stalingrad Reservoir, as great as Kuibyshev.

Such a system of waterworks and reservoirs to turn the entire Volga entirely deep «sea» river. Volga river becomes electricity: it will give a tremendous amount of energy.

But not always, «sea» are mainly for the production of electrical energy. There are reservoirs that are built to supply water to the industry. These Shatekoe and Lyubov- cal, water supply companies Stalinogorsk, Ural — feeding water to the factories of Magnitogorsk.

Tedjen sea on Tedjen provides water for irrigation in Turkmenistan. And the Istra reservoir on the Moscow Canal provides drinking water to the capital.

«Handstitched Sea» is not similar to each other and externally. Their shape, the character of the coast of closely linked with the terrain. Uglich reservoir, for example, a long, high cliffs, deep, and wide neighboring Rybinsk, freely spread out over a large area with low banks. Narrow band stretches in the mountains on the Irtysh from Ablaketka to Bukhtarma Small Irtysh sea: it is compressed rock multiplies the echo hum of ship machinery. A large Irtysh, which stretched from the highest concrete dam in buhtarmin- ing rocks Lake Zaisan, lies in flat sandy shores and Zaisan fit into a giant reservoir will be part of it.

? Just to be different from each other and reservoir on the Angara: First Sea Angarsk, Irkutsk formed by the dam, will merge with Baikal, raise its level, it will be a single body of water, the sea and the other on the same Angara, stretch narrow tongue in the mountains.

How to build the sea?

And irst carefully studied and the river itself and the territory on which it carries water. Designers should be aware of the speed of the sea currents, the water reserves of the river, while ice and floods, the geological structure of the channel. They should take into account the economic development of the region, to know in advance which of the consumers will be especially in need of water and electricity, and to solve: where, in what Reach — in the upper reaches, in the lower reaches and in the central part of the river — you need to build a hydroelectric power station and what it should have power? What should be the depth for navigation and water reserves to supply the cities, factories and irrigation? After solving these common, fundamental questions it is time to begin the difficult search for the dam — the place where you have to block the river.

First of all you need to make sure that hydroelectric dam is firmly standing on safe ground, so that the river could not get around the dam, or dump it, or dive for hidden crevasses under the concrete colossus and worked his way into the depths.

It is necessary to take into account many other important circumstances. It should, for example, to the valley of the river in the area of ​​construction it was not overly broad and would not be required in connection with this particularly difficult and long dam. It is also necessary that the new sea wall to the spill of concrete, flooded villages as small as possible, collective villages, factories, roads, fields and forests.

Choosing alignment — a crucial moment in the whole of the work to create a new sea. Usually for years spent on preliminary research. Finally, the designers offer a choice of the dam. For example, on the Irtysh for construction of the Ust-Kamenogorsk GES was explored some thirty cross-sections before being chosen one of them — under the Ablakeggkoy.

Now the outlines of the Gorky Sea already clearly marked on charts and maps; We know where and what will be the depth and flow will look like the beach. But before there were maps of the future of the Gorky Sea, it was necessary to carefully study the river and its banks from the hydroelectric dam Shcherbakovskaya to the confluence of the Oka in the Volga at Gorky. As a result of many years of research appeared thirteen variants target. We had to decide which of them to choose?

The designers I know: the future of the sea have to go to the dam and hydropower plant Shcherbakovskaya link up with the Rybinsk Sea. The fourth reservoir had to be done not only significant in size, so that it «reached out» to Shcherbakovskaya GES, but also to create for navigation depth, guaranteeing sailing large ships.

It was known that if you build a dam in a very wide valley, the water spilling over a considerable area, would not provide the desired «drop» for electric cars. At the same time, the shallow water will threaten shipping and will contribute to the reproduction of the malaria mosquito. We had to find a place where the original bank were not allowed to have bottled water too. Therefore, once it was decided to abandon the «Gorky alignment»: low shore near the mouth of the Oka demanded the construction of very long dam.

Abandon the option for which it was necessary to erect a dam just above the Gorky Sea have flooded major industrial centers Ba- Lakhno, Pravdinsk, podtopilo be the oldest Russian zazod «Sormovo» peat development and railways.

Gradually, studying ‘all thirteen proposed alignments, designers rejected them one by one. It seemed reasonable target about Puchezh where the rights of indigenous shore is high and is suitable for interfacing with a dam, but additional studies have found that there is a very tricky geological conditions. It was enough to give up the «Puchezh alignment.» In the end, the designers settled on Gorodetsky.

What deceives hydrotechnicians Gorodetsky target? Left ‘steep bank of the Volga River near the ancient City- CA is a good support for the dam; Balakhninskye proximity of the power station, railway tracks and industrial centers facilitate the supply of construction; plus to this — is infinitely more favorable geological conditions.

We see the future

On construction sites Hydrocentral create special departments sea- structure. They wear intricate name — OPPZ; translation — department relocation and preparation of flood zones. The busy OPPZ such as the building and the sea, you can see the walls of the ancient Go- rodtsa on the Volga, on the future site of the Gorky hydroelectric and Gorky Sea.

There remain a few months before the birth of the sea. Rose has serozelenaya mass concrete spillway dam, grew a massive powerhouse, tower at the left bank of the huge gates. Volga is stopped by a wall of concrete and sand out of the coasts and flooded floodplain, for hundreds of kilometers in length stretched plain blue sea.

On the outskirts of the new town of power engineers in a small building housed morestroiteli. Large and small card hanging on the walls and lying in the folders, open the future: we can see the sea, as it will appear in the near future. Maps are covered with red and blue squares, triangles, circles; dashed dotted line crosses the blue expanse of the reservoir — a fairway, it will go on ships emergency line Moscow — Rostov-on-Don and trial of five seas. Geometric multicolored signs — symbols of plants, MTS, state farms, and entire cities, which must take place on the banks of the future of the future of the sea. The dotted line marked the spot where the forests are cut down and uprooted stumps: the bottom, you might say, to remove the «under the broom» — perfectly prepared for the fishing grounds.

All notes taken on the maps, «moved to the countryside» — embodied in the new villages, lighthouses, ports, dams, new cities. That side of the Volga, yet pas dry rose Shipyard. Small towns and villages — Chkalovsk, Katunki, Sokol, Puchezh — how to shift, partially or completely transferred to new locations. Former Yurievets, * located on the right bank, opposite the mouth of Unzha, fenced off from the sea of ​​the future system of earthen levees Dam covered with gravel, cement surround the supporting belts and veneer reinforced concrete slabs — in this way they are able to withstand the steep waves.

Under the protection of their dams Yurievets already taken a big wood-working factory «Red Prof intern» and its settlements. The city stretches along the river is now fourteen kilometers and has become not only a major industrial center, but also the port of five seas.

Millions of cubic meters of earth stacked in the Volga, Ido- l Omsk and North levees that protect the city of Kostroma Oblast; rivers Kostromke, Uzakse, Rybinka Kelnat and built dams, pumping stations; Nagorno-routed and Rus- lootvodny channels.

Dumbo «ringed» not only Kostroma, and meadows of the famous livestock farm «Karavaevo.»

On the way from Gorodets Shcherbakov — at the bottom of the sea — boils pa bot: paving the fairway — the ship’s route, set beacons and leading marks, complete relocation of the last collective farm households and outbuildings. Here you see a lot of cars — dredgers and excavators deepen bottom cam rollers ukatyvayut, compressed earth, dump trucks carry concrete and sand, bulldozers cut shrubs.

Marestroiteli pre-built ports and even coastal towns, Tonev prepare land for fish farming, do everything that the water was clean, clear and tasty.

Creating Sea Soviet man transforms the flora and fauna in the vast territory. In semi-arid and arid steppes, on the banks of the Sea of ​​new orchards flourish, grow unknown before subtropical crops and cotton, in the sultry sky, not knowing even light clouds, rain clouds accumulate. In the northern areas of the sea help to drain the swamp forests, destroy malaria breeding new species of fish and animals. For example, Svirsky and Volkhov reservoirs first lit muskrat, and with a beautiful animal fur caught on very well at the new location.

Part of the Volga Zhiguli to Cheboksary had not taken into account how serious the fishing pool. Production of fish in this reach of not giving and four percent of the total production figure in the Russian Federation. The network came across roach, bream, white-eye — small low-value fish. But in the coming years Kuibyshev Sea will take one of the first places in the Russian Federation for the extraction of fish, and it is excellent, the best in quality

To such dramatic changes have taken place at the bottom of the sea, the vast territory of about two hundred thousand acres, held a special fishery reclamation: the bed of the reservoir cleared of forests and stumps from driftwood and boulders, sewage; on the refined, clean the surface of special varieties planted grass, pet fish, prepared for them, even golden sand. Such specially purified place on the seabed called Toneva portions. There will be a lot — five times more than in the Rybinsk Sea. Also Tonev sites are sterlet-ripuso- vye and nelmovye economy, a non- stovovyrastnye puchkty and database. They are prepared for the breeding of valuable fish species. Once the dam in the Volga and Zhiguli stop it stretched across the meadows and valleys, blue sea, with the Lower Volga with the Don, Kuban here fly airplanes, go steamers with barges, and they bring in a huge amount of new sea fry. Kuibyshev Sea will annually produce 180 thousand quintals of excellent pike, carp, white salmon and ahead of all «opponents» on the quality of fish produced.

* * *

Soviet morestroiteli accumulated invaluable experience in creating large and small reservoirs Nowadays master morestroiteli work on the Volga and the Dnieper, on the Irtysh River and Kama, on the Ob and the Angara, on many other rivers in our country. His experience and great knowledge they convey the friendly China, the People’s Democracies, where year after year, for example} of the Soviet Union, expanding hydraulic engineering.

September 25 at the North Pole the sun set over the horizon at 176 days. Almost half a year all life, located in the vicinity of the pole, will not see the sun. There was a long polar night. Only occasionally, when broken gloomy, heavy clouds on the black velvet sky can be seen twinkling stars. Or come «lunar day» and the moon illuminates exactly fourteen days of ice cold ocean. Or somewhere in the infinite height, shading shine major stars, northern lights flash …

Sometimes glow reminiscent of the arc, stretching from east to west and then stretching, then shrinking. From time to time it runs through the light wave. Starting in the south or in the north, they rise higher, pass through the zenith, separating themselves from the new arc, and gradually disappear as if dissolved on the horizon.

That faint zeleno’vato- orange stripe, slightly swaying, flowing across the sky and suddenly shatters into ribbons and balls. Tapes give rise to another tape, their color changes: it appears a green border on one edge, the red on the other.

That will stretch across the sky a huge silver transparent curtain. Getting around its zenith, fringe — somewhere on the horizon. It seems as if someone is constantly stirs the curtain, crushes it in the crease.

But not for long lasting magical spectacle, and soon again all delayed impenetrable shroud of lead. Barbed rushing stream of ice snow. They sweep out the tent, crying and moaning in high antennas, as if impotence win this stubborn creature — man firmly and prudently sprawling camp in the center of the Arctic basin in spite of the evil elements.

«Land of ice and night. Country of horror and death — the so-called Arctic biggest potyarny explorer Fridtjof Nansen, who gave the study of the country’s life. — Woe to the Braves, on the drifting ice if it captures the polar night. Darkness and cold will bring its first mad, and then ruthlessly turned into nothing! «

Neither the darkness of the polar night or a blizzard or cold could not break the will of the Soviet people.

Step-by-step advice cal researchers have penetrated to high latitudes. On the coast and islands were created research stations and observatories. In 1936 it held the first high-flying Soviet aircraft, and in 1937 an armada of powerful machines had landed on a pole employees drifting station «North Pole-1».

Nowadays, the endless Arctic seas drift station «North Pole-3» and «North Pole-4».

More recently, the flights during the polar night were considered unenforceable, even the station «North Pole-1» does not have any scheduled flights.

At present, and with it will come * laziness polar night flights at the station «North Pole-3» and

«North Pole-4» are carried out on schedule.

September 25 the sun ceases to appear over the pole. However, until October 13, it falls below the horizon by only 7 °. This period is called civil twilight. You can still read without artificial light. Several longer astronomical twilight, until November 12. They are considered by the sunset till the moment when the light descends below the horizon at 17 ° C and it will be possible to distinguish with the naked eye stars sixth magnitude.

Flying at dusk difficult by the fact that the stars are necessary for astronomical calculations navigator, invisible because of the scattered light of the twilight. Therefore, for such flights are required exceptional skill flight and perfect technique devices.

The vast experience of the Soviet polar navigators and engineers made it possible to create such devices, which enable precise and confident driving even in low light aircraft.

No less difficult missions during the polar night. To bring the aircraft to the target, the navigator has to see the stars and planets, and for this it is necessary to «break» Clear and go over the upper limit, that is to pass the area of ​​icing. Thus, from takeoff to landing, and the crew work is held in a tense struggle with the formidable forces of nature that can not forgive the slightest mistake or miscalculation.

…The star, clear afternoon plane neskhmotrya a large load, easily pulled away from the hard Frostbitten takeoff site and making the traditional circle over ognyahmi winter, headed north, to the station «North Pole-3».

It was amazing for this time of year, calm weather. In a heavy black water has not frozen sea, a little shakily reflected large stars, and above his head was overturned by the same darkness with the same trembling stars, and it was difficult to see where the sky begins and where it ends sea. The plane flew like a star in space, as the space ship near future. Only the south narrow strip of orange sun disappearing over the horizon sharply separated the ocean from the sky.

The silence was interrupted by the navigator, all the while intensely looked down:

— Now the southern edge of the ice: it is necessary to climb soon meet Offers!

Leaning over the table, he mapped the boundary of the ice, and then turned off the light, which prevented the monitoring ice clung to the cold glass of the window. Far below, on a black background faint crept vague gray spots that are more and more closed sea. It was ice.

Tearing himself away from the window, the navigator noted in the logbook: «Young, a seven-point ice wind * chen at the rate at latitude 80 ° 55 ‘» — and looked at the board devices. Dozens of arrows, phosphorescent green, were strictly defined values, and only the arrow altimeter slowly but steadily crept up. The pilot and the navigator was dark.

But devices irradiated with ultraviolet rays, clearly stood out in the darkness, his twinkling reassuringly dials and without interfering with the observation horizon and the sea. A narrow, dim streak of light fell only from cuttings radioman and occasionally flared up over the table navigator, when I had to write.

At a given height high hum of engines was transferred to the lower and soft colors, arrows altimeter stopped.

At the bottom, instead of the black abyss of the sea, stretched gray shroud hilly overcast. She jerked from side to side, stood over a black star-studded sky.

On-board radio operator Herman M. Patarushin configuring hardware for a long time, fascinated, gazing at the sky and went into the cabin of the navigator, enthusiastically said:

— Look at your beautiful Arctic today in an evening dress like a diva!

— So I look and think, any concert, it will suit us? I do not like it today sheen. In weather like this and expect icing.

— The weather at the destination is excellent! The height of two hundred, four visibility.

— How patency of radio waves?

— On the air some crackling, and I could barely hear!

— So, again ahead of an intense aurora borealis. Do not lose your connection, it will be even worse …

Leaving the pilot’s in the chart-room came Ivan egg casings:

— Let me turn on the light. What are you debating in the darkness?

Bright white light filled the cockpit navigator, upholstered insulating material from the noise. Sitting in a soft, deep seat, Ivan Ivanovich lit up with pleasure inhaling the fragrant smoke.

— Yes, that’s the navigator do not like today’s star-studded outfit — said the radio operator.

Ivan, a closer look at the navigator, said quietly:

— Yes … The forecast is not the most brilliant. — And loudly said: — In this silence a lot of deceit. We will be attentive. Taking hourly weather on point and on the beach. Analyzes the pressure and always watch the clouds.

Despite the fact that the outside thermometer showed minus 38 °, in the plane was warm, and I could not believe that far below the clouds, there are expanses of severe Arctic Ocean.

Submitting a clear and well-coordinated work of the crew, high in the black sky for stellar road raced to pole plane grief constellation of navigation lights: red, green and white.

Sitting at the controls commander HSU Kotov watched the instruments and occasionally introduced amendments to the autopilot on the instructions of the navigator, who is among the countless stars chose the ones that were the most convenient way for the laying of the moment. Observation preceded math for chart table. After receiving the necessary information, the navigator was raised in a small astronomical observatory dome, where the aid at

Before every flight to a distant flight, especially in the Arctic, where the flight took place in heavy weather conditions, the crew examines in detail the situation in the area of ​​flight and especially in the point of embarkation for the synoptic map.

Daily map of conventional signs applied: temperature, pressure, visibility, precipitation, wind speed and direction and other weather elements, the analysis of which allows you to define the boundaries of warm and cold fronts, their place of connection, the so-called front occlusion, cyclones and anticyclones.

In addition to the map given by the corresponding vertical section through the profile of atmospheric fronts, which shows the areas of icing zone snowfall, blizzards and fog.

Using a card and cut the crew pre-selects the route, both in time and in altitude.

On page 10: synoptic map and vertical cross-section thereto, prepared on 25 October 1954.

soup sophisticated instruments «catch» the stars, down to his cabin, re-calculation is performed, and then went to the pilot’s cabin and amend the course, noting in the logbook the data.

Navigate during flight polar night is very difficult. Intense northern lights not only «dampens» the star, but also distort the overall view of the star field. Atmospheric electricity makes a big distortion in the means of navigation. Keep in mind the complexity of navigational calculations in the region of the pole, where, no matter where you flew, you are always in one direction — south. Thus, to determine the true rate and the navigator seat aircraft at all times have to solve the equation with many unknowns. The correctness of the decision is confirmed only at the end of the flight, when the aircraft goes exactly to a single reference point: destination.

In addition, the way in danger of icing. The aircraft includes an ice pan terrible tsyr and running at full power the engines barely keep logged airship.

For our flight to latitude 86 ° predicted good weather and a solid ten-point Clear the upper limit of 3 500 — 4 m LLC.

In the area of ​​the camp «North Pole-3» in the tail of the cyclone, the weather will be better, but on the synoptic map was already on the streaks of warm Pacific air that carried the mists% B

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