Organization of the territory under ohotustroystve

Organization of the territory under ohotustroystve

First promhozy consumer cooperatives were organized in the Krasnoyarsk Territory in 1958. At the same time, the decision of executive committee for their consolidated certain areas of hunting grounds, ie. E. Substantially based on the work of the special missions to the territory of the region was carried out inter-farm ohotustroystvo.

Almost all of the newly organized farms had significant wilderness areas. Initial consolidation of land for hunters made on the basis of already existing ohotpolzovaniya on the basis of applications hunters. The size of the plot, its equipment and landscaping determined willingness and ability of the hunter. The result of such a statement of the case were overfishing nedopromysel or fur-bearing animals, the frequent change of owners, lack of interest in the equipment area samolovami and so on. D.

After several years of work in promhozah accumulated data on the productivity of land and labor productivity of hunters, was mostly completed the development of land, except in the most inaccessible areas. Thus, the conditions for revision of the existing ohotpolzovaniya in farm ohotustroystva.

The work on the organization of the territory we held in Ust-Kut (1959-1961 gg.), Shor (1964-1966 gg.) And Shusha (1966-1970 biennium). Promhozah. The most complete, in relation to the requirements of practice, it was performed in Shor promhoze. Now, after five years, it is possible to draw some conclusions of this work. It should be noted that about 90% of the allocated and assigned hunting grounds have been preserved in our proposed boundaries, and the implementation of the five-year plan for 1966-1970 production of furs. quite accurately corresponds to the calculated check digit.

Currently ohotustroitelnyh forces missions and experts ohotustroystvo-farm households is conducted in many hunting grounds in Siberia and the Far East. In this regard, we consider it useful to highlight some methodological positions, which we used in the organization of the territory in Shor promhoze.

Allocation of hunting areas is based on the study of the qualitative composition of land, productivity, labor productivity hunters, given the current level of hunting organizations, the complexity of the development of land, the ways and modes of transport. These factors are interrelated and should be considered in the complex.

In promhoze hunting area should be considered as an independent unit, ie. E. It must have a long-term plan the rational use of fishing fauna of equipment and improvement plan, a plan of biotech and reproductive activities. Accounting for the actual yield, revision of hunting grounds and ohotfonda should be made as specific to the hunting grounds. Changing owners in the area should not affect the implementation of the plan of production.

Ohotustroiteli should consider the following issues: the role of hunting in the complex of existing industries, its specific direction, actually prevailing ohotpolzovanie, the qualitative composition of the hunting grounds, their marketability and biological productivity, the size of individual hunting land, allocation of plots in kind, their mapping and documentation plan hunting equipment and improvement of land allocated to them by the hunters.

The role of hunting in the complex fields of activity promhozov.

Analysis of economic activity promhoza since his organization’s accounting and reporting and statistical documentation to determine the share of production overhead hunting in the back of the economy, changes in its share over the years, the general trend of development of the industry.

Based on the analysis of information about the development prospects of land determined hunting and increase the yield of hunting products. At the same time find out the amount of labor and investments in the development of hunting. The cost of labor is determined according to a survey of hunters (in chel.-dn.), taking into account the preparation and location hunting.

The Shor promhoze for yield and the volume of labor costs is the primary hunting, leading economic sector.

The specific direction of hunting. It is determined by the ratio of the total volume of products obtained from commercial species, to the extent that the use of these types of stocks in favor of the economy.

Shor promhoz is a classic type of sable economy. Even in a year of peak abundance proteins harvesting it was only 20% of the total amount of fur pieces. When ohotustroystve sable-farm economy, we must address first of all the problem of rational use of sable. However specializations economy does not preclude the use of other types of game animals. It only makes certain forms and methods of management, organization of the territory. Note also that in future the share of sable in the blanks Shor promhoza decrease slightly, by increasing the proportion of ungulates and proteins.

Ohotpolzovanie actually prevailing at the time of ohotustroystva. It turns out a detailed survey by hunters. The survey data is applied to the working map scale of 1: 100 000. A survey of hunters we conducted as follows: the location and size of the hunting area (specified on the card); the terrain and the nature of afforestation; production of animal species (preferably view the receipts for receiving furs for several years); post-harvest abundance of game animals; characterization of their prey; location, size and condition of the hunting huts, availability of trails, Putikov; methods of hunting, samolovy used bait; change in the number of game animals in the area over the past 3-4 years; ways and means of transport in order to deliver to the area; time spent in the field.

Mapping survey data reveals the percentage opromyshleniya territory, the presence of free sites, equipment, land samolovami, huts and so on. D.

We conducted the survey annually for three years, with 70% of the interviewed hunters. It is necessary to clarify the boundaries of the hunting area on the map. Practice shows that the hunters in determining the size of the area make mistakes (sometimes up to 50%).

The value opromyshlyaemoy area varies considerably in some years; This should be considered when calculating the productivity of commercial land.

The qualitative composition of the hunting grounds. Investigation of the land was carried out by us in two stages. The first — the study of forest taxation materials taking into account the survey data hunters, the second — a field survey of land.

During the field survey the majority of a one-time cross sections for the greatest length of the route, and we photographed and inventoried hunting cabin. Part of the sites, the so-called benchmark, has undergone a detailed survey (several overlapping routes).

Reference sites were identified for comparative assessment of the hunting grounds. Lots of these are spread throughout the economy, they conducted a more thorough accounting of commodity products for a number of years and numbers of game animals. In assessing other areas, especially neopromyshlyaemyh their land compared with benchmark.

On passing airplanes and helicopters (mainly fire patrol aircraft), we flew over about 40% of the promhoza. Aviaobsledovanie needed to get an overview of the nature of the terrain, plantations and so on. D.

Very rezultativen but laborious inspection of land plots from the hills — loaches. The plot is literally at a glance, you can identify the most convenient and appropriate location of huts. Very often they do not coincide with the target map. A detailed survey of land plot area of ​​120-150 square meters. km with access to the loach generally requires 5-6 days.

Trading productive hunting grounds.

In a survey of hunters set boundaries and dimensions opromyshlyaemyh their hunting areas, the number of harvested animals at the site, which serves as an indicator of the actual productivity of the commodity area.

From accounting documents make the sample passing each hunter hunting all kinds of products. We have done this job for three years, it made a table of monthly production staff putting hunters.

A comparison of the survey data shows a sample of some inconsistency. More precise figures gives a survey of hunters, because when it takes into account the products that went for personal use, as well as mined in the area other hunters. The most comprehensive data come from the areas constantly develops the same hunters.

In a survey of hunters we have established a number of hunted animals, which in the future it is easy to translate in monetary terms. Then, knowing the land area, it is easy to calculate the productivity of the commodity 1 square. km land. The definition of commercial land productivity in existing procurement prices is necessary to calculate the potential earnings of hunters.

Trading productivity depends not only on the biological productivity, but also on the skill of the hunters, equipment areas, fishing conditions, and so on. D. Planned commodity productivity must come from biological, t. E. Planned on the basis of data on the numbers and breeding animals. The organized hunting management indicators of planned and actual productivity of the commodity should be very close to each other.

The biological productivity of hunting-grounds. We defined it in hunting areas on the basis of a survey of hunters in three years, by summing the number of harvested and the remaining animals after harvesting. These averages for different types of land were refined taking into account the parity of the number of post-harvest on the reference sites.

In determining the biological productivity of great interest are regularly reclaimed hunting areas in which trade and post-harvest yield the number of animals within a few (3-4) years of stability, the desirable organization of one or more test sites, including various types of land. We organized two such experienced site.

The value of individual hunting area. In determining the average size of the hunting areas in the different types of land, we proceeded from the decision of two questions: what can be extracted from the site? What should make the hunter? The first problem is solved with the appraisal of land. But equally important is the size of the earnings of the hunter.

Average earnings of hunters hunting with the time spent on preparing for the post-harvest fisheries and recreation, we have identified for Shor promhoza in 1000-1200 rubles. Practice shows that a permanent contingent of up promhoza hunters, fur producing not less than 1000 rubles. (50-60 or more sable). Of what should emerge this we calculated the amount of earnings hunter on the hunt?

In favor of the main production unit of the Abakan commercial species — sable and squirrel on Anzasskom and Artasskom areas — also ungulates. Hunters seriously engaged in fishing proteins to produce up to 200-300 animals per season. Consequently, squirrel fish can give 400-450 rubles. in year. The remaining amount must be recovered from fishing sable, t. E. The hunter to have to get at least 30-40, and in the years of crop failure proteins — 50-60 sables.

Based on the productivity of land in Sable and norms shooting (30%), you can define the area of ​​individual hunting area, providing the hunter an adequate income. For the sake of quality class I (in Sable) the minimum land area of ​​100 square meters. km, for the sake of quality class II — 150 square meters. km. These standards we used in the allocation of hunting areas on the Abakan production site. As has been observed at the hospital, along with sable hunter can master proteins stocks on an area of ​​50 square meters. km, but it provided an autumn shooting squirrels with a dog and application samolovov.

Consequently, large areas of the reserves will nedoosvoeny proteins. When using combined sable, squirrel samolovov hunter can learn along with sable stocks proteins on an area of ​​100 square meters. km. In this section of the equipment will take about 600 stationary samolovov.

In richer squirrel lands Anzasskogo production area average of the areas we have reduced up to 80-100 square meters. km, and Artasskom site where the workpieces significant proportion of ungulates, — up to 70 square meters. km.

The allocation of plots. Allocation of plots were carried out on the basis of finding land productivity given the present ohotpolzovaniya earlier, their geographical situation, the complexity of development and transport conditions.

In the mountain taiga can not be cut into equal 100-kilometer section, in each case requires individual approach. The boundaries between the areas are on the watershed ridges and large rivers serving as means of communication.

As hunting isolated areas are more or less isolated areas on the area close to the calculated average. Sometimes when it is impossible or inappropriate splitting or combining separate land area allocated plots were significant deviations from the mean.

Within the boundaries of the previously existing hunting-use, we left about 20% of the allocated sites. Most of the changes carried out in the direction of a significant consolidation of land and only in three cases — in the direction of their reduction. It will be allocated near the settlements small area (30-50 sq. Km) of good land plots to secure them for seasonal hunters among foresters, hydrometeorological observers and so on. D.

Mapping sites documentation. The results of work on the territory of the organization are summarized in the «Book inventory of hunting-grounds promhoza Shor», which consists of three volumes (volume per production unit). Each hunting site has its own schematic map scale of 1: 100 000 or 1:50 000, where plantations are marked by rocks. Coloring plantations by species based on the data from the card or lesotaksatsii plans plantations available in the forestry. Ohotizbushki, trails, Putikov transferred from the working card made as a result of field work and interviews with hunters.

The map marks the location planned for the construction of huts. It shall be accompanied passport hunting area, a table of population dynamics and production of game animals, photos of hunting huts.

The passport section contains a brief description of land, showing its location, total area, the predominant type of land, terrain, snow cover, yield class for the main commercial species, the presence and characteristics of huts, trails, samolovov ways and means of getting to the site.

In general, the economy produced lithographically map area organization scale of 1: 300,000.

Equipment and landscaping hunting grounds. In carrying out work for the sake of promhoza we took into account 103 hunting hut, of which only 40 were close to the model, 43 — more or less suitable for housing and 20 — unusable. Most huts surveyed in need of repair.

To create normal living conditions for hunters dedicated to hunting areas is planned to build no less than 70 huts. Their distribution on sites indicated in the summary table, the place on the map of the site stroitelstve-.

Based on my own experience and the survey of fishers, we believe the most appropriate size huts 4h3h2 meter is based on one or two hunters. The construction of a hut with a porch and interior equipment needed 20-25 days.

For the organization of hunters and delivery of products, collection of hunters and products, to improve the cultural conditions of work and rest of people in the lands necessary to organize a network of ohotpromyslovyh bases. The base must include the size of the dwelling 5h5h2 m warehouse for storage of products and equipment, bath.

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