Beauty of the Earth — the beauty of heaven.

Beauty of the Earth - the beauty of heaven.

From century to century Russian same — or very similar — built homes, manufactured tools and household utensils, trying whenever possible to decorate any household item. At the same things that belonged to people of different social classes, different income, they differed only in material (wood, metal, precious metal), and more or less high cost of finishing (to have a bucket, covered with enamel, could afford only very rich people). But the shape of the object, the very principle of the organization of living, home of the space, the interior of the house had no class differences: the artistic tastes, ideas about beauty are common to the king, and suburban residents or poor Slobozhanina.

Five hundred years ago, it was built in the Moscow Kremlin Palace of Facets royal. White facade it is faced with cut stone — hence the name goes. Through the Holy Red porch and the porch here were invited to the reception to the ambassadors of the Russian Tsar, approximate boyars. Porch and vestibule, separated the living room from the street, was — and still is — in every Russian house.

The main room of the Faceted Chamber — a square room with a support pillar. That’s chambers and towers were built in Russia a long time: high arches in the center relied on four-sided pillar. The boyars’ houses around the post on postavtsa (shelves) in the form of stairs were placed cutlery.

Entrance to the Palace of Facets decorates white stone carving, covered with a thin layer of gold. The walls and vaults are colorfully painted. There — Russian favorite flowers and bizarre fancy ornament close — scenes from the life of saints and the Russian tsars. On one wall there are several in a series of multi-figure compositions from the life of the famous men of the world. Of course, these paintings could afford not everyone. However, the love of art, especially on the lives and stories of the Bible, on historical subjects (if any major event was seen as a continuation of what has been said in the Scriptures, so understanding "Historical" was radically different than ours), the love of the whole stories "Picture" It was a general in Russia. There are old books, entirely composed — with a minimum of verbal explanations, and even without them — such pictures.

There was another reason that the ancient Russians sought to decorate their homes. Just as the heart — God dwelling in every man, and every house — an image of God’s peace in the daily, earthly. Everything that was created in the building, done in accordance with the representation of the shape "Vertogradov", The Garden of Eden, inhabited by angels. Beauty on the ground expressed human craving for the attainment of heavenly beauty.

For decoration of palaces, temples, houses tried everything. Love to "patterns the" — One of the main features of Russian culture. Especially loved to decorate the dishes, because it, according to a remarkable historian IE Zabelin, "was when icons almost the first article of the indoor decoration, replacing the then works Fine Arts". Wooden buckets shaped like a bird — a light, smooth curve of the handle, like a bird’s neck, bottom and sides, like avian torso — completely covered with carvings. Golden buckets from the collection of the Armory of Moscow

Kremlin forged goldsmiths patterned wood, decorated with inscriptions of the script, the gems, pearls, enamel, the overhead cast: herbs, figures of animals and winged serpents.

Arts and Crafts for all save the image, and the poetry of Slavic mythology. This pagan ecstasy beauty of the world is closely intertwined with the Christian idea of ​​paradise — a repository and focal point "heavenly beauty". Direct perception of beauty as it comes nearer to the ideal of man, contributed personal, profound experience of the divine.

More than 400 years ago at the behest of Tsar Ivan the Terrible for his wife, Queen Mary Temrjukovna, the dish was forged from a single piece of gold. It is covered with stripes radiating from the center, narrow at the base and expanding outwards. They resemble waves, one after another incident on the sand. As if for a moment stopped dimensional motion of the waves — stopped to be immortalized. And like the pattern on a rotating solar disk — a symbol of the ancient Slavic god Yarily.

Silver Chalice wrought — High cup in a measure to the church sacrament — Prince Yuri Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow, was made in the XII century. On the crown (the rim of the cup) located carved depiction of saints. Each image is enclosed in a double circle — it completes the composition and design of the chalice, and at the same time speaks of the nimbus, the halo of sanctity surrounding the righteous. This beautiful monument of ancient jewelry art was presented to the owner of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Pereslavl. For us today, it may seem surprising that the same thing was fit for life, even princely, and for use in the administration of the sacraments of the church. However, this is another integral feature of ancient Russian culture: there was no different in Russia "crops" rich and poor, and so there was no self- "church" and strictly "secular". And the priest, the peasant could understand the language of ancient art — is not only understandable, but close to and love. Only in the age of Peter the culture was divided on the caste principle (know had no right to wear beards, and "black" humans — had) and the line "secular — religious". And then there is a third "variety" — Folk culture, which continues to reign uniquely meaningful Christian consciousness naive folk motifs …

It is very popular in Russia was embroidery. The art of embroidery was known long ago, and flourished in the early centuries of Christianity. Embroidery decorated not only household items — towels, tablecloths, bedspreads, but the interior of the church, clothes priests, lordly, royal and princely dress. Big pearl embroidery art required: first graded pearls on black velvet (against this background of their shape, advantages and defects were particularly well marked). Then they are polished by hand, pierced the finest red-hot needle and sewed on the product.

Russian imagined a worldwide movement of smooth, steady and measured. Therefore, great importance was attached to the rhythmic ordering of life. From prehistoric given it is they smote foreign travelers in more recent times measured life of Russian people, the firmness of its structure. In harmony with the global movement of moving Russian people — women and men in long, reaching to the floor, clothes, which dictated a special plastic.

Especially well visible appearance of our ancestors in the paintings of Russian painters of XIX — XX centuries: the artists carefully studied the life of ancient Russia and reproduced on his canvases appearance of historical characters through existing descriptions (this is — one of the types of reconstruction). Unfortunately, the Armoury did not have costumes of ancient Rus. But the museum has a huge collection of women’s jewelry, and using the description given in the literature, it is easy to invent, he looked like a noble woman — noblewoman or princess. The most common was the top women’s clothing Letnik — free by the cut, with wide long sleeves, trimmed with gold braid, cords and fringe hem. In front was cut, fastens with buttons up to the neck and ends tight neck necklace fringed with black braid, decorated with pearls and precious stones. Lower clothing, long and straight cut, sewed from fine fabrics, sleeves as annuals and wide, but collected in small folds, intercepted diamond — or pearl — wrists. Long precious earrings hung to the shoulders, his head covered kokoshnik — headdress of a married woman — embroidered with pearls.

An interesting discovery was made in the Moscow Kremlin recently — dumping relatively young noble woman, presumably

— Ulitka Bogoliubsk princess, wife of Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky husband was executed for treason in 1147. On it — amazing beauty hu (wide ribbon around the head, brow), embroidered in green and gold, the same elaborately embroidered, ribbon frames the neck.

Ornaments complement attire made him a single artistic whole. By the headgear attached kolts (suspension), decorated with enamel and filigree. Scan — a favorite in Russia jewelry techniques. Its name comes from the ancient Russian "filigree" — Roll, fasten thread. From one gram of pure gold or silver stretched by passing through "dragged" (device with holes of different diameters) thin as a hair, a thread — the length of her income to two kilometers. Two strands tightly curled, sometimes flattened, sometimes leaves round in cross-section. Using solder

— Powder of fusible metals — soldered to the surface of the product Precious strings, forming an intricate pattern.

Inside kolts were hollow. They put rags soaked in fragrant oils. Shaking his head, the beauty spread around them a wonderful flavor. Under braids gleaming earrings — Ryasna. On the back and chest were barmy — necklace of beads and blown openwork circular medallions.

Colt, bartenders, and bracelets, rings, holy pictures — all part of the land found in the Ryazan treasure. Finding this a long time, in 1822, and jewels were buried around 1237 when the hordes of Mongol-Tatar inexorably approaching the Old Ryazan. After lying almost 600 years in the ground, decorations have not lost their aesthetic value.

And everything that came to us from the ancient Russian life, impresses with its splendor. Any subject — bucket decoration dish — awakens in us the direct, sincere feeling of beauty. And so familiarity with the museum collections in the full sense can be called "Sentimental Education".

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