Engineering drawing pen is more limited in their capabilities, what is closest to her pencil. Lines and strokes in pencil drawings can be different tonality. In addition, they can apply shading to amend band. The feather figures all the lines and strokes are equally black, no shading can not be done. Correct errors is difficult, sometimes impossible. Thanks to the contrast of black mascara and features of paper feather patterns are particularly clarity and decorative. These qualities are essential for reproduction in printing, reproduction in books and magazines.
What are the possibilities of this rich, at first glance, a mean of expressive means, graphic material? The pen sketches the main thing — a live line and a varied bar. With the distribution of black and white bars can be achieved game experience of light and shade, coverage, even the color difference separate parts. Fine means is the paper itself. A larger or smaller number of unfilled lines and strokes paper is perceived differently. Sometimes, for example, free from shading net paper conveys the impression of varying strength white.
The harmonious combination of visual tools contributes to the creation of whole artwork.
The pore space by identifying the pattern is opposed to black and white. Consider a few examples.
One square is empty. On another set point. The white paper near the point seems a little lighter.
The same pattern can be seen if you look at the square drawn on it with a single line. Once it is confirmed clearly, when plotted on a square line widths at different distances from each other. Here you can see that the paper is denser near the strokes seem whiter than about thin and sparse. These features are characteristic of the line and line, that is tonal patterns.
Sketch Leonid Pasternak "Lying boy" made pen and ink in a casual and friendly atmosphere polenovskih "evenings of drawing". Note — untouched patterned paper on the cheek of the boy, his shirt, the background has a different degree of whiteness and the designation of a form using the gradation of light and shade clearly conveys the nature of the soft evening light.
Fine example of harmonious space solutions without the explicit use of light and shade, in a purely linear feather art can serve as a drawing by Henri Matisse. The exact ratio of flowing lines and a white paper, to reach a minimum by means of art, creating an expressive image of an attractive young woman. However, before making such a concise work pen and ink, Matisse performed full-scale tonal charcoal drawings, gradually refining them basic rhythms characteristic of this model. The end result of the search, and it was the work created, it would seem, with remarkable ease, "in one breath".
We give examples of feather patterns performed in various manners. They make it possible to understand not only the practical solution of certain problems of plastic, but also help to find a novice draftsman graphic handwriting.
For images of objects pen strokes are usually put on the form, as in the pencil drawings. Distances between strokes, their thickness and direction allow to convey not only light, form and materiality of the depicted.
Graphic fantasies of the XVI century German artist Hans Baldung Green "Centaur" zakomponovana beautiful, elegant interpretation of the unusual plot, magnificent for a delicate, but tough modeling of volumes.
The landscape sketches "The Reaping" Vincent Van Gogh’s main attention is paid to full-scale color relations. The very nature of the touch pen to the paper (in this case a sharpened cane sticks) long and short hatching, temperamental strokes, surgical strikes, the color difference of individual spots — create a tremulous image of nature.
Typically, tonal and color relationships in feather products are resolved in the complex. This expands the visual possibilities of drawing you closer to the realities of the real or imaginative artist created the world.
To send shadows and mid-tones are often used crossed the finishing touches. One such technique, called "rectangular grid"It consists of a semi-hatch. First, the vertical, then horizontal. Depending on the task can hatch plane and at an angle of 45 degrees. From the slopes of the hatch, and the distances between the lines depends on the different texture of the surface pattern. In the process, the artist himself he finds the circuit, because the plastic dash, his character and stress play a significant role.
The romantic world of gallant, powdered wigs, lace cuffs, embroidered with gold and silver doublets perfectly reveals the famous master of book graphics Boris Dehterev in the novel by Alexandre Dumas illustrations "Chevalier d’Armantel". See how transparency and tact artist conveys color, tone and even the texture features of the characters and costumes grace the interior parts of the overlap, the parallel grid bars in combination with a plastic line.
Often, for the transmission of the darkest tone and strengthen relations in decorative feather figure painters introduced black spots. Indicative in this respect, the experience of the American painter and graphic artist Rockwell Kent. In his works, feel free to use the line, strokes, solid fills. All this combines rhythmic integrity solutions.
In sharp contrast to well-calibrated plastic R.Kenta a book saver Kuzmin depicting Hamlet. Rapid orientation pen strokes are fully consistent appearance tragic Shakespearean hero.
Unusual way of illustration artist Vladimir Konashevich to "Tale «by Boris Pasternak. Shimmering fluctuation of space, designated different saturation points convincingly conveys the hopelessness experiences of the characters.
Of great importance in the work of the artist have visual materials. Paper should facilitate easy, fluent movement of the pen over the surface. For these purposes, it is best to drawing paper, called Whatman machine. Suffice it smooth and dense, it allows you to make small adjustments to cut the erroneous strokes razor blade or scalpel. Well there is a pen and paper number 1 (typewriter).
This paper is very thin, and no erasures on it to make it is impossible. That, however, has its advantages, as it is quite clear. Many artists use peroviki this circumstance, it is not imposing on completed or failed drawing another sheet of the same paper. Thus, as if drawing "in transmission"Can be transferred to a sheet recaptured correctly applied in the first embodiment, the line, replacing inaccurate new, more confident and expressive.
It is difficult to slide the pen on rough paper. There are unforeseen accident.
In addition to the white paper, is used often poorly toned or brightly colored. Toned sheet plane is in this case, the general tone of the whole picture environment that promotes greater obobschennosti.Osobenno clearly visible strokes on coated paper. Ink rests firmly, exactly. Furthermore, with a scalpel or a needle on a black background can be scratched white lines. It says the extra quality, close to the engraving. But the coated paper has a serious drawback — the pen cuts into the surface of the chalk soil hampered the ease of movement.
The classic material, come down to us from antiquity, are the reed and bird feathers (primaries goose and turkey). End specially notched quill allows for lines of different thicknesses. But incision is performed in certain, fairly complicated rules. Apparently, so budding artists in our time to paint them escape. Reed pens are successfully used by professional graphic artists, especially easel. Reed pen line being easily and can be very broad. It is best to cut the reeds and rushes in late autumn, when it is ripe enough. Flexible and durable as cane, stood the winter and experience the effects of cold weather.
Taking a cane or reed, select the most durable parts and a razor blade or sharp knife, make an oblique cut at the end. After that, try to make a reed stick kind of a steel pen. Then make another small incision. If the cane or reed stick is too thin, sufficient to consider only an oblique cut.
Drawing ink and can be particularly sharpened wooden sticks, even a match. By his manner such works are close to drawings made reed pen. Prepare a simple wooden sticks. The width of the end drawing a fine purified wand chooses the artist himself. At the end of it for retaining the carcasses are made longitudinal and transverse grooves. How should I fix reed pen and a wooden stick, shown in the diagram.
The richest visual capabilities allow steel feathers. They draw the majority of artists perovikov. The office supply stores to buy steel feathers with an asterisk (№ 86) and a thin, small drawing pens. They are inserted into specially made pen-vstavochki. If there is no handle, can be tied to the steel pen thread cuttings of the worn, the failed brush or a thin stick.
It is very convenient, especially in field conditions, draw a conventional fountain pen (called "fountain pen"), Seasoned with black ink. Only need to remember — better, better self pen, more varied, with alternating thin and strong on the broad lines of pressed, will your sketching technique.
Recall that the reality of corrections to any feather figures is very limited. In addition to the amendments razor or scalpel lines applied wrongly on heavy paper, it is possible to paint them well opaque gouache white.
Perova figure like no other, requires error-free "contact". To achieve this, the artist must constantly, every day, make sketches from nature. Always carry a pocket notebook or small stack of thick sliced paper fountain pen with black ink (do not forget the quality of the pen depends on a lot!). It was only a chance, make an outline — landscape, interior, with individual figures and groups. Harder will hand will vigilantly eyes. For appliances feather work just contributes to the development of the most valuable qualities of the artist.