The successful development of any agricultural enterprise depends on the correct proportions between primary and secondary industries.
Standards of proportional development of beekeeping in horticulture farms, consider the experience of the state farm named after Lenin, the Ryazan region. This bee farm is in conjunction with horticulture and animal husbandry.
It was found that economically feasible rate of bee colonies to pollinate orchards in the conventional method of using family apiary is 2-2.5 per hectare. The introduction of a new method of pollination-replacement families in flowering garden-reducing regulations twice.
Increasing the number of bee colonies per hectare garden leads to losses, as the yield increase in this case does not cover the cost of the content is too large apiaries. For example, the farm «Aladin», the Ryazan region, where per hectare garden contains 3.5 bee colonies more than the farm named after Lenin, pome fruit harvest crops on average per hectare was at 4.4 quintals above. This increase in yield gave farm «Aladin» extra income of 120 rubles per hectare garden. The costs of maintaining the 3.5 bee colonies totaled 163 rubles. These calculations show that to have a family of 5 or more per hectare garden uneconomical.
In accordance with the established norm pollination hectare garden share (statutory) beekeeping industry in fixed assets horticultural state farm at a given level of technical equipment is 0.8-0.9%, and fixed assets maintenance of fruit and berry nasazhdeniy- 5.6%. It is in such proportion to be planned capital investments.
However, most households are not observed proportions in the development of related industries. For example, in the horticultural farm named after Lenin, the Ryazan region, an average of four years (1959-1962), plant and equipment on the farm as a whole rose by 1.405 million rubles (98%), operating in the gardens — 57.8 ( 26.2%), and in apiculture — 0.9 thousand (3.4%).
Size bee pollination should be planned at the rate of 50-60 families on 100 hectares of farmland with weight of fruit and berry plantings 25% of the land area ..
To ensure an abundant year-round families of bees forage and increase the marketability of apiaries (40 kg of marketable honey in the middle of the family), you must have a supply of nectar in the amount of 500-600 kilograms per hectare fruiting garden. This need is covered by the use of gardens, natural honey land, crops of agricultural crops of honey (buckwheat, sunflower, etc.), Special crops of honey plants.
Dimensions of crops special honey plants in each sector is determined by counting the deficit fodder making full use of the main sources of nectar flow. In particular, the state farm named after Lenin to cover this deficit requires special crops of honey plants (phacelia, clover, etc.) At the rate of two hectares of honey plants per hectare fruiting garden, including crops between the rows. These crops can be reduced by half with the introduction of protection zones in up to 80-90% of honey wood sawmills
The rate of loading per beekeeper should exceed 100 bee colonies in the apiary mechanization of work and pay, depending on the load, honey collection and results of pollination activity of bees. In winter, the normal load on the beekeeper can be increased to 200-300 bee colonies.
To apply queens-assistants, time-cuttings and other methods of improving economic indicators beekeeping, apiary, each should have a replacement rate of hives at least 30%. This ratio and the main spare hives bee colonies in parallel with the commissioning of new gardens will ensure the growth of bee farms.
Increasing honey collection and further development of beekeeping are constrained by poor material and technical equipment of apiaries. Most households do not have special Zimovniki, nomadic booths, apiary houses and so on. Usually, the bees hibernate in the adapted premises. Hives individual farm apiaries have become completely unusable and is not updated. In the old hive is not possible without the risk of carrying the bees to sources of the bribe, it is difficult to ensure a normal winter and prevent the cooling slots in the early spring time. Consequently bee colonies develop poorly subjected diseases reduce productivity.
The experience of state and collective farms with the development of beekeeping shows that systematic updating the material and technical base of beekeeping and introduction of scientific achievements and best practices necessary to allocate income from beekeeping industry 20-25% of the funds. Such a rule will provide contributions proportional increase of fixed assets of beekeeping and gardening.
The costs will be repaid in beekeeping increasing harvests of fruits, berries and other crops.