Natural and climatic conditions in Sweden in many respects similar to the terms of the north-western regions of our country. That is why the introduction to the design and construction of houses in the new residential complexes of the Swedish cities of undoubted interest to the Soviet architects.
The presence of valuable natural resources (iron ore, timber, hydropower sources) to create more opportunities for the successful development of the Swedish economy. What is important is the fact that Sweden has since 1815 not participate in the war. The consequence of a favorable economic environment was the growth of housing and construction industry. In large cities and other settlements built numerous housing estates, created with the latest achievements of world practice, but have their own specific national features.
Swedish architects perceive the new trends, but their creative pursuits are always national and dictated by life itself. The architecture of houses is not winning tricks contrived form. Artistic expression and technical equipment of buildings are subject to the desire to make them more comfortable and beautiful.
The quality of the architecture of residential houses is estimated primarily on the degree of suitability of his life. Construction of buildings and apartment layout is completely subordinated to the requirements of practicality and usefulness.
During a tour of the country, we had to listen to criticism. Experienced Swedish architects and builders warn their younger colleagues from hobbies innovations that have not yet had time to prove himself in practice. Sometimes architects forget that for centuries lived at home, and they do not think about the fate of his ideas embodied in the draft. Now that the industry provides a rich range of materials, the architect must be particularly careful in their selection for their construction.
Swedish architects on the experience convinced that many of the materials are widely used in modern construction (glass, aluminum, stainless steel), «at odds» with the atmospheric changes, particularly in a country with a wet climate. Therefore, in recent years, the architecture greatly reduced their use have become more and more expensive to use, but resistant to operation time and materials (natural stone, polished granite, ceramics, brass, bronze) and in the interior of — different breeds of valuable wood.
The decoration and equipment Apartments vnekvartirnyh premises (in the lobby and stairwells) great attention to detail.
In Sweden, about 35% of the population lives in houses such as cottages. Since the individual design of houses is too expensive and inaccessible for families with average incomes, large construction firms are selected from the most successful projects of the proposed solutions and use them as a serial. Construction of houses in new residential areas is conducted by municipal organizations; about 25% of the construction is carried out on a cooperative basis.
In recent years, some general trends emerged in the planning, equipment, finishing and furnishing of the Swedish house. The apartments of multi-storey buildings with two, three, four and more rooms can be noted to unify the space throughout the apartment. The front hall (area 6-8 m2) is connected to the open ceiling opening with a common bathroom. Between the kitchen and the family room also has an opening, and part of the kitchen near the window is used as a dining room. Bedroom two-room apartment has a door to the common room. Wide opening from the living room to the bedroom and the kitchen can be closed by a sliding or folding door. The height of all rooms — 2 m 40 cm, but thanks to big windows and a continuous glass walls opening onto a balcony, the absence of large pieces of furniture cluttering the room, all the rooms seem spacious.
It should be noted an interesting household item ubiquitous. The flat window in the common rooms do not hang thick curtains. In apartment buildings, as well as in the cottages in the evening light the entire interior of the common rooms visible from the street or from the houses adjoining the site. The bedrooms are on the windows, metal blinds, located between the panes paired casements.
In accommodation, apartment walls are lined with wallpaper and indelible emulsion matt paint, which are applied to burlap, pre-pasted on the wall. Ceilings are usually made of large-sized panels «siporex» and therefore ceilings have no seams or irregularities. Electrical wiring is hidden in the baseboard or located above it. The sockets are installed at a height of 20-25 cm above the floor, switches are located at a height of one meter off the floor. Thus the wall in its upper part, left free from these elements. Lamps are hung in the free-hanging cord.
Many apartments are arranged in the form of sills reinforced brackets on the board, separated from the wall at a distance of 5-7 cm. A gap between the board and the wall of the heated air enters the radiator, which creates a thermal curtain. This allows in the winter to keep the window open.
Swedish woodwork made of well-seasoned wood with sealing gaskets, eliminates blowing in the windows. Well thought-out device at the entrance door to the apartment: canvas shield door has a quarter of the entire perimeter. Additional quarter on the door linings and slope in the form of a thin rubber tube ensure reliable soundproofing
The color scheme in the interior of the apartments is very varied. Currently favored bright colors of the walls, drapery fabrics and furnishings. Combinations of colors are selected on the basis of contrast (orange with turquoise, coral red and emerald green) or tones taken from the color spectrum, for example, a group of warm (red, orange, golden yellow and lemon yellow) or cold tones (blue, purple , burgundy, crimson).
Modern furniture for your drawing should be established canons, became international. In this area, the Swedish artists and decorators use the best examples of countries such as Denmark, France, Japan. Offers consumers new models of furniture, in addition to the beauty of form, meet the requirements of expediency and comfort. Along with strict straight lines and modern sectional rack furniture in the interiors of apartments and exhibitions of furniture can be seen once again entered the fashion in Sweden beech bent so-called «Viennese» chair. This chair, created by the factory Tonnett early in the century and widely proven to be the most practical and cheapest, the easiest, durable and elegant. Artists paint it matt enamel paint in white, red, blue and other colors.
Swedish Architects evaluated on merit and take advantage of the few interiors of extravagant figure, but comfortable and sturdy furniture, performed under the project of Danish artist Erna Jacobsen. Housing armchairs been pressed from a sheet of al-Luminos and covered with leather or wool fabric on the soft pads of foam; leg chair — with rotary mechanism and a crosspiece made of cast aluminum.
The interiors are often used antique furniture, especially furniture, made on the grounds of national creativity. Sometimes, in an ultramodern interior can be seen some antiques.
Kitchen Swedish apartment is spacious, comfortable and well-equipped with necessary household appliances and furniture; its area — 8-14 m2. Upon delivery of the house kvartironanimatelyam construction company limited by setting minimum sets of kitchen cabinets; electric or gas stove is purchased at the expense of tenants.
Since the kitchen is directly adjacent to the family room and the dining room is essentially, it is usually trying to give residential look. Kitchen cabinets veneered beech, oak or mahogany with a clear finish. Dining table and comfortable chairs are selected from the same timber. Relatively inexpensive electricity allows the appliance in most apartments. Double or single washer is made of stainless steel. The fittings of kitchen cabinets and shelving sizes, various tools for convenient storage of kitchen and tableware and foods carefully thought out and well executed.
The apartment cost toilet with an area of 2.5-3 m 2 has a compact arrangement of devices and high-quality finish.
Length of pressed steel enamel baths 1.5-1.2 m, width — 85 cm. The front panel is removable-bath, whole-enamelled steel sheet. Washbasin white semi-porcelain, modern form, without unnecessary recessed and projecting, easy to clean; it is mounted on brackets at a distance from the wall. The gap of 2.5 cm does not allow the accumulation of dirt and moisture and allows you to wipe the gap between the tailgate and the basin wall.
The stairwells are well lit daylight or artificial light, drew the attention of high quality work. Steps winder marches are made of terrazzo cream or light gray in color with a very fine white marble chips; handrails and skirting boards — made of colored plastic. Staircases decorated with very high (from floor to ceiling) window openings with a laying of glass blocks. Clean the surface of blocks of high-quality colorless «glass has no corrugations or any other patterns. Through a transparent enclosure is easily visible urban landscape or landscaped courtyard.
Note another piece of equipment — steel stamped radiators. Well treated rippled surface gives the radiator screen view. Firmly pressed against the wall, painted with enamel paint in beautiful colors, they not only do not spoil, but rather decorate the wall. Mines of refuse chutes in most homes are embedded in the wall. The doors and chrome-plated valves are in the form of disks with solid hinges and handles.
The walls are decorated with a small lobby with small ceramic tiles or colored plaster with a marble crumb. Partially glazed, beautiful figure wooden doors close silently thanks to pneumatic devices, fortified at the top of the door leaf.
Not all of that is used by the Swedish architects in the architecture of the interior, to meet our requirements and opportunities. However, some practices, use of materials and equipment worthy of attention and detailed study.