KAMENSKY under located on the left bank of the Dnieper terrace near Kamenka-Dnieper, Zaporozhye region, Ukrainian SSR. The total area of the array of more than 20 thousand hectares, including 17 hectares of irrigated land irrigated by the waters of the Kakhovka Sea Kamensky, Ivanovo and the Annunciation irrigation systems.
The array is extended from west to east basin (sub), which gradually decreases from the north and east, south and west. The terrain is flat with developed microrelief.
Soil — sandy and medium loamy ordinary chernozem on loess and bedrock -. Sands. Ground water in most parts of the area at the depth of 4-8 meters. After flooding Kakhovka reservoir ground water level began to rise significantly.
According to long-term data, the average annual rainfall is 388 millimeters.
Many farms are laid in large areas of planting grapes. However, no work experience to irrigate this crop in this area agropochvennom nor any research on this question is no. Therefore, planting watered often wrong, irrigation regime is not always combined with fertilizer and increased load of bushes clusters. As a result, the irrigation makes possible effect: the grape harvest is low.
Workers Osnovskogo reference point irrigated viticulture Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking name VE Tairov since 1959 are in the area Kamensky hearth experiments on irrigation of vineyards with the appropriate field and laboratory investigations.
Experiments were laid at the farm «Ivanovka» in plantations where vines varieties Riesling, mattresses, Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon swim and. Treatments: 1 — control (without irrigation); 2 — recharge irrigation; 3 irrigations; 4 — recharge and vegetation irrigations, In all cases, the experience was carried out against the background of fertilizers and the increased load of bushes.
Every year for several years determined the effect of irrigation on the overall development of the bushes, the growth of shoots, foliage, root growth, yield, quality of grapes and wine; on water, the physical and chemical properties of the soil; on certain physiological processes in plants, to reduce the cost of grapes.
During the experiments took into account that in the area Kamensky hearth grape plants supplied with moisture better than in other areas of southern steppe of Ukraine at the expense of natural moisture. This is due to a slight evaporation of precipitation and high capillary soil moisture (capillary moisture reaches a height of 3 meters or more). Ground water is not salted, so much a part of the growing season the bushes root system uses a capillary moisture (Table. 1).
Table 1 shows that the roots penetrate to a depth of 4.5 meters, master 16.9 cubic meter of soil ground and reach a total length of 2.7 kilometers.
Given the satisfactory maintenance of the natural moisture, the soil in the experimental plot artificially moistened to a depth of only 1 meter. This eliminated the closing of irrigation water from groundwater and save soluble nutrients in the root zone of the soil. In other areas agropochvennyh depth of soil moisture waterings can be different.
The depth of the soil layer to be moisturizing, determined by the degree of distribution in the bulk of the roots of it, the need to create the most durable in the soil water reserves and the height of groundwater. Updating the latter can be completely eliminated when between the level of the capillary rise of groundwater artificial lower zone soil moisture is adequate layer of soil.
Zone height of capillary rise in the sandy soil and sandy loam reaches 0.5-0.7 meters above the groundwater level, on loam — 1.0-1.5 and clay — 2-3 meters. This should be considered when determining the depth of soil moisture recharge irrigation. It should also take into account the amount of precipitation that falls in the autumn-winter and early spring periods. As precipitation falls at the same time and not in small amounts to the same part of their evaporates normal water loading irrigation is necessary to amend the decrease.
Experience has shown that irrigation dramatically increases the grape harvest when the soil in the long term may create the most useful water reserve.
The upper limit of soil moisture when watering is limiting field moisture capacity (OPV). Average PPV meter layer of soil in the soil is 16% by weight of absolutely dry soil, which corresponds to 100% PPV. Maximum field capacity is the upper limit (the norm) soil moisture, permissible under irrigation of vineyards.
With this humidified air and water in the soil are in optimal proportions for the grape plants. All soil capillaries inside a lump filled with water, and large gaps noncapillary — air. In this case, the surface of the lump occur aerobic and inside — anaerobic processes. All of this contributes to the accumulation of nutrients and soil needed for the life of plants and microorganisms.
The lower limit of acceptable reduction in moisture meter soil layer is 65% PPV. Thus, soil moisture, corresponding to 100 and 65% PPV for this agropochvennogo area — optimum at which the vines grow well and bear fruit.
In connection with this mode of irrigation is to maintain soil moisture in the vineyards within 100-65% TID that can provide irrigations before noticeable maturation of the grapes.
In all cases, the rate of irrigation irrigation water should cover the difference between the stock of water corresponding to field capacity limit, and the presence in the soil pёred irrigation (Table. 2).
The data presented in Table 2 show that the areas irrigated soil moisture to the top of ripening was maintained at 99-65% PPV, and to control and it has been dropped to below 49% PPV (August 15).
Depending on the moisture reserves in the soil at the beginning of the growing season, amount of precipitation and the degree of soil moisture during the development of grape plants watered crops and different periods and different standards of water (Table. 3).
Fertilizers on the experimental plot were added annually. In 1959, before the opening of the bushes have superphosphate 10 quintals per hectare, ammonium nitrate — 3 and potassium salt
1.5 quintals. Feeding is carried out simultaneously with irrigation; the first made superphosphate 1.5 quintals per hectare, ammonium nitrate — potassium salt, and 1 — 0.75; when second- 1.5 quintal of superphosphate and 0.75-potassium salt.
In 1960, in March, under the vine brought organo-mineral mix (20 tons of manure, 7 quintals of superphosphate and potassium salt of 1.5 quintals per hectare). Before flowering fertilize mineral fertilizers (without irrigation) the rate: 2.5 quintal of superphosphate, ammonium sulfate — potassium salt of 2 and 0.5 quintals per hectare. A second feeding is carried out simultaneously with the watering, respectively 2, 1 and 0.6 quintals.
The following year, before the opening of vines per hectare made: 3 hundredweight of superphosphate, ammonium nitrate — potassium salt and 1.5 — 0.8. Start fertilizing after flowering has been made by the same fertilizer at the rate of 3, 1.2 and 0.8 quintals per hectare; the second — before the second watering — phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (1.5 and 0.75 quintals).
Together with the rational mode of irrigation and fertilization sharp increase in the harvest of grapes contributes to the increased load of bushes (tab. 4).
Table 4 shows that, compared with control, subject to the regime of irrigation and increasing load of bushes bunches the average weight of grapes varieties Riesling and mattresses also increased slightly; Harvest of all kinds increased by 70-100%.
It should be noted that, despite the significant increase in the load of bushes in irrigated areas, the quality of berries in irrigation hardly deteriorated. This is due to the fact that when watering grape shoots grow better, and the phases of grape plants occur at the same times that without irrigation.
Irrigation contributes to the powerful development of the root system and the aerial part of vines, which leaf surface area greater than 5-7 times the land area of nutrition. These plants need to install the two-plane trellis; it improves illumination of bushes and increases the yield of grapes.
Based on the data obtained in the experiment, we can draw the following conclusions.
1. To grow high yields of grapes (175 kg per hectare or more), it is necessary to carry out sowing irrigation with soil moisture (including moisture evaporation and precipitation) and 100% APW, as well as one or two irrigations (basic glaze) if soil moisture drops to 65% of the APW. Each vegetation irrigation soil moisture should be brought up to 100% PPV.
2. Once every two or three years should be made annually, and rotted manure — fertilizer and a half to two times higher than non-irrigated vineyards.
3. Load bush Riesling grapes must be at least 70 varieties of grapes and mattresses — 50 on the monoplanar trellis.