Broad beans are plants whose seeds knotting possible both by self-pollination and cross-pollination with the insects.
To clarify the role of honeybees in pollination of broad beans on Gomel Regional Agricultural Experiment Station conducted the following experiment.
In late April 1962 the central apiary Manor (spot Meadows) a light fertile soil (0,025 hectares) manually sown broad beans, keeping the distance between rows of 40 cm.
At the beginning of mass flowering identified two plots located next to an area of 2.5 square meters. The first plot pollinating insects visiting flowers freely beans. On the second — the plants were under the gauze and insects insulator had no access to them. During the period of flowering on a dedicated account band counted pollinating insects feed beans. Observations have shown them that the greatest number of pollinators visited broad beans in the afternoon. Therefore, keeping the insects produced on a daily basis at this time, with the exception of rainy days.
During flowering broad beans in the apiary was 40 to 75 bee colonies. Apiary nestled in the woods, where the conditions for the breeding of wild pollinating insects are most favorable.
We counted only those insects that climbed into the flower and his body touched pistils and stamens.
In 1962, during the flowering broad bean and throughout the beekeeping season kept very bad weather. In July, the average temperature was below the long-term average of 3.3 degrees. In July precipitation twice the norm. In these circumstances, the main pollinators of broad beans were honeybees.
The share of the bees had 89.7 percent of the number of insects visiting the beans. Bees collected from the flowers of nectar and pollen.
In late September, after the bean pods dark, and the leaves fell off, the beans have been removed.
In 1962, many state and collective farms Zhitomir area sown over large areas broad beans. Most households received 500-600 quintals of green mass per hectare, but here’s the problem: in some places have collected a small grain harvest, since plants ensued just 5-6 Bobikov.
What’s the matter? Some thought that the reason for the excessive amount of precipitation in the summer of 1962. However, in other farms under the same climatic conditions for each plant ensued 15-25 and more Bobikov. Get a good harvest of grain. It turns out that the grain harvest broad beans depends largely on honeybees: a self-pollination is not enough for maximum fruit set.
Monitor the effectiveness of pollination by bees were carried out on experimental plots of his nursery, as well as collective and state farms. We compared crops are at different distances from the apiary. All other conditions: the variety of beans, soil, precursor processing — were equal.
The farm «Vertikievka», Zhytomyr region. one area of 7 hectares located at a distance of 2.5 kilometers from the apiary. The grass stand here was a man’s height, and on the plants struck up a 3-4 Bobik. Without waiting for the full maturity of seeds, green mass mowed and zasilosovali. The second field (10 hectares) has been removed from the apiaries 1.5 kilometers. There ensued almost 2 times more grain Bobik and got to 13 quintals per hectare. The third array (15 hectares) was a kilometer away from the apiary. With this field harvested 18 quintals of grain per hectare.
In the neighboring farm «Ukraine» in the first field team broad beans planted 30 hectares, and in the fourth — 65.
Both teams produced crop in wide aisles way with 45 centimeters. The forerunner here and there was a sugar beet fields were treated equally and have an equal amount of mineral fertilizers. The first brigade of the apiary is located 200 meters from the crops of beans, and the fourth — 500 meters. The grain harvest was 22 and 18 kilograms. Note that the green mass in the fourth detachment was 20 percent more, what in the first.
In the experimental section of nursery regional office beekeeping beans sown square-cluster method in srednёm 5 plants in the nest, the size of the squares of 60 X 60 centimeters. Herbage reached 2.1 meters height, stem thickness — 15 mm. Under milky-wax ripeness yield of green mass in terms of 622 quintals per hectare was. Na’rasteniyah struck up an average of 30 Bobikov. The plot of 0.03 hectare harvested 165 kilograms of grain, or 55.1 quintals per hectare in the translation. This site is located 3 meters from the apiary. At the second site, located 200 meters from the apiary, tying only 19 Bobikov average per plant.
Our observations show that there is a direct correlation between the grain yield of beans and the distance from the apiary to the array of blossoming of this culture.
It would be hard to establish agropravilo: at the time of flowering broad bean haul them bees from the calculation of at least one family per hectare.