Lexicographical conference with the Institute of Linguistics
USSR Academy of Sciences (15-16 / IV 1952)
The brilliant work of Stalin’s «Marxism and Problems of Linguistics» deeply and comprehensively revealed the structure of language and the specificity of its grammatical structure and vocabulary of and created a solid methodological basis for lexicography as a science.
Soviet lexicography, until recently, not having a strong methodological basis and are often resolved the major issues of the dictionary works only on the basis of practical experience, not always uniform and can not be generalized, now gets a strong, genuinely scientific foundation for its further development and improvement.
Soviet lexicography is considerable progress. During the years of the Soviet regime created numerous lexicographical works — monolingual dictionaries, bilingual, terminology and others. Active work on the preparation of explanatory and historical dictionary of the Russian language; Create the Dictionary: Russian-Ukrainian, Russian, Tajik, Russian, Uzbek, Russian, Azerbaijani, and many other Russian-national and national-Russian dictionaries.
For the first time in the history of Russian lexicography set up a newly created written language dictionaries and bilingual dictionaries of a number of languages of the East and West.
Based on the experience of senior lexicographer, in particular, the rich tradition of Russian lexicography, Soviet linguists have created for different languages of the Soviet Union monolingual dictionaries, terminology, bilingual and others are the key to prosperity and enrichment of the national culture. Dictionaries contribute to the establishment of norms of literary language and successful struggle for the culture of speech.
Making sensible national-Russian and Russian-national dictionaries of different languages of the multinational Soviet Union — the Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Georgian, Kazakh, Armenian, Tajik and other fraternal mutual assistance and promotes creative vzaimoobscheniyu languages of these peoples.
«The new doctrine» of language Acad. Marr had a detrimental effect on the development of the domestic lexicography. Understanding the language as a superstructure, semantic confusion with the public ideology, the ideology, anti-historical approach to the history of the word and its meaning — all this seriously affected the vocabulary practice: on the methods of constructing a dictionary entry, the order of values, selection and placement of illustrations. Academic lexicography — the first two volumes of the Dictionary of the modern Russian literary language and vocabulary of ancient languages - particularly affected by attempts to introduce in the dictionary vicious practice of the provisions of the «new doctrine» of the language.
Liberated from errors marrovskoy theory, armed with the Stalinist doctrine of language, lexicography Soviet received all opportunities for development and improvement. Dictionary work intensified in all the linguistic centers of the country. Numerous discussions were subjected to a full discussion of the theory and practice of lexicography. Before Soviet linguistics got a number of problems and challenges that must be solved Soviet lexicographers will not be able to successfully continue its work. It challenges associated with public regulation of language, distinguishing different types of dictionaries, with production for their standard and differentiated Dictionnaire, with a precise definition of the principles and techniques, stylistic and grammatical characteristics of the words, determining values, distinguishing the homonyms, selection and placement of phraseology, definitions and unification of spelling, of pronunciation, aktsentologicheskih standards, etc..
Resolution of these tasks can not be carried out without in-depth theoretical work. The development of the scientific theory of lexicography is entirely dependent on properly designed study of lexical and phraseological system of language in general, of its styles and its dialects. Development of common questions of semantics (semasiology) and style — the key to successful development of Soviet lexicography.
On the basis of the development of all sides of the science of the vocabulary of the language and the system of language styles Soviet lexicographers will create and improve the diverse types of dictionaries — explanatory, historical, phraseological, synonyms, dictionary writer’s language, bilingual, differential dialect, etymological, terminology, pronouncing, spelling, and al.
There are already some achievements. But at the same time in the lexicographical theory and practice there are many unresolved bugs and flaws. In practice, vocabulary work painfully reflected the lack of theoretical works on the lexicology and stylistics of national languages. It should be in the near future, on the basis of Stalin’s theory of language, to create a scientific work on the development of the theory of speech and basic questions of lexicology and semantics. Years domination supporters of the «new doctrine» of the language refers disparagingly to the dictionary, adversely affected the preparation of lexicographical staff. It is necessary as soon as possible, by providing relevant post-graduate qualification, train cadres of highly skilled lexicographers pass lexicographical work experience to young linguists. It is necessary to create conditions for further growth of young researchers, having developed precise and rigorous scientific requirements to be met by lexicographical works submitted for the degree. It is necessary to develop a standard vocabularies for different types of dictionaries, taking into account national identity languages of the Soviet Union, to establish a system of lexicographical description of words, the structure of the entry in the different types of dictionaries, diverse and differentiated system of stylistic litter. We must get rid of the vulgar sociological and inaccurate interpretation, constantly improve and add to the dictionary file cabinet, taking care of high quality illustrations.
Dictionary work should help the development and harmonization of systems of national terminologies, promote the elimination of terminological jumble. Glossaries have become the basis for streamlining and consolidation of a common scientific and technical terminology of a national language; This applies particularly to the newly created written language of the multinational Soviet Union.
Based on the challenges facing the Soviet lexicography, in order to further the development of theoretical and practical work in the linguistic lexicographic Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Union republics, the meeting considers it necessary to:
1. To expand and deepen the theoretical work on lexicography, for the study of vocabulary of basic lexical fund and languages of the Soviet Union, to fully support the development of specific theoretical topics on lexicography, for historical and modern lexicology and stylistics.
2. Requests the Council to systematically organize the coordination of the discussion lexicographical works and produced dictionaries and vocabularies of projects for different types of dictionaries. For a successful exchange of experience and coordination centers lexicographical consider expedient systematic meetings of employees constituting dictionaries related languages (Turkic, Finno-Ugric languages, and others.), With the participation of linguists in Moscow and Leningrad.
3. In order to coordinate the work and the establishment of a permanent scientific information to request the Council to organize the coordination of the constant exchange between the linguistic lexicographic editions Institutes Allied Academies.
4. Welcoming the initiative of the Institute of Linguistics named after Potebni Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, organized the systematic production of printed papers lexicographical recommend linguistic institutions allied academies periodical special collections devoted to questions of lexicography. There is no doubt that such linguistic centers such as the Institute of Linguistics, Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, Armenian SSR, etc., With extensive experience in lexicographical work, such publications may be of great benefit to the theory and practice of the vocabulary of the case.
5. The meeting considers it necessary to recommend to all linguistic institutions allied academies provide systematic information in the press on the progress of work in the field of the dictionary. The meeting requested the editors of the magazine «Questions of Linguistics» regular coverage in the pages of the state of lexicographical works in the Union republics and to pay as much attention to the basic theoretical problems of lexicography.
6. The meeting considers it necessary to organize a special training lexicographers. For this purpose, it is expedient to establish a special lexicographical profile in preparing graduate students. Lexicographical works having the character of independent research, should be considered as worthy of the award for their academic degrees of candidates and doctors of sciences.
7. The Meeting noted that as part of the many linguistic institutes (such as the Academy of Sciences of the Turkmen SSR, the Latvian SSR, etc.) Has not yet been organized vocabulary sectors and lexicographical work being carried out at a slow pace, entrusted to persons who are not specialists lexicographers.
Soviet lexicographers — experts in various languages of the peoples of the Soviet Union — should pool their efforts to develop the foundations of Soviet lexicography on the basis of Stalin’s theory of language. Linguistic centers, special institutions allied academies should systematically co-ordinate their work constantly to share the experience. This close-knit co-operation will lead to the fact that the Soviet lexicography become the richest and most advanced in the world of lexicography.