Hunters and naturalists have long noticed that sable often leaves droppings on an elevated, hard, smooth and clean places — trails, ski, stumps, fallen trees, rocks and so on. D. Zoologist Vladimir Rajewski once on the two-kilometer stretch of forest trails of excrement found 28 Sable. PP Tarasov believed sable deliberately leaves droppings in such places that they are Notice marks indicative of the occupied territories, and serve as a cautionary signal «trespassers, beware»). PP Tarasov wrote: «These signs have sables are mainly droppings that sable constantly leaves any noticeable places. Just like dogs and wolves make their «signatures» have noticeable from a distance «opoveschatelnyh items» (post, lonely tree), sable leaves droppings in the high places, such as a tree stump, fallen tree, snow-covered hill, and so on. D. Interestingly, that sable feels the need to leave signs of their stay at places like the fresh trails, covered with snow Kul (trap sable), a storage shed for the products, and so on. n. is almost always possible to find feces sable fallen across the river trees that sables are often used, as a bridge. Leave these «bridges» the signs of their stay the most profitable tech like this is where they will be seen by other individuals. It is no coincidence that, for example, dogs leave their «signature» at the most consistently «bridges».
P. Tarasov, therefore, believed that, firstly, sable deliberately leaves droppings as warning and Notice marks and, secondly, it deliberately leaves them in places where they are more visible to other animals.
Long-term observation of the Barguzin sable in the reserve has led to different conclusions. Sable, indeed, tend to leave feces in such places. He, like many other animals, tend to «revolve around the tail,» in advance to prepare a place trample down it, as in deep snow squatting korotkolapy animal touches the snow. Summer taiga among the thickets of shrubs and mosses deep as it is inconvenient to do your toilet. That is why the Sable reserves dung on forest trails, roads, fallen trees, and so on. D. On the fallen trees, storage shed kulemki and «snowy hills», he is taken not because the excrement they will be clearly visible, and because in these places the snow » Kuchta «is unusually hard, and animal completely fails.
Observations of the places in which sable is making his toilet, troppenie his daily moves led me to the conclusion that talk about the beast deliberately leaving excrement on conspicuous places no reason. There is no reason to give them meaning and warning signs. The old idea of the so-called phenomenon of territorialism from sables, protection of their individual areas of the deadly fights and the killing of the weakest were radically revised by later research.
Sable making his toilet on the most natural cause and where it is convenient. But once the excrement left, they can without any intention on the part of animals become a means of communication, a source of a variety of information: on the age and sex of the animal, its readiness to mate, satiety, health, facilitate the synchronization of the sexual cycle, and so on. D. Excretion sable certainly it has some biological significance, but the laws «marking behavior» that no animal is not specifically studied, it is possible to build only guesses.
Nature defecation animal ecologists usually overlooked. Accumulations of excrement from sable marked only permanent asylum. «Only if there is a more or less permanent asylum Sable also has something similar to a permanent latrine,» — writes a good connoisseur of sable GD Dulkeyt. In fact, the accumulation of feces from sable observed not only in DC start, but also on the trails and in places where the sable repeatedly comes to forage.
The character of «running» excrement sable. During the daily course of Sable reserves allocation (feces, urine and feces with a urine) from 5 to 31 times. The case with the highest discharge was observed January 23 — on the diurnal variation of the length of some 9 kilometers excrement found seven times, one urine — 20 times and feces while in the urine — 4 times.
During diurnal variation animals leave small size feces often from 2 to 6 cm in length, from 0.4 to 1 cm in thickness and from 1 to 5 g weight. Their shape and color depend on the food. If the food is dominated by pine nuts, they are in the form of two or three thick and dull brown sausages if rodents, they «as if twisted in several helical turns and end in sharp»; these droppings are black. Blue They come in when the animal eats blueberries or blueberry. Vladimir Rajewski described bright yellow excrement sable, consisting of residues Hymenoptera.
According to the observations of FD Shaposhnikov, defecating at Sable in captivity is an average of 24 times a day. At about the same observed in freestyle sables, when you consider that some of the feces remain undetected and that the so-called diurnal variation of the sable is only half true diurnal variation, as sable goes hunting twice, most often in the hours of morning and evening twilight.
Character excrement sable at temporary shelters.
Leaving the shelter not far from its release sable, as a rule, leave droppings. They are much larger than «running» excrement. Knowing this is very helpful in determining the location of temporary shelters and the occasional sable once during tracking daily variation detection of excreta help locate shelters and thereby fix the end of the day’s march animal.
Restrooms on the trails.
Accumulations sable excrement can be found not only in a more or less regular launches, but also on the trail. Restrooms on the trails need to look for a small mound of snow. These elevations are formed over the stumps, small anthills, twigs and so on. D. In a mound of snow resembles the bay, over time it becomes a very solid snow pack, where animals did not fail. These bumps completely replace sable road trails, fallen trees, maturation of large animals (where excrement, incidentally, are well below the snow surface and quite visible) and other favorite places toilets.
Restrooms have canteens.
By the end of the winter snow thickness increases and its density and hardness (penetration resistance) increases. Sobol is becoming harder to get food on the go and he starts to hunt in a permanent place. These sites are often littered with piles of snow fallen trees, among which saved a lot of voids. Sable from time to time he visits the site and vending catches voles podkaraulivaya them like a cat. Of particular importance are becoming dining in the present period.
One was discovered sable dining room, which had been used, apparently, two sable: male and female. The dining room began to attend small animals after snow depth reached 45-50 cm, it was possible to establish the trails and excrement in the thickness of the snow cover in the dining room at a distance of one meter from each other were two moves with iced walls. On the surface of the snow around the «door» to the dining room we could see many traces of various limitations. Carefully, layer by layer, digging snow, were found 24 heaps of excrement. They were located at different depths in the thickness of the snow, not more than 45 cm from the surface and within 1 m from going into the room. Obviously, animals visited the dining room at least 24 times. Moves to the dining room did not differ from moves in the run. Only the size of excrement (the usual «running» excrement) and their location around turns could be to establish that it does not run, and the dining room. The ability to detect the restrooms at the table and on the trails allows you to collect abundant material for the study of food sable.
Restrooms at the launch.
The launch, which repeatedly visited sable, are located mostly in the basal hollows. This start-up or one of the branches of a large hollow root, and not far from the course into the slot (0.5-3 m), you can find permanent latrines. It is a typical launch and latrines were found in late March in the area between Grand and Davshinki in the Barguzin reserve.
To nest chamber, located in the root of the old hollow poplar-dunce, led nival stroke length of 3 m and a diameter of 9 cm. The inlet had a size 8 to 12 cm. The tunnel is strongly icy. Just beyond the entrance to the tunnel was almost vertically down to 40 cm and then turned at a right angle to start. At 25 cm from the exit of the tunnel located one above the other two toilets separated snow layer of a few centimeters. The thickness of frozen excrement reached 15 cm. In the dressing room, and the entrance to the tunnel of snow was almost to the ground is saturated with urine. The lower layer of feces was 50 cm from the ground. At a depth of 20 cm from the ground, deep in the snow, close to the socket, 1.5 m from the first two restrooms, I found a third bathroom. The first dressing room was about 10 excrement, in the second — 8, and in the third, too, 8. At the beginning of the winter entrance to the launch of the first was near the restroom, but then, after a heavy snowfall, it has been done elsewhere.
The analysis found latrines led to the following conclusions. The animals attended the launch of the space of three snowless frost periods. The first period of about ten days was in mid-November, when the snow has reached a height of just 20 cm, the second — at the beginning of February, when the snow depth increased to 50 cm and, finally, the third — and the end of February — beginning of March. Thus, the start of winter in the course of animals visited about 30 times, all the rest of the holiday spending in other start-up or temporary shelters.
Excrement in the restrooms at the launch are the maximum dimensions. Their thickness reaches 1.2-1.7 cm, length — 25 cm, weight — up to ’20 Since one and the same can run at different times to visit different sable, the analysis of excrement from latrines does not allow to study the specifics of the individual power sable until until no additional observations show that they belong to the same animal.
How much time I spent in sable start? When a snow depth of any early difficulties in getting food? When the animals began to visit the table? How to distinguish the entrance to the start of the entrance to the dining room? How to find temporary shelter or random maturation? As in the shortest possible time and with the least expenditure of effort to collect abundant materials on nutrition sables? All these questions will help to answer the above knowledge of the behavior of sable. An analysis of these seemingly tertiary and non-binding parts is the basis of a naturalistic approach to the study of animals, a great master is among our ecology is the consummate naturalist professor N. Formosa. These details are essential link that enables observation of the individual parameters of the biology of the beast, and restore the picture of the life of the animal as a single and indivisible whole, without which no living creature can not be considered explored to the end, and perhaps more importantly, will the unknown in the main, in its essence.