Weapons in July 2013 zb-60 vz.30 — YUGOSLAV gun in CZECH PERFORMANCE

Weapons in July 2013 zb-60 vz.30 - YUGOSLAV gun in CZECH PERFORMANCE

Shtuera "vertical scheme"

Second Youth legendary Gewehr — 98 Yugoslavian "Zbroevki"

The most fruitful period in the military-technical cooperation Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia became the 20s and 30s. the last century. At this time, most types of machine-gun weapon army of Yugoslavia was purchased from the company «CESKOSLOVENSKA ZBROJOVKA, AKCIOVA SPOLECNOST, BRNO». It is these samples and we will go today.

MANUAL (light) 7.9 mm machine guns OBR. 1926

(«FC Zbrojovka Brno» L.K. ZB VZ.26)

Artillery and Technical Department of the Ministry of the Army and Navy of the Kingdom of SHS (Kingdom of Serbs Croats and Slovenes) in the 20-ies. the last century, began testing new foreign structures of light machine guns.

Comparative tests have shown that the highest quality of all the samples examined — gun ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno «sample of 1925 caliber 7.9mm (Lehky Kulomet ZB vz.25; vz-vzor — model, the sample) with an original cartridge 7,9×57 mm arr . 1923 (vz. 23). The final choice of the weapons identified and external political factors, in particular the high probability of hostility in Italy not only in relation to the Kingdom of SHS, but also to the «Little Entente.» The defense ministers of the CXC and the Czechoslovak Republic (PMR) Generals Dusan Trifunovic and Jan cheeses July 10, 1926 signed an agreement for the supply of the Yugoslav army in case of war. Belgrade ratified the contract on 30 July but Prague postponed ratification of the concerns about the solvency of the Yugoslavs.

Contract for supply of light guns’ FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno «arr. 1926 was signed on 1 September 1927 a few months after taking the «final sample», and interestingly, before the start of series production of this gun for the Czechoslovak Army (first order INR PMR for series production was signed only in 1928). It remains unclear in such a hurry in choosing weapons insufficiently tested in Yugoslav conditions. I suppose that insisted on this solution, the chief of ordnance department MViM General Milivoje Joksimovic. Purchase of light machine guns planned to be implemented in the framework of the loan in the amount of 71,613,460.26 CZK with maturities of up to 4 years, starting from 1928 or 1929 contract for delivery of 5,000 guns with accessories.

As part of this agreement weapons were supplied in small batches until June 12th, 1930 A new machine gun, under the official name «The light machine gun 7.9 mm Model 1926» entered service regiments I, II, and IV of the military districts, the first and second divisions of cavalry. The serial numbers of guns that were in service with the Yugoslav army from 1929 to May 1938 were: 4001-6001; 15.253-16.401; 17.249-18.401; 19.910-20.610. On the left side of the receiver of each gun was applied to the manufacturer’s name — «CESKOSLOVENSKA ZBROJOVKA, AKCIOVA SPOLECNOST, BRNO», and on the right — the model designation: «LEHKY KULOMET vz.26».

Standard Infantry bike was in service Samokatnaya teams for transporting machine gun mod. 1926

It should be noted that the constructor arms factory «Prague» (Zbrojovka Praga) Václav Holec has developed a machine gun under the Czechoslovak 7,9×57 mm cartridge mod. 1923 (vz.23) More Weapons in 1924 was called «Prague» arr. 1924 (Praga vz. 24).

After a series of measures to improve the structure and combat capabilities, (transitional options mod. 1924 and mod. 1925). Artillery Testing Commission recommended that the Czechoslovak army «that the draft gun designer Holec plan experienced construction in 1926». Being launched into production at the plant «FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno», the final model was designated «ST» arr. 1926 (ZB vz. 26). Automatic machine gun worked due to the removal of the powder gases from the barrel, which under the barrel in the front part of the gas chamber was located. The bore is locked by tilting gate in the vertical plane by the inclined surfaces of the bolt and bolt. Trigger admitted firing single shots and bursts, switching modes of fire carried predohranitelem- translator lever type, located on the left side of the receiver. Translator had fixed the following provisions: «1» — single fire, «30» — automatic fire, and the «0» — the fuse is included. Cooling at the gun barrel was air. Therefore, on the trunk made special valleys. The barrel shift; nёmzakreplena on the handle, which was used for carrying weapons. For firing the gun used bipod. Sight provides aimed fire at a distance of up to 1600 m. Each division sight corresponded to a change in the range of 100 m. Stock is made from the box magazine 20 rounds.

MANUAL (Light) machine gun ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno BRNO «

7.9 mm OBR. 1937 (7.9 mm M.37, VZ.30J) and heavy (Easel) 7.9 mm machine guns OBR. 1937

(TC VZ.37, BRAND IDENTIFICATION ZB-53)

Light machine gun 7.9 mm arr. 1926 proved to be a model, it is not quite devoid of drawbacks. For example, during factory testing in Brno it turned out that if the shooter after a quick change of the heated barrel can securely close the lever coupling, the newly installed trunk at the first shot can fly forward at 6 m! Designer Vaclav Holek the transitional arr. 1927 (vz.27) has eliminated this disadvantage. Now, if the system is the coupling was not in the fully latched condition, once a shot was impossible. But the biggest impact on the reliability of automation in different operating conditions the difference between the weapons had ammunition in Czechoslovakia with a light bullet (machine gun was designed exactly for this cartridge) and Yugoslav manufacture a heavy bullet, which had tapered tail. Yugoslav gunpowder faster mechanism for polluting gases. In this regard, the Ministry of the Army and Navy 9 January 1930 it was forced to issue an order 11617/29 on «the use of various types of ammunition with bullets from different manufacturers caliber 7.9mm to … automatic weapons.» In «Table display» 9543 November 11, 1932 determined that the «scope for established patterns of light machine guns, which purchased from Czechoslovakia (ZB vz.26), we adjusted for the cartridge pointed bullet with a slight German (7,9 mm M98» S ») or the Czech-Slovak origin (vz.23 ostry- lehky)». Thus, for the shooting of a light machine gun «FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno» arr. 1926 can only use cartridges with a light pointed bullet. «

In March 1935, between Yugoslav and MViM plant in Brno began negotiating the purchase of another light machine guns. Yugoslavia is now found itself in a favorable position. She appealed to the «FC Zbrojovka Brno» with claims that required to address deficiencies identified in field trials gun ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno «arr. 1926 In addition, Yugoslavs received a better offer than the Czech from «the Belgian national arms factory in the suburb of Liege Herstal» (Fabrique nationale d’armes de guerre. Herstal — Liege, FN) for light machine guns «Fusil-Mitrailleur Browning FN Cai. 7,9mm M1e.1930 »and« Fusil-Mitrailleur Browning FN Cal. 7,9mm Mod.D ». In such circumstances, the Yugoslav government could dictate their conditions to the Czechs.

«FC Zbrojovka Brno» more in 1934 proposed a new party of Yugoslavia supply guns mod. 1926 10,000 shares and sell the license for their production. Deadline for the supply was limited in 1937, however, the Czechs failed to meet this condition, and supply problems have tried to solve by taking a loan from the Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic the right amount of guns mod. 1926, which is later planned to make up a new model gun ZGB-33, designed to Britain. But the Czechoslovak army in June 1932 had trёhprotsentny nedokomplekt guns mod. 1926, and was in no hurry to give an answer.

In March 1935 when the Ministry of Defense of Czechoslovakia finally decided to accept the offer of Brno and cede the old factory machine guns mod. 1926 requirements for export instead of new models, Yugoslavia was ready to put new conditions on quality and cost. Belgrade tended to acquire the Belgian version of the Browning (BAR version of MLO or MD). The loss of the Yugoslav market could have a negative impact on the prestige of the national industry and bad for the upcoming big contract with Romania. Thus, the defense minister Bohumir Bradach, and then his receiver Frantisek Mahnik as military attache in Belgrade, colonel František and Josef Hajek Small, pressured ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno «, demanding the reduction of prices and demand for new models. In the end, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia sent for testing improved light machine gun mod. 1930, and even a light machine gun mod. 1934 (vz.34), which was still under development. I must say that on «FC Zbrojovka Brno» in 1930, more refined design gun mod. 1926 due to the introduction of the gas regulator (sleeve with holes of different diameters). Modification of the machine gun (ZB vz.30) was adopted by the Romanian army and the modification in 1933 by 7.7 mm (.303 British) English vintovochnoypulemёtny cartridge — the British Army («Bren» —

Brno Enfild).

Since the models sent to the test, too, were sensitive to the type of ammunition 7,9×57 mm Design Office in Brno is designed specifically for the Yugoslav army entirely new light machine gun «Yugoslav» arr. 1930J (lehki klm, l.k. ZB vz.30J).

Factory drawings Yugoslav machine gun mod. 1930J

Finally, July 30, 1936 representatives of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and MViM INR A.T.2530 Czechoslovak Republic signed an agreement to acquire 15,000 light machine guns mod. 1930J (Yugoslav designation «model 1937», M1937) and the redemption of the license for the production of this model. The amount of the contract amounted to CZK 32500000, with a maturity of 5 years. The first part of the contract implied the supply of 15,000 machine guns at the price of 32.5 million CZK, with 5,000 guns mod.

1937 had to go for the replacement of 5,000 machine guns mod. 1926 set CXC Kingdom from 31 July 1928 to 12 June 1930 The factory in Brno, received back from Yugoslavia is a weapon (mod. 1926) in May 1938 and immediately sold it to China

Hand (light) 7.9 mm machine gun mod. 1926 («FC Zbrojovka Brno» l.k. ZB vz.26)

The second part of the contract, valued at CZK 6600000, includes:

1. Develop a plan to adapt the old Kragujevac plant Division V (production plant rifle mod. 1924) in the studio for the production of light machine guns.

2. Provide working drawings of machine guns, as well as the supply of measuring and control instruments for their production.

3. Carrying out calculations on the amount of raw materials needed for production.

4. Access to all information necessary for the production of machine guns.

5. The supply of raw materials for the production of parts in 1,000 light machine guns.

6. Help Czechoslovak specialists in the manufacture of this party.

The third part of the agreement implied a payment to the Czechs after adjusting production more 6200000 CZK.

Bearing in mind the complexity of the labeling machine guns mod. 1926, comes in the Kingdom, in which all signs were in Czech, Yugoslavs insisted that under the new contract for 15,000 machine guns receiver mod. 1937 made in Brno, were applied to the model name «ST MM 37» («FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno», arr. 1937) on the right side, the serial number and the manufacturer’s name in Serbian, in Cyrillic — «CHEHOSLOVACHKA ZBPOJOBKA AD. BRNO «on the left side, the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and the name of the manufacturer latinitsey-« CS. ZBORJOVKA A.D. BRNO »on top of the box. After the start of production in Kragujevac, the name of the sample «P.m.M.37» (Pushkomitragez Model 1937 literally — a rifle gun, light machine gun mod. 1937) was applied on the right side of the receiver, the name of the manufacturer «VOJNOTEHNICHKI PLANT KPAGUJEBATS» (Military Technical Kragujevac factory) on her left side and the inscription «BOJHOTEX. PLANT Kragujevac «with the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on the top of the box.

According to the report of the plant in Brno, in January 1937 it was planned to put Yugoslavia until 30 July 10000, and before 31 December 5000 more pieces of light machine guns obr.1937

However, the last batch was delivered with a delay of 6 months already, June 30, 1938 Taking into account an additional batch of 500 light machine guns supplied by Czechoslovakia in 1940, the total number of machine guns mod. 1937 assigned to Yugoslavia amounted to 15514 units.

At a time when Yugoslavia was put under contract last gun A.T.2530, organization of production of these weapons in Kragujevac was far from complete.

A detailed analysis of the implementation of the agreement, based on a report submitted by an engineer Slany in INR in Prague May 13, 1938 reads: «Conditions 1 to 3 A.T.2530 contract to May 1938 fully implemented. Condition 4 is not satisfied, as the production of light machine guns has not yet begun. With regard to the 5th conditions, the raw material is in Czechoslovakia and is ready to transfer the Yugoslav side. Two experts were sent to Kragujevac in early 1937 and tuned machines. At the beginning of 1938 in Yugoslavia left the rest of the experts. So to 13 May 1938 in Kragujevac there were 12 representatives of the «FC Zbrojovka Brno.» The VPP while ended preparatory work for the launch of the workshop, but still lacked the equipment and machine tools. It was necessary to purchase:

1. About 35 machines for the workshop cost 2.3 million crowns (the order expected to get the plant in Brno).

2. About 360 machines for mechanical workshop cost of 15.5 million kroons (plant in Brno until May 1937 g.rasschityval and get this order, but everything pointed to the fact that the machines will be purchased in Germany).

3. The rest of the missing equipment the customer had to buy without the mediation of Brno at the Czechoslovak producers, but it has not yet been ordered. Apparently, the Kingdom of SHS plans to buy them in Germany.

4. Control and measuring equipment and tools worth 9 million kroner (factory in Brno was counting on the contract, regardless of the position 1).

Engineer Slaný later spoke about the poor thoughtfulness of the contract. He openly stated that the price for the manufacture and delivery of guns is so low that even if we add to it the payment of a license for production and for technical assistance in the establishment of manufacture machine guns in Kragujevac, the Czech side is hardly avoid losses. Around the same opinion and the Czechoslovak ambassador in Belgrade, Vaclav Girs.

During 1938 MViM Kingdom of Yugoslavia signed with the plant ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno «contract for delivery of materials for the manufacture of guns worth CZK 29,068,752 with a maturity of up to 4 years, ie until 1942 .. This contract was implemented very late, because March 15, 1939 the German troops entered Czechoslovakia and join her Reich. More recently, in the territory of an independent state was formed Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. At the same time the Czechoslovak state company «FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno» became part of the German concern on manufacture of weapons and tools «Hermann Goering.»

Heavy machine gun 7.9 mm arr. 1937 (trade designation ZB-53).

Changes in the political situation and economic relations did not affect the co-operation ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno «and VPP in Kragujevac. MViM and weapons factory in Brno (now part of the concern «Hermann Goering») revised the 1938 contract for example a mechanical workshop, a loan with a maturity of 5 years, were purchased 363 machines worth 23,170,556.49 Yugoslav dinar. In the budget for 1939/40, the payments were provided 1/5 of the debt and funds for the organization of the final production of machine guns: 1,050,000.00 dinars for equipment installation, 16,000,000.00 dinars for the purchase of tools and 12,918,793.00 dinars for the start of production.

Management of the plant in Brno, June 27, 1939 sent to the central holding «Hermann Goering» the following report: «According to the contract between MViM number 2530 (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) and (Czechoslovak) INR of 30 August 1936 concerning the delivery of weapons and technical assistance ST — Brno (temporarily) providing VPP Arsenal in Kragujevac technical assistance to meet the licensed production of machine guns in 1000 arr. 1937

Working drawings have already been delivered and started shipping machines and tools.

Machines will be delivered in the first quarter of 1940, after which it will be possible to start production. These days, production is organized under the guidance of our engineer V. Dvoracheka and 12 of our specialists. «

All this did not suit the Yugoslav side that production is expected to begin much earlier. So MViM in the early 1940s, it was forced to urgently order to Brno another 500 guns mod. 1937 (M30J), and 1,000 heavy machine guns 7,9 mm TC vz.37 (ZB-53), which were delivered to Yugoslavia from 19 March to 17 April 1940 (see Table 2 and 3).

As we can see, in addition to light, Yugoslavia bought the Czechs and the machine gun. Its design engineers Vaclav Holek and Miloslav Rolchik began in 1930. The prototype was presented in 1932 under the designation ZB-50 at the competition in Greece, and later at home. The Czechoslovak army felt it in parallel with easel option aircraft gun CZ-1930 the firm «Czech FC Zbrojovka Brno.» The Commission recommended the development of a new design, and in 1933 there was a machine gun, «FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno» ZB-52 automatic gas-drive, air-cooled barrel, the rate of fire from 500 to 700 rds / min, the new machine. His version was the designation ZB-53. At the end of 1934, he passed the test for official designation vz.35, like a tank and Casemates. For adoption as a machine gun had to modify, after which it had adopted under the designation vz.1937 (Tezky Kulomet vz.37).

The main parts of the machine gun had the barrel receiver, a box with a lid and fencing, gate, bolt carrier with gas piston reciprocating action spring with the guide rod, the trigger box, buffer feeder, hammer and trigger. An unusual feature of the design was the use of automation on the basis of removal of powder gases in conjunction with the movement of the trunk and the back gate after a shot inside the box with a buffer. Locking barrel by tilting the shutter. The firing mechanism — striker type. Moving parts Automation — gate to the slide frame and the gas piston — were lighter barrel and time to produce the cycle of reloading before the barrel under the influence of a buffer spring back forward. Beat the rack frame for the hammer and the shot took place, when the whole system has not reached the extreme forward position, and the impact of the energy expended in the braking system. This improved shooting accuracy. Vapor unit includes a gas regulator with four holes of different diameters. Buffer bolt with two springs allows you to change the rate of fire.

Anti-aircraft 15mm machine gun mod. 1935 (ZB-60 vz.35)

Another unusual solution was the use of arms control with the manual release handle as a loader. To cock the weapon, it was necessary, by pressing the release latch of the box, to promote the control handle forward until mounted in the trigger sear box grasps the bolt carrier, and then pull back. When firing the shutter-release box, of course, remained motionless.

Manufacture of hand guns mod. 1937 in Kragujevac, in cooperation with specialists from the Czechoslovak engineer Voracek headed, began in April 1940 and the end of the year 1000 machine guns were fired. In the same period it was manufactured spare parts for the assembly of even 3,000 pieces. The serial numbers of the Yugoslav guns were 15.500 to 16.500 (14 guns were a test model is the range of serial numbers).

The exact number of hand guns mod. 1937 and spare parts produced in Kragujevac, presented in an official report W.Nr. 1200/007 which weapons factory Brno 4 September 1941 sent to the High Command of the Wehrmacht. ENemetskoe High Command through the Service Economy defense and weapons in July 1941 (at the time Yugoslavia had already been captured by Nazi Germany) ordered ‘FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno «3000 7,9 mm machine guns mod. 1937 (M30J). Management of the plant postvil problem that for the production of these weapons have been used spare parts are available at Volzhsky in Kragujevac. In addition, it was proposed to consider the possibility of continuing the production of machine guns at Volzhsky for the needs of the German army. The expert group from Brno 4 August 1941 sent the management report № 11.333, which shows that the machine-gun section VPP had sufficient spare parts ready for assembly of the required 3,000 machine guns. But after careful study of the situation in Kragujevac, the report dated September 4, Berlin was notified about the bad state of the production line, the lack of machine tools, measuring equipment, energy facilities and workforce, making it impossible to establish mass production of machine guns at Volzhsky Kragujevac. The same report notes that the Department of machine-gun a year produced 1,000 guns obr.1937 Finally, being familiar with the plans of the German military and economic Staff southeast (Wehrwirtschaftsstab Sttdost) leadership has expressed a desire to redeem the existing machines in Kragujevac.

Antiaircraft machine guns 15 mm OBR. 1935 (ZB-60 VZ.35)

In the mid-30s. XX century. it was noted that the Yugoslav army lags behind other European armies in the field of pro-tivovozdushnoy defense, which was an urgent need to modernize. In early 1937 MViM addressed with an offer to purchase the 20-mm anti-aircraft guns to the German export of military equipment to society (Ausfuhr- Gemeinschaftfiir Kriegsgerat, AGK). Expect that this order will be engaged in the plant «Raynmetal-Borsig» (Rheinmetall- Borsig AG), but he was not able to conclude an agreement with Belgrade because of disagreements on lending and stepped in Plant Berlin-Suhler Waffen-und Fahrzeugwerke Gesellschaft (BSW ), offered at good prices delivery Zenith 100 guns of the same system. At the same time in 1937 in Boka Kotorska MViM test the Czechoslovak anti-aircraft machine gun ZB-60 15mm vz.35. To show them the results drew attention Yugoslavia and in this sample. Therefore, «FC Zbrojovka Brno» February 5, 1938 prepared by one anti-aircraft machine gun enhancements (Velky, Hruby kulomet) for new tests as the Czechs, and Yugoslavs. His tests Yugoslav side, headed by General Milan Nedic held March 14-19 at the shooting range of the Testing Department of the Air Force at the Malacky (Bratislava Region), street Hloboka. Udovoletvorёnnye result, customers have signed a contract for the purchase of anti-aircraft guns 100 for the Army and 20 for the Navy (Navy), with the option to buy a license. The report from PMR INR 13 May 1938 on the 15-mm anti-aircraft machine guns (Hruby kulomet 15 mm) noted that: «With regard to this sample, up to the present day (the period from 19 March to 13 May) in Brno have been reported any further orders from the SHS (Kingdom of Yugoslavia), no agreement to repurchase the license. Yugoslav Ground Forces bought 100 pieces of anti-aircraft guns, which in the current (1938) year in production and should be ready by mid-1939, however, for the Yugoslav Navy ordered 20 pieces next to be made by the end of 1939 anti-aircraft machine gun is not officially adopted for service in the Army SHS (Yugoslavia) because it only tested in the Czechoslovak Republic in recent days has entered its final phase and it was not formally adopted by the Army of the Czechoslovak Republic. Brno is waiting for further orders in the amount of up to 200 guns, as well as the client’s request to negotiate the purchase of a license. «

To the remark INGO representatives of the Czechoslovak Republic, which, according to their information, future orders will be more (400 or 500 pieces), already familiar to us Engineer Slaný replied that large orders are welcome, and that «FC Zbrojovka Brno Brno» ready to work 200 machine guns to provide a license to issue and an agreement on technical assistance. But so far, during the preliminary negotiations were not considered conditions of the transfer license, so long as Slaný against its transmission without clearly defined conditions, but not opposed to further orders guns caliber 15 mm. The factory in Brno will discuss the sale of the license only when will achieve full clarity on all the conditions of production of machine guns in the CXC (Yugoslavia). This issue was not as simple as it seems, because it was supposed to build a new plant, and the Yugoslavs sought to use this plant their existing equipment suitable for the production of anti-aircraft guns. As for technical assistance, consider Slaný, the client is likely to require the services of Brno, similar to those spelled out in the contract for the purchase of licenses and technical assistance for the production of light machine guns 7.9mm arr. 1937, but it will be only when we have designated all other conditions.

Since MHO PMR delayed Adopting Hruby kulomety, and the implementation of the contract relating to the setting of the production lines for the production of light machine guns mod. 1937 in Kragujevac was accompanied by serious problems MViM decided to just order more 248 anti-aircraft machine guns, 15 mm ZB-60 vz.35 for the land army and 109 for the Navy. Thus, the plant «FC Zbrojovka Brno» from March 1938 to April 17, 1940 has put the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in total 477 anti-aircraft machine guns, 15 mm ZB-60 vz.35.

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