ARMS HUMANISM

ARMS HUMANISM

The traditions of the anti-fascist art is not buried in the archival collections. First of all, because the idea of ​​revenge tenacious: radio and newspapers daily informed about the attacks of neo-Nazis, the emblem of the Reich regularly hit the television screens overseas, «yearning for fascism» becomes an object of sociological research.

The advent of films dedicated to the fight against fascism, usually dated to the mid-30s. In terms of pure filmography so. However, it can not ignore the general provisions of the Soviet cinema, resulting from work on the large-scale themes. Revolutionary history and modern masters were taught to see the world from the perspective of a fierce political battles, full of humanistic sense. The tragedy «of the Odessa staircase» in «Battleship» Potemkin «in its treatment of Nazi anticipated soft» actions «. Over the years, people have seen in the knightly «pig» from «Alexander Nevsky» guderianovskih prototype of armored columns. The experience of the anti-fascist film productions stemmed largely from the practice of international cooperation, including between the Soviet and German cultural figures working together on the film «Salamander» (1928) by G. Roshal demonstrated the fruitfulness of these links in the script A Lunacharsky and G. Graebner were used facts Life Austrian biologist Paul Camerer. The material scientist who proved their experiments on salamanders genetic variability of living organisms, he was subjected to fierce persecution of the clergy and obscurantist. Lunacharsky defined hunted scientist reaction group as «the party of the fascist character.»

The characteristic «Salamander» from today’s point of view? For the way Professor Tsang seen Professor Mamlok hero eponymous film 30s. The figure of the scientist comes to the cutting edge. Artists perceive Fascism as a threat and even the scientific, cultural values. They still do not know anything about the practice of total destruction will soon adopt the despots of the Third Reich. But in the early films guessed and anticipated by the conflict between the riches of the human mind and hostile Nazi ideology.

The greatest masters of Soviet cinema is not passed by this social perspective. The hero of the film Pudovkin «Deserter» (1932) Karl Rennes came to the Soviet Union, while his comrades continued difficult that cost victims struggle. Upon learning of the death of the head of the Hamburg Dockers, he returned to his homeland. The shot operator A. Golovnya expressive acuity fight plans to transfer not so much a clash of characters or words, as the rhythm of the composition of the mounting frame. Shadows on the frozen pavement rows of upturned chins clenched fists — this mosaic of static plans explode traffic figures Dockers police strikebreakers entwined in a bloody fight to the beat of drums, the sound of machine gun and groans. Installation of silent film techniques combined picture and sound.

Authors "Conveyor death" (1933) the writers M. Romm Gusev and director I. Pyryev relied on the plot twists and turns associated with the images of the three characters — shown their fate were to illustrate the different ways in which people can go in times of crisis, unemployment and nascent fascism.

The war has not yet become a reality, but the reality of the screen has absorbed the atmosphere of a memorial for the slaughter of the First World. It is unlikely that there need to specifically emphasize the vision of masters: the threat of war was in the air.

In the mid-30s on the set there are people for whom Germany was not a «foreign material". They were representatives of the German creative intellectuals who came to the Soviet Union. Foremost among them should be named Erwin Piscator. largest producer, one of the creators of political theater that in his stage works have repeatedly used the cinema. He was invited to «Mezhrabpomfilm» for staging the painting «The Rise of the fishermen» (1934) on the novel A.Zegers.

Main Stage «Rise of the fishermen» was filmed under the direct influence of the poetics of Eisenstein’s films. On the night after the murder of the leader of the fishing village of sag mists string of people walked behind the coffin on the crest of the hill. Shots atrocities soldiery, assembly inserted into the scene funeral, increasing tension. To break out of their graves crosses and armed them, the fishermen went to the attack by machine gun fire. And as if in response to the atrocities of the punitive fallen upright coffin rose dead metaphor is like a lion that moved in "Battleship "Potemkin".

Roll call of shots — something more than a simple kinotsitata. Paphos masterpieces of Soviet cinema has been adopted by an artist who sincerely hoped that the German will really give him the necessary material for the equally pathetic decisions. But the victory was yet to come. The struggle against fascism only raged. Western artists look back — to the revolutionary history of Russia, seeing it as the prototype of the struggle of his people.

Another German director, G. Wangenheim, who worked with us in the studio which bore the name «Rot Front», in the film "Fighters" (1936) sought to combine a family with a political plot. Lemke Family Mother did not look like a family Oppenheim, which first appeared in the pages of the novel by L. Feuchtwanger, and then on the screen. But the principle sketch of the family unit in the light of the actual political events soon became the leading such an event in the «Fighters" Leipzig was a process, and the role of Georgi Dimitrov was the first experience of the initial sketch of the work on the image of the leading figures of the anti-fascist front.

International theme not confined to one genre. Musical comedy-pamphlet «The Stooges» Protazanov J. (1934) used the western genre material in a kind way. Heroes, worn instead of the names of musical notation, including Fa (Fascist), sometimes replaced by puppets, who jerked on strings influx of transition in stock tape. The criticism is too harsh to meet «Puppet brought their claims to the basic question: is it possible to subject the impending intervention against our country to solve farcical means? Later comedies wartime affirmative answer to this question.

Author of children’s paintings "Torn shoes" (1933) M. Barska found the reception, through which the material of the class struggle, without losing political sensitivity, specificity and humanity has found the reception has been found not speculative, but in the power of knowledge of child psychology. Torn apart by social contradictions Germany, as in a mirror reflected in the world of children, in their actions and habits of games. They played in the "strike", at "strikebreakers", at "demonstration".

In the second half of the 30s, one after another out pattern prevailing in the original trilogy, though they belonged to different masters. This «Peat Bog Soldiers» A. Macheret. «Professor Mamlok» Alexander Minkin and G. Rappaport and "Family Oppenheim" G. Roshal They came Germany, which became known as Hitler. Anti-fascist theme sounded in full force. In the context of the Third Reich spiritual values ​​were cruel illusions checks bourgeois intelligentsia, some of which tried to remain above the fray, endured a brutal crash. Replica professor Mamlok: in his hospital there "Only patients and physicians, doctors and patients «- are widely cited in all the articles about the film, becoming a kind of aphoristic key to the images of those who experienced the tragic way of understanding reality again» equipped «stormtroopers.

Progressive artists sought to discover the laws that led to the anti-fascist theme «Since I write, I always try to serve the cause of reason and fight against stupidity and violence against the whole of what Marx called "P0GRUzheniem in bezystorichnost"- Said L. Feuchtwanger.

During the war, the anti-fascist film rightly took them all the screen space.

The heroic characters such as Stepan Kochetov («Secretary of the Communist» I. Pyreva) Praskovya Lukyanova («It protects the homeland» by F. Ermler), Olena Kostyuk («Rainbow» Don M.), Fedor Talanov («Invasion» A. Rooma), soldered in crowd scenes, a collective term in the national image that raised the topic of the fight against the invasion in the level of experience with classical literature and the arts. «I’m shooting Ukrainian Madonna!» — Recalled Don M. director «Rainbow.»

Science hate supplemented science of humanity. In an atmosphere of mortal combat against fascism and immeasurable gravity of such a placement test of moral strength to speak about the spiritual health of the people.

The tragic and the comic is often born from a single source. This rule is confirmed S. Yutkevich delivered in a soldier’s tale genre movie «New Adventures of Schweik.» The figure of Hitler, swastikas constantly ready to bend, moving across the screen, like on a sheet of newspaper. Overgrown beard and nails, the Fuhrer himself in a cage. It seemed that a decision purely poster properties. Meanwhile, after the War of the memories of witnesses, it became known that Hitler was mortally afraid of the end of his career. Ekstsentriada suddenly bared underground psychological fascism.

A variety of colors, genre and style enriched the palette war film. On the main line all clearly felt thirst for style front newsreel reports. This trend came to the surface in the best scene of the «Young Guard» Gerasimov. Introduction Germans in Krasnodon was filmed unusual giant frame — Panorama. On the screen appeared a threatening image of the enemy invasion. Fascist scum like flooded the streets of the city. «And suddenly, in the field of view, covering all the action, he entered the true master of the scene — wrote the director. — Now Sergey Tyulenin to dominate the scene, and the Germans were the only scary ugly reality in their background. «

Earlier, Mikhail Romm put «Man number 217». Based on the lives of people who have fallen into captivity, the film introduced the audience to the «home» in Germany, which was then called the «den». Outwardly, he looked quite decent, clean, prosperous House philistine ordinary grocer was a German and bourgeois latter is important. Pete world order fascism in the film was subjected to social analysis.

Political cinema, including the traditions and methods of struggle against Nazi ideology, the screen expands the boundaries, geographical and artistic, referring to the practice of fascist coups in Latin America, reflecting in documentaries and feature films of the world community protest against US nuclear expansion. Material World War II, a significant share of television serials and theater repertoire. Suffice it to mention at least "Seventeen Moments of Spring, «» Liberation «. «Soldiers of Freedom» «Great Patriotic War» to sense the scope and magnitude of the work.

Anti-fascist theme in our cinema is rightfully inherit the tradition of humanistic literature. How to overcome the flow memory boundaries of time boundaries between past and present in "Beach" A. Alov and Vladimir Naumov. Documentary outlines interesting landmarks search in the film «Marshal Zhukov Pages biography" in a series of paintings «The war is not a woman’s face.»

Due to the continuous efforts of social vanguard of humanity a third world war has not become a reality. But the fight against the threat of it is becoming more urgent.

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