In early March, Moscow hosted the annual meeting, which summed up the activities of management of automation and remote control in 2007. The meeting gave a principled assessment of the performance of services, discussed topical issues. The meeting was attended by heads and specialists of the department chiefs, representatives of the Project design and research organizations, developers and manufacturers of devices of railway automation.
The keynote address was made by Head of automation and remote control VM Kaynov. He spoke about the key indicators of operational work in the past year. (Report as presented by VM Kaynova is published in this issue.)
The speaker noted that despite the measures taken in the economy continue to be allowed potentially dangerous cases of gross violations of safety and service chiefs urged to focus more on preventive work to prevent similar violations.
Head of the Department noted that over the past year reduced the total number of malfunction signaling devices 12.5%, due to the fault distances — by 8%. However, in a number of ways a positive result achieved through better job related services and complacent estsebistam not worth it.
From the analysis of the causes of failure shows that the distance signaling workers themselves often are the perpetrators of many injuries because they violate the technology maintenance and repair of devices that do not comply with the rules of labor and technological discipline. This indicates a lack of control of the heads of the technological discipline.
Last year, the big work on modernization and introduction of new devices RAT: on the farm, the cases of device failure due to poor preparation and execution of commissioning works in the construction and modernization. This topic was discussed in detail at the meeting.
To remedy this situation, you need to strictly control the preparation of facilities for commissioning. This process will involve specialists of the department and PKTB TSSH. In addition, to improve the skills of workers commissioning groups in the past year, the network was held a seminar on the issues of preparation and acceptance of facilities and organized their training in rape. In Syzran conducted school network for the exchange of experience in the organization of safe production of works at realization of investment and repair projects.
Another issue that was raised at the meeting — frequent cases of violations of trains due to design errors. Speaking to the Director General’s report Roszheldorproject VB Bellows said that to improve efficiency and productivity in the design institutes implemented the quality management system, the new automation system design, to create a single database and project data bank. He noted that Roszheldorproject performs nearly 50% of engineering and survey work on the projected infrastructure throughout the network. Its specialists are aware of the responsibility for the quality and timing of projects. However, the interaction with the roads there are some problems: not always promptly issued tasks and specifications for the design of objects, often delayed consideration of the substantive terms of the drawings, too long to prepare background documents for the design. All this, ultimately, adversely affect the quality and duration of the issuance of project documentation. In order to minimize errors in the project, their examination will be carried out by the institute, which will take over also the preparation of input data.
Expertise of project documentation and software investment projects of "Russian Railways" deals and PKTB TSSH — is one of the important directions in his work. Last year alone, its specialists have expertise 117 projects that made more than 900 observations.
As the director of PKTB TSSH AA Kochetkov, the plans he headed division includes the development of methods of implementation and verification systems, and input on this issue must be an active part of roads. Their comments and suggestions will help determine the priority of a system for the introduction of site-specific.
Experts PKTB help solve operational problems. For example, currently in PKTB developed and stored in the trial operation better and more reliable device for controlling descent of the rolling stock with reserving sensor.
The meeting noted the difficult situation in the sector with labor protection. In 2007, the rate of occupational injuries, compared with the previous year increased by 21%. Fatally injured seven workers. This indicates a poor state of labor and production discipline, violations of regulations and rules of labor protection, failure to farm workers of their duties. It is alarming and that the cases of road traffic accidents and collision of rolling stock to employees distances. As I stressed in his speech the chief engineer of the Department of GD Kaziev, many enterprises overly carried away with the construction and operation of forgotten about, including about health and safety. Often the work on occupational safety is being formally preventive measures and safety checks are carried out only "checkmark". He stressed that to change the situation, these issues have to constantly deal not only with occupational safety engineers, and managers at all levels. Requires an additional monitoring of the occupational safety and health during technical inspections and audits.
During the meeting, the heads of department made many complaints against the service. For example, it was noted that they are specialists in their everyday work is still far from full use of the possibility of an automated accounting system failures ACS-W. Input to the program data contains many inaccuracies and errors. Often the root cause of failures in hiding, and their investigation and follow-up take place only "under pressure" Department. Some services are constantly "hoard" information and operational data is sent to the department with a big delay.
In many statements, roads make a complaint to the quality of the equipment coming in the distance. General Director of "EL Teza" VS Minakov told how to solve this issue in the factories. For example, the staff of a new post "Quality Specialist"On activated factories Complaint-handling complaints.
He complained that due to the late approval of product prices and delays in tender procedures planning supplies equipment is complicated. Due to the seasonal demand for their products more and more equipment is made in the second half of the year, and at the end of the year happen "Park your vehicle"That affect the quality.
He also noted the great benefit for workers from the online survey, organized with the meetings of middle managers in Novosibirsk and Rostov-on-Don. Specific comments and suggestions to improve the quality of products made by line employees will be considered by designers and technologists plants.
With reports on their farms were chiefs roads. They talked about the current problems arising from the operation of devices and what measures are taken to stabilize the operation distances.
Patient theme for the economy remains the reliability of the devices ALS. While not everyone can cope with the large number of failures codes that daily fix machinists. Experience of the organization of the work on the farm Gorky road, where over the past year the number of crashes decreased by more than 40%, shared Chief of AA Nikulin. He said that the service creates a security center, which experts using an automated program to review all cases of failure codes and promptly take measures to eliminate them, attracting related services. Specialists of North and East Siberian roads to eliminate one of the causes of failures by the demagnetization of the rails.
Talking about the devices KTSM, the meeting noted that over the last year has increased the accuracy of their work. Almost all of the devices included in the centralized system ASA-PS, which allows more efficient to identify shortcomings in the work, and to monitor the correct implementation of Electromechanics maintenance. Since work on KTSM vagonnikov, were invited to provide their maintenance service centers controlled by the wagon road services.
Head of the East-Siberian railway, IN Sheverdin proposed to improve the quality and content of the test track circuits in stations and spans with high traffic to create special teams of workers and ways of signaling distances. Discovered teams such deficiencies can be rectified immediately, without losing time to write in journals.
This so-called "district method"Used on the North Road. As the chief SB Smagin, it is effectively used in remote stations and spans, the entrance to which "from the field" limited. Workers distances (SCB, IF ECH) on the trolley travel on these sites, perform maintenance work on the device, remove all comments, including those identified in the autumn and spring examinations.
During the meeting several times raised the personnel issue. Unfortunately, on many distances, especially those located in the major regions, the staff is understaffed, and staff turnover is a problem. It was discussed a lot of issues, including the professional development of staff, technological support services, implementation of investment and repair programs.
Finally, the economy of the West Siberian, October and the East Siberian roads were named the best on the results of operational work for
The meeting resulted in decisions aimed at fulfilling the strategic and current problems of the economy.
Automation, telecommunications, informatics
Reliable operation RAT — the primary tasks
Provide guaranteed security and reliability of the transportation process is a priority, a certain development strategy of JSC «Russian Railways», which establishes the basic principles and ways to achieve the performance of the company in the long term. The challenges facing the farming automation and remote control should be considered as an instrument of the reform process of the Russian railways. This priority is a functional strategy «to ensure guaranteed safety and reliability of the transportation process», which was developed in order to drill and expand the relevant provisions and sections of the Development Strategy of JSC «Russian Railways».
In the field of traffic safety at the present time in the Company’s situation is as follows.
In general, the rail network in 2007 compared with the previous year the total number of marriages decreased by 3% (3847/3947). The greatest reduction achieved Krasnoyarsk (17%), Moscow and the Far East (12%) railways. But their efforts have been reduced to «no» in Kaliningrad and Sverdlovsk roads to increase this figure by 77 and 24%, respectively.
Speaking of marriage, admitted the fault of the workers’ management of automatics and robot, it should be noted that the proportion of such marriages in relation to their total number of the network is 2.4%.
In the past year through the fault of the employees of our economy cases, crashes or accidents are not allowed. Total number of incidents of marriage in 2007 decreased compared with 2006 by 11% and amounted to 93 cases against 104. The number of special cases of marriage (the overlap allowing readings signal prohibiting that caused the banning travel to the station) is reduced by 18% — 53 cases against 65.
In 2007, the increase in the number of marriages made two roads: North — 10 cases against 5 in 2006 and the South-Ural -11 cases against 7.
At the level of the previous year the number of cases remained at five brka railways: North Caucasian 2/2, 4/4 Southeast, West Siberian 6/6, 9/9 and the Krasnoyarsk East Siberian 4/4.
It reduced the number of marriages on the roads: October (7/8), Moscow (6/8), Gorky (4/6), Volga (6/8), Kuibyshev (9/13), Sverdlovsk (3/8) Trans-Baikal ( 7/10), Far East (5/6).
On Sakhalin and Kaliningrad roads marriages are not allowed.
The analysis made in 2007 marriages shows that distances of 208 only 69 (or 33%) admitted in the case of marriage. Of these, 53 distance signaling prevented one case of marriage, 11 — two cases of marriage and six distances made for three cases of marriage.
Despite the measures taken, in the economy continue to be allowed potentially dangerous cases of marriage in which only by happy coincidence not come dire consequences. Over the past year allowed several cases of gross violations of traffic safety, which showed very poor technological and labor discipline. January 21 North Road station Bui was admitted to the gathering due to the loss of electric shunt sensitivity extensive track circuit, a parallel branch which was not equipped with additional travel switch.
On humps stations Ulyanovsk and Kuibyshev road Kartaly South Ural road due to poor maintenance of rolling moderator occurred gathering wagons.
However, to state that a systemic problem for our economy was insufficient to ensure the quality of the preparation and execution of commissioning works in the construction and upgrading of signaling systems for various titles. Obviously, this problem did not arise suddenly, she matured, and we will, to some extent underestimated. As a consequence, the fault of the workers’ management of automatics and robot in 2007, was admitted to severe cases of violation of traffic safety at the Krasnoyarsk road: translation included in the route direction, admitted on August 8 stations Reshoty Ilan distance signaling.
In addition, farm workers, unfortunately, making a negative contribution to violations of traffic safety. Suffice it to recall a passage prohibiting testimony traffic flow on the stretch Liski — Slope Southeast roads and electric similarity to reset the arrow with Auto Return the commissioning of new stations on the Pokrovsky EC Far East road.
And in the current year at the station Bobrov Southeast Road Commission CRH revealed the malfunctioning of traffic lights control circuit input. The situation created by the hands. A mistake in the scheme, which was not identified any stage of examination and approval of schemes, not at the stage of amending the operating device.
In January 2007, on the stretch Farm — Bakharevka Kungurskaya distance signaling Sverdlovsk road when triggered UKSPS not happened overlap input traffic on prohibiting the reading. This is equivalent to the appearance at the traffic lights allowing more evidence!
And the reason is elementary — design error that was not detected either during commissioning or when entering the device into operation.
In August, on the stretch Sheleksa — Plesetskaya Nyandom distance signaling North Road was admitted to the gathering of two cars in a freight train. At the same time the destruction of sensors UKSPS again did not lead to tripping circuit control descent and as a result, the overlap of traffic light «H».
The enumeration of these cases can be continued.
From the chiefs of these services we would like to hear what is being done to ensure that such incidents do not recur.
You must create a system of preventive work, make an exception recurrence of violations.
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
In 2007, the farm had the unsatisfactory state of affairs with the safety of workers. Total industrial injuries compared to the same period in 2006 increased by 21% (from 14 to 17 cases, of which one group). In total 19 employees were affected. If the 2006 accident deaths were not, in 2007, fatally injured seven workers. Injuries fatal allowed six ways: Gorky (Krasnoufimsk distance), Kuibyshev (two cases in Samara distance), Sverdlovsk (in Chusovskoy distance), the South Urals (Chelyabinsk distance), the Trans-Baikal (in Zilovskoye distance), Volga ( Atkarsk distance).
It should be noted that the three fatally injured worker were in a state of intoxication that is a consequence of an unprincipled attitude of managers and employees training for the violators of labor discipline, lack of control, and their omission to bring order to the subordinated units.
The main causes of occupational injuries were: poor organization and lack of control over the production of the work — 18%; violation of labor and production discipline — 82%, expressed in violation of the requirements of labor protection instructions, failure to function in a circle of their duties, finding workers in the workplace intoxicated.
Collision of rolling stock remains a major traumatic factor. As a result, hitting rolling stock running on railway tracks injured five people, including four — fatal.
In some cases, injury in the workplace was due to rash actions of employees, negligence, revaluation of his production skills, loss of alertness while on railroad tracks in the hazardous area when the work forget about the value of his life.
One more thing. In recent years, a growing number of our employees enjoy work and personal car, both for travel to and from work and for trips during the working day. The consequence of this was the sad statistics: in 2007 in the economy as a result of road accidents fatally injured four people.
The Department, in turn, decided during all technical audits to monitor the state of occupational safety by the executives and specialists of the department. The same measures should be taken at the level of services, departments, divisions. These measures should be aimed at preventing it.
Reliable operation RAT
Total malfunction signaling devices in 2007 decreased compared to the same period of 2006 by 12.5% (34 875/39 852). In just the fault of employees of distance signaling, centralization and blocking their number decreased by 8% (12
Increasing the total number of violations of normal operation on the roads is not permitted, except for the South-East, where the number of failures has increased by 1%.
The total amount committed in 2007 cases of violations of the normal operation of track circuits is reduced compared to the same period of 2006 by 14% (16 545/19 291), and the fault of the employee management automation and remote control the number of violations of normal operation of track circuits is reduced by 4% (3290/3422). The bulk of the positive trend established our colleagues putejtsy, reduce the number of its cases by 17% (9743/11677).
On the reliability of the devices ALS. In 2007, traffic allowed 911 violations in the work of the ALS devices, leading to their complete shutdown in the route, which is almost 6% less than in the
The share of locomotive economy had 91% of infringements of the total, to our economy — 9%.
In this matter stands Far East Road, which is the only one in our farm regularly admits cases of marriage because of the shutdown devices ALS locomotive en route.
Almost 5% increase in the total number of failures in the ALS devices, and their absolute number continues to be measured in the hundreds of thousands (386 thousands. Last year).
Farms failures ALS as follows: the fault of the workers, and the way the economy works — 31%; by locomotive economy — 13%; the household automation and remote control — 8%; the household electrification and power supply — 3%.
However, almost half (45%) admitted failures classified as single and not related at all either for a farm! This means that these cases one does not analyze, do not investigate or take any action. Therefore, tomorrow they will again be repeated. The number of such failures as compared to 2006 increased by 13%.
However, there are positive examples. For example, in Moscow road for the entire 2007 574 stations equipped with various EC, of which 117 stations, there was no failure of ALS. In October there was no road crashes by 45 of the 590 stations and 521 of the haul — 34.
The work of the ALS devices deserves special consideration, because the network in 2007 DAILY recorded more than 1 thousand. Malfunctions! It is necessary to jointly track workers, and the locomotive of our economy to take all measures to significantly improve the reliability of the devices ALS, reducing the number of crashes.
SOUTH devices. According W service operation on the rail network is 13,204 waypoints AVMS, which is almost 5% less than in 2006. The decrease in the number of points associated with the introduction of SOUTH-CM in which the number of points in comparison with the SOUTH-C decreased.
The number of failures in the travel and locomotive devices of road network fell by 18% and spread out on the locomotive economy — 61% of the total amount of the network; in our economy — 7%; housework path — 2.5%; the household electrification and power supply — 0.6%.
28% failure — individual, ie draws. But these failures was 31,000!
The main problems in ensuring the safe operation of the devices SOUTH is that they practically do not serve.
Train delays. Prevent more delays of passenger trains employees distances Gorky 17% (41/35), the East-Siberian 166% (8/3) and the Trans-Baikal 44% (13/9) of roads.
In commuter train delays absolute «leader» is the way to Moscow, was detained 382 commuter trains, which is 61% more than in 2006, and amounts to nearly 30% of all commuter trains detained for our economy. Increasing the number of detainees at the Moscow Road commuter train eliminated all the positive momentum we have achieved on this indicator on other roads.
Analyzing statistical data on failures, you can draw the following conclusion: the dynamics of change in almost all indicators is positive, but if we analyze deeper, it is not so rosy picture emerges.
The most objective indicator — the share of malfunction signaling devices admitted the fault of employees of the respective management of the total. Five years ago, for our economy this figure amounted to 26% of the network, and in 2007 almost 35%. There is in this matter and its «foremost». This road: Moscow — 51%; West Siberian — 46%; Volga — 42% and the Far East — 41%. Above srednesetevogo this figure as on Kaliningrad, and Krasnoyarsk road Gorky. This suggests that the relative prosperity achieved on these roads by improving the quality of adjacent farms, primarily railway workers.
Consider yet another indicator — the number of failures per unit of technical equipment. Farms automation and remote control, the figure is 0.26. Considerably exceeded the threshold distance of the Far East (0.54), and the Trans-Baikal (0.53) roads. Also exceeded the figure at Krasnoyarsk, October, Kaliningrad, North, West Siberian and Sakhalin, Gorky and Sverdlovsk roads.
Analysis of the causes of the violations shows that each of these cases is the result of a violation of the elementary rules of works or technology maintenance devices direct perpetrators and the absence of effective control by both line managers and executives distances and services. All this happens because of the low technical knowledge of the staff distance signaling. Therefore, a priority task today is to improve the knowledge of all workers economy.
In 2007, two regional meetings held with line managers in Novosibirsk and Rostov-on-Don, which were extensively discussed existing problems and ways of solving them. The real benefit of meetings at this level have felt not only by representatives of the road, but all the leaders. This practice of holding periodic meetings with the direct perpetrators must continue in the future — feedback helps to improve our future work.
The work KTSM devices. As of January 1, 2008, the Russian railways in operation is 4382 (2006 — 4161), a set of tools, with 98.8% of them are equipped with centralized information.
In 2007, as the number of in-service equipment KTSM 5% and an increase in the number of trains inspected by 7%, the number of violations of the normal operation of controls decreased by 25%.
Worse srednesetevyh values worked on this instrument Over-Baikal, October and the East Siberian roads.
Statistics positive, but today KTSM it with all non-PONAB yesterday. Introduce new modifications KTSM-02 have a mass of useful advantages: they are able to archive the information, equipped with a subsystem diagnostics are included, usually in a centralized system ASK-SS. But these advantages is used loosely. Modern conditions require the search for innovative forms and methods of maintenance. These devices are, in essence, are not signaling devices and could not be better suited for the transmission of maintenance service centers under the control of workers wagon economy.
Devices UKSPS. Reliability devices UKSPS causes a lot of criticism, because their design is not perfect, and the workmanship is poor. In my opinion, control descent of rolling stock to carry out, of course, it is necessary only that should not be a point control with the help of some devices in a particular location path, and continuous monitoring by means of modern devices located directly on each car and can be on the locomotive. That will then be provided with a full control of the rolling stock during the time of the train. It does not matter on what basis will operate these devices — based radar, induction or other methods. This should prompt a science. Our task at this stage -Ensure proper operation of those devices that is. There are not isolated cases, when these devices are allowed to minimize the impact of gathering carts. For example, on December 22 on the stretch of road Moscow Tushino — Moscow UKSPS stopped the train, which followed a truck descended nearly a kilometer.
On the road in the area of Sverdlovsk Levshino -Ugleuralsk October 29 it was prevented from entering the station freight train, which went down a truck. Similar cases have been in the East Siberian, Kuibyshev, and several other roads.
In modern conditions, when the competition becomes decisive for quality, issues of particular importance of reliability and safety. Building control system reliability and safety is the basis for maintaining and further improving the status of the Company to ensure its competitiveness in the market of transport services. To improve the quality and reliability of the evaluation of the technical equipment department is working on the definition of the project reliability of SCB devices and compared it with the achieved performance indicators (failure rate, availability and others.). This will allow to better define «weak» in the work place and to take more targeted measures to improve the reliability of the systems and their components RAT.
In addition, the reliability of the systems RAT is directly dependent on the quality of maintenance. A computerized control system to operate the availability and progress towards elimination of existing deviations from the norms of the content of signaling devices is only in its infancy. To ensure the effective operation of the system and should focus efforts of the leaders of all levels.
Technological equipment SERVICES
One of the major factors that increase the quality of maintenance and repair work and maintenance of the devices RAT, is to provide all necessary direct executors of quality tools, measuring instruments, reserve devices, materials and equipment, means of mechanization and transportation.
A means of enhancing the technological equipment of the distance and line-production areas is the introduction of the Model Project for the specific distance signaling.
Ongoing replenishment of the park distance vehicles. During the reporting year on the road we put two avtomotrissy AGS-1SH and two rail car MPT-6, 2m, 126 UAZ equipped with equipment to repair the cable MKVR SCB-52 car Senior electrician, four GAZ and UAZ-Farmer. In addition, the farm received rigging — 65 mln. Rubles, including 11 trenchers, 469 portable welding machines, as well as means of metrological support — 67 mln. Rubles.
And updating of RAT
Program to improve safety on the 2007 was provided to the Department works with funding of 975 million. Rubles. Today almost all the tasks of the program are met, funds disbursed in full.
Funds for the Project «Updating funds RAT» in 2007 fully mastered. Updated device EC — 615 arrows devices AB — 76.1 km, the device DC, DC — 203 km, put 47 objects.
Timely and fully completed update devices lie on the four roads: Kaliningrad, West Siberian, Far East and Sakhalin.
According to the plans in 2007 are updated and modernized devices lie on 60 sites for the construction of important title of «Russian Railways». The volumes of this work were: the arrows 860 EC, 282 km of automatic block system, 438 km of DC and DC systems.
It should be noted that the untimely device commissioning due to several reasons, first of all, a lack of responsibility of the customer to ensure the quality of construction, technical supervision of compliance technology construction and installation work, equipment delivery schedule disruption to construction sites.
For 2008, all titles of construction funds RAT provides updated with financing of up to 20 bn. Rub. This will require a concentration of efforts of all participants in the investment process: customers, developers, DED, equipment suppliers, main contractors, railways.
Continued equipment Distilleries permanent two-way automatic block system. Disbursement of the project was 98%. A total of 120 objects of the network introduced two-way automatic block system. In due time and in full, these works have been completed at the Gorky, West Siberian and Far Eastern traffic. On other roads commissioning of his paperwork has not been completed.
Supply RAT product and its quality. In 2007, manufacturing plants (and there are more than 80) are mainly provided manufacturing and supply of equipment for the implementation of the RAT investment and maintenance programs of JSC «Russian Railways». However, over the years, unfortunately, it has not been provided with regular deliveries. The main cause of delays in the supply of equipment was the latest statement of prices for products produced by the plant of «ELTEZA.»
The quality of products supplied for the needs of the economy in many respects does not meet operatives. So in 2007 it received 166 complaints from distance signaling, which is 69% more than in 2006
Serious claims in 2007 were presented on the quality of the relay type NMSH Kamyshlovsky ETZ relay type REL St. Petersburg plant, equipment SEC Losinoostrovsky plant, electric Armavir EMZ, devices UKSPS both manufacturers.
At the same time, not on the roads, reclamation claims activities conducted at the required level. For all of last year with the South-East of the road it received only two complaint from Gorky, West Siberian and East Siberian — one, and from North Road to the Department did not receive any complaints, although in practice manufacturers were sent to eight complaints on various equipment .
By current standards the number of general staffing economy is 81.9%. Distances are equipped with signaling on the average section chief at 87.2%, Senior electrician -on 99% Electrician — by 83.9% and machinery — 68.8%.
The worst staffing section chiefs retained in the North Caucasus, Sverdlovsk and South-East roads, Senior electrician — in the North and the Krasnoyarsk Electrician — on October, Sverdlovsk and Moscow, electricians — on Sakhalin, East Siberian, Sverdlovsk and North roads.
Heads of services and distance should not be allowed to decrease the operational staff, the service without changing the device signaling technology services and introducing new technology.
The average number of household in 2007 decreased by 212 persons (0.5%) and amounted to 38.7 thousand. People.
Srednesetevaya labor productivity in the economy for 2007 is 1,358 technical units for one person to operate and has increased by 2006 by 4%.
The average monthly salary per employee in the operation amounted to 18,022 rubles. and increased by 2006
The efficiency of production teams will help to strengthen motivation. To this end, the Board of JSC «Russian Railways» has approved the Regulation on the formation of budgetary resources to motivate production teams and employees for the implementation of preventive measures aimed at ensuring the safety of production, for increasing revenues from transport and infrastructure services, growth in profits from other activities, the reduction of production costs for transport with absolute quality assurance and reliability of operational work.
As before, the main strategic objectives of scientific and technological development in the field of RAT is the development and introduction of modern complex systems RAT. They should be composed of hardware and software systems, and provide: archiving of information on train environment, the parameters of devices and operations personnel; logical control of the devices and personnel, including the blocking of objects in hazardous conditions; redundant nodes and elements; organization of diagnosis, monitoring and redundancy; a two-level control and management facilities; Sharing devices and uninterruptible power supply autonomous power supply. Updating and development funds RAT should be based on such systems.
As part of the General Scheme for development of rail transport in the period up to 2010 and up to 2015 sets out measures for modernization and development funds RAT providing the projected traffic volumes, as well as problem-solving on the main directions of cargo and passenger network.
Here are the main tasks: bringing equipment of railway lines and stations in line with traffic requirements and the provision of a comprehensive approach to traffic control; updating of RAT, worn out, and the decline in their physical and obsolescence; retooling the economy of automation and remote control.
Development of the industrial base involves the creation of a competitive environment, the implementation of quality management systems, certification of products, increased the warranty period for manufactured products.
In the area of improving the maintenance system will implement a phased transition to innovative methods, including through the involvement of manufacturers in the process of maintenance and repair of devices for the entire period of their life cycle.
The actual mechanism for this — further development of existing and establishment of new monitoring centers. Today monitoring centers are working on the October, West Siberian and North Caucasian roads. In the near future the organization of such centers in Moscow, Sverdlovsk and Kuibyshev roads.
As a result, their activity will decrease the number of failures due to timely detection predotkaznogo state. In addition, the use of advanced technology service devices will lead to lower operating costs.
These measures will allow OAO «Russian Railways» to ensure stable operation and a willingness to act adequately using all the technical, technological and financial capacity in the transportation market.
HOSTS BUSINESS TALK
In February, Moscow hosted a meeting of the road, which summarized the results of management of automation and remote control for 2007. The meeting was attended by the chief engineer of road AV Argali, Deputy Head of the Department of automation and remote control VN Novikov, managers and specialists, and service companies. For the first time on such a meeting were invited the heads of sections distances.
Last year farm worked quite steadily. On the road solved issues of improving the reliability of the devices is updating and upgrading RAT, introduced new systems, including microprocessor Ebilock-950, EZ-EM. The commissioned 14 new sites, including four EC, more than 60 km of automatic block system, DC system and APC-DC, included at the site, which unites 25 stations and more than 200 km haul. In addition, there is a comprehensive reconstruction of technical means on the yard Orekhovo-.
At the same time, as noted by the chief engineer of road AV Argali, paying great attention to investment and renewal, we can not forget about the development of production and technical and technological base of the distances, the allocation of funds to maintain aging equipment in working condition.
The keynote address was chief of automatics and robot AS Batkanov, who gave a detailed analysis of traffic safety on the farm. He noted a positive trend — the total number of device failures RAT for the year decreased by 20%. However, given the high rate of movement of trains on the Moscow road, the price of each, even a short-term failure is very high and the slightest failure in the timetable may result in a delay of several dozen trains. Therefore, he said, can not be complacent.
Head of Service noted that the main causes of failure associated with low-skilled operational staff, negligence and breach of technology while performing work Electrician. As evidenced by the analysis of many damage done "with their own hands". In addition, there are cases of a formal investigation of failures when the true cause and is not installed. Despite the fact that the median time to restore normal operation of signaling devices is reduced by 3.5% on average, less than in the network, not necessarily operatively arranged troubleshooting.
In order to ensure traffic safety in the service automation and remote control on a daily basis all the cases dealt malfunction signaling systems, analyzes their causes and take measures to avoid their repetition.
The meeting touched upon the technical training of employees. It is not at all distances sessions with operational staff are held at the proper level, not all companies have a good technical base. To improve the system of training in the past year, all available technical classrooms equipped with computers, introduced an updated version of the tutorial AOC-CC with a connection to the SAP system, purchased the necessary educational literature. On two distances — Perovskoy and Ryazan sites — tehklassy renovated, five — set models and simulators signaling devices.
As noted at the meeting, a lot of failures, 28% of the total, accounted for the equipment. Most of them are related to the operating conditions — incorrect adjustment of the track circuit, poor maintenance travel and transformer boxes and red light heads. The situation is complicated by its poor quality checks as well as the presence in the operating period of written instruments.
On the way to Moscow last year, it was set up technical center automation and remote control. This new structure should be "brain" Economy signaling Moscow road. To optimize the performance of kip for centralized control over the timely replacement and testing equipment, as part of this center was established on the site of the Moscow repair signaling devices node. It united the group of seven relay distances. When creating the center it was planned that in addition to the operational work of its highly qualified specialists will organize the introduction of modern systems of RAT, to participate in the modernization of existing ones, to analyze new projects. They must also investigate failures of equipment and other most complex lesions. As long as the chief center of the EV Agafonov, professionals often have to act as "rescue" and to travel distances to restore normal device operation RAT. Head of the center spoke about the term of the newly created structure and future plans.
Another major issue raised at the meeting — damaged cable lines, which accounted for 14.3% of all failures. In the past year to ensure the safety of the cable during the summer travel distances to work carried out instrumental inspection and certification of cable channels — to determine the exact place of their passage. To do this, companies have previously been distributed and 70 trasso- defektoiskateley "Search 410"More than 20 devices for fault location and measurement of the cable and others. In addition, the employees have been appointed responsible for the technical supervision during the construction work and travel. However, to avoid damage to cables failed. And despite the general decline in cable failures by nearly 20%, it has not decreased the number of lesions in the travel and construction work, which adversely affects the quality of service.
In this regard, chief criticized the leaders of Lublin and Perovskoy distances, committed the largest number of such cases, and demanded to tighten control over the implementation of regulatory requirements.
On the road, still large number of failures due to poor maintenance of rail chains, although compared to 2006 they decreased by 23%. Basically failures occur due to a malfunction of the insulating joints and butt connectors. Head of service demanded of all the chiefs of distances to take measures to improve the situation with the operation of track circuits — control their condition, timely organize the welding and installation of connectors, harder to make demands to the employees the way.
Electrician deliver a lot of trouble UKSPS device. There is still a lot of cases of false positives due to cracks in the front of the sensor, resulting in the fracture and loss of contact in them. According to most of those present, to solve the problem, you must replace all sensors in operation, new, factory production of "Termotron" and reduce the frequency of replacement of up to three years. Managers distances can not lose control quality of graphics of the process, including technical check of devices UKSPS Electrician.
Speaking at the meeting, Deputy Head of Department of automation and remote control VN Novikov said that more than 50% of all failures on the road were the fault of employees economy. In this regard, service managers must pay attention to the low level of executive discipline because of the timely and quality performance of works on maintenance of technical equipment depends on their reliable operation.
Difficult is the situation with the staff. Because of low salaries and lack of housing young professionals do not stay in range. Skilled workers, most of whom are close to retirement age, can be counted on the fingers. Adversely affect the stability of the economy and the way the whole frequent change of business leaders.
To improve material incentives and retention of experts more than a year on the road to the best workers assigned class ranks "Electrician 1st Class" and "Electrician 2nd Class" with respective salary increments. In addition, in 2008 an additional prize for the trouble-free operation of technical facilities and quality service devices will be paid not only to Senior electrician and head of the site, but also distances Electromechanics and electricians, and workers of railway junctions as Orekhovo-and-Screening with Bekasovo intense movement of trains, will receive a 15% increase in pay.
In the current year it is planned to renovate the premises and organize a hostel in Bekasovskoy, Golutvinskiy Paveletskaya-District, the Moscow-Yaroslavl and Perovskoy distances that will improve the situation with the staff of basic professions.
The meeting discussed a number of questions still. The materials, which have received the meeting, clearly showing all the main indicators of operational work of each of the 20 distances. Leaders distances can compare the work of the enterprise, and colleagues to analyze all the mistakes and blunders. Someone pleased with the results of someone forced to think, but, more importantly, in the hall was not indifferent people and had a frank conversation about the business of human, technical, and other everyday problems, not event for "checkmark".
VV Gorelov, Head distance Omsk West Siberian road
Numeric codes self-locking
Failure Analysis SCB devices shows that most of them are related to the impact of the so-called «human factor». In this regard, one of the main objectives of the leaders of all ranks is the organization of technical training of operational staff. In order to carry out its regular and quality, must be equipped with distance control — Fitness training complex. Such systems allow to acquire and improve skills and troubleshooting, improve skills by in-depth study of devices, simulation and analysis of different contingencies.
The most effective problem can be solved with the active participation of educational institutions have accumulated extensive experience in methodical maintenance operatives that may put relevant tasks, research and production enterprises. An example of such cooperation, in our opinion, can serve as cooperation Omsk distance, the department «Automation and Remote Control» Omsk State University of Communications and NPP LLC «ASTP». The result of this collaboration is the development, production and implementation of simulator numerical code automatic lock in the classroom signaling Omsk branch of the road.
The simulator consists of two relay cabinets numeric code auto-lock with the through traffic lights, the layout of the track circuit, control PC, the system input-output devices and power supplies. To save space and communicating traffic lights replaced dwarf, which are mounted on the relay racks. General view of the simulator is shown in Fig. 1. The first relay case, the appearance of which is shown in Fig.
2, simulates the proper operation of the signal point of a numerical code automatic lock. His equipment generates and sends to the layout of the track circuit signal codes ALS creates a chain link, change direction and notices. The second relay box (Fig. 3) simulates the operation of the signal at various points of automatic block system faults. The wiring diagrams Relay cabinet amended to define the majority of the equipment and installation faults that occur in the operation of these devices. Switching faults in specially formed «Nizovka» relay cabinet. To «create» additional troubleshooting electrical circuits are formed or they break. Layout coded track circuit is a section of railway line is divided two insulating joints located at the second signaling point. On the one hand to the rail joints line connects the feed end of the apparatus and a resistor. Its value corresponds to the input resistance of resistance of the rail line in the normative insulation resistance, shunting, track yarn breakage, etc.. On the other hand joints to rail line connects the end of the relay apparatus, to which the code signals are fed from the feed end of the first signal point.
The simulator operates as follows. In the initial state, all devices are OK. With PC management instructor asks Onboard position, sending the winding of the first relay pulse relay the signal code of the cabinet. He stands, and supplied the corresponding track circuit signal code. Last taken roadway pulsed second signal relay point, stands, and according to him the second signal relay switch points. Set the situation and condition of the device the second signal points are displayed and archived in the control PC. Then the instructor asks required to study the situation — neispapparatury their reception and decoding. To display the first part of the circuitry of the signal point using the timing diagrams of voltage relay coil and, capacitors C1, C2, C3; The status of the relay, F, G, T, PT, counters 1, 1A. The timing diagram is displayed on the monitor of the control PC and stored for later viewing, study and analysis.
The second part of the scheme is «static», t. E. Changes happen only under the influence of the respective signals, and can be studied visually. Read the information about the state of automatic lock circuit elements and implementation of fault, the supply of workers and auxiliary signals in the circuit are made through auto-lock system controller IO.
The system has a distributed structure and communicates with the host computer via RS-422. The system vhoskhemy decryption code — open pole SKH16 supply of decoder cells BZ-YES-unit cables 13 BC-YES — 33 BS yes, positive lead from the block BS-DA to equipment in the circuits of the charge capacitance C1, pulsing relay contact in de shifratornuyu cell self-locking counter 1A closure of the front and rear contacts and pulse relay; circuit switching lights of a traffic light — interruption in the control circuit lights traffic light chains RK, K, RH & B (chain warp yarn lamp green light), F (chain warp yarn lamp yellow light), RJ (a chain of backup filament lamp yellow light), in a high-resistance circuit relay ML fire in a high-resistance circuit winding fire relay O; coding scheme — open output circuits 1BKT, 2BKT, supply chain transmitter relays 1T, kodovovklyuchayuschego HF relay, the relay transmitter 2T, in circuits connecting contacts KZH1, x1, P1 transformer CPT; equality, otherwise Onboard position and others. The necessary changes in the switching circuit of the second signaling point carried by the input-output devices.
The scheme signal point numeric code automatic lock can be divided into two parts. First — regimen and decryption code, the second — circuit of the lights of traffic lights, change direction, linking, notices, etc.. The first part of the circuit operates in a dynamic mode, with dependence are tailored timing codes and dates: adapter (converter) of RS -232 / RS-422, controller 16 channel analog-to-digital converter for converting the signals on the elements of decoder cells, decoders and control modules for specifying relay malfunctions.
The simulator allows you to specify the following faults: power devices — open circuit connect the capacitors to the inverter drive 50/25, the power supply circuit of the primary winding of the transformer signal BMES-2G, plus linear with a linear power supply BS; schema change of direction — open positive lead power repeater relays the direction 1H, 2N1, 2H, 1H, 2N1, 2H, short circuit of the linear chain of referral patterns, playout control 1K1-1OK1 gap linear chains schemes direction 1H, 1K haul control; PSA circuit devices — an open CNG generator power, the input circuit of the generator GC;
17 signal relay circuit — a wire break in the food chain AP AP relays, power supply circuit alarm relay G, H, positive lead ZS1 power relay;
4-2008 circuit track circuit — circuit wires 1PP, 1RM, 2nn and 2PM, additional containers, broken wires and 2nn 1RM; linking schemes — open positive lead power relays CM circuit 1I1 notification, the power supply circuit flashing relay M.
General view of the windows task fault is shown in Fig. 4.
The greatest efficiency of the use of simulators, in our opinion, can be achieved by combining them together into a single complex similar to the actual operation of the device. In such a complex is proposed to include: block route-relay centralization, unified electric centralization, two-, three- and five-wire control circuit arrow, station rail
4-2008 18 25 Hz circuit with two-receiver, station tonal track circuit to the control of serviceability of insulating joints and overlay encoding control circuit (switching on) the input and output signals with a double-circuit linking the code self-locking, four-wire shift direction signal point number code auto-lock control device to move avtoshlagbaumom ASPnet code rail circuit supplying the installation, etc..
Each machine includes: a layout diagram of the simulated devices; input-output devices (ICC), to eliminate the status of simulated devices, applies control actions that implement fault submit the necessary power poles on a simulated circuit; personal computer on which the interface is implemented by simulator training and qualification programs to communicate with other PC classroom. The user interface is used to specify the source data, display the status of the simulator, the formation of training and qualification tasks for trainees, and others. In order to control the work of trainers, setting common goals and harmonize training of trainers working together provide the PC control of the teacher (instructor). Workplace teacher supplemented the printer and a video projector.
1 NEW TECHNOLOGY
V.L.TERENTEV, director of «Company» Measurement Telemetry Diagnostics «FEATURES voltage measurement
In the key TRACK CIRCUITS
Measurement ideal sinusoidal voltage or close to it shape where all three values linked known coefficients, does not cause any difficulties. Voltage measurement of complex shape (for example, representing the sum of voltages of different frequencies, including modulation) is associated with a number of problems. It is with them and have to face in the course of service tonal track circuits (SEC).
The DC voltage is completely defined by its magnitude and polarity. AC voltage is characterized by amplitude (peak) srednevypryamlennym and standard (current, effective) values. As is known, the transmitted power signal proportional to the square of rms (RMS) voltage. That is why the scale voltmeters are calibrated in RMS values no matter which of the values actually measured.
We limit the scope of our interests measuring the rms voltage, but rather the methods used in instruments to measure it. When measuring RMS voltage AC tonal track circuits a paradoxical situation where the certified devices from different manufacturers under laboratory conditions show the same results, while measuring real signals during the operation — different.
There is no doubt that the reason lies in the measured signal having a complex shape and can not be a simple mathematical description. An example of a real signal at the input track receiver is shown in Fig. 1. Moreover, in real operating conditions in the measuring circuit present mixture modulated signals of different frequencies and for receiving the true value need to measure the RMS of each signal separately after selecting it from the mixture.
The spectrum of the modulated signal, as is known, consists of a carrier frequency and a large number of harmonics of the modulation frequency. The power of such a signal, and therefore the RMS is defined as the sum of the power of the carrier frequency and all harmonics present in the signal spectrum (Parseval). Thus, when allocating the modulated signal of the addition the mixture is necessary to select a carrier frequency and a certain number of harmonics of the modulation frequency. To ensure the accuracy of measurement must remain reasonable amount of harmonic signal components inherent modulated sine wave. However, how well it is done, mainly determined by the ability and specialized voltmeter to measure signals in the SEC.
The question «what instrument to believe?» Is meaningless without a detailed review of measurement methods applied in the particular instrument and the possibility of its use in measuring RMS voltage in the SEC. Next, we will not use scientific terms and mathematical formulas, and just talk about the methods of measurement and forms of signals that can be done and what is not.
Advances in the field of microelectronics and its element base does allow you to create quite compact devices with good technical characteristics to measure RMS voltage signals, including complex shapes. At the same time, due to the natural desire of manufacturers of measuring instruments to obtain the maximum profit at the lowest cost possible options for a variety of constraints and trade-offs, allowing pass metrological certification for compliance with the declared characteristics and obtain a certificate of type approval of measuring instruments. These limitations and trade-offs are acceptable, provided that they have been honestly informed consumer and it uses a device with them into account.
At present, there are several methods of measuring RMS voltage implemented in modern voltmeters both general purpose and specialized, designed for a specific task. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages, including restrictions on the shape of the measured signals.
First we need to clarify what is still happening in the allocation of the measured signal from the mixture by narrowband filter or transfer it to the zero frequency and the further low-pass filtering in the superheterodyne method.
The average signal power is equal to the sum of the capacities of its spectral components, allocated individually. With minimal scatter SEC frequency 60 Hz (e.g., frequencies 420 and 480 Hz), we can construct a filter with a bandwidth of ± 30 Hz. The table below shows some estimates the minimum possible errors caused by circumcision only harmonics (four or more), with the manipulation of the carrier frequency pulses 8 and 12 Hz with varying duty cycle of Q (with respect to the period of the pulse duration).
At the same time, the suppression of the higher harmonics of its own signal is added on the adjacent harmonics of the modulated frequency. This entails a sharp increase in the overall error, and the requirement suppress the adjacent frequency signal (40 dB) in the actual use becomes impossible.
But if you understand the mechanisms of formation of the errors, it is not all bad — enough to choose the right method for the measurement and to take special measures. So, let’s review of the methods of measurement.
At first, the heat, the method of measuring signal supplied to the broadband amplifier DC loaded on the heater. The value of RMS voltage, which is determined by a square-law detector with thermocouple, is proportional to the heat. It should be noted that this is the only acceptable method of measuring RMS voltage signals of complex shape with unknown parameters. It is implemented in a number of domestic appliances — V3-28, V3-40, V3-42, V3-45, V3-48, and others.
The disadvantage of the method applied to the SEC — high accuracy (over 2%) and the impossibility of implementing multi-channel at acceptable dimensions. Problems arise in connection with the provision of the use of temperature range — from zero to +50 ° C. Furthermore, the use of this method becomes essentially impossible due to the need for prior separation of a mixture of the measured signal — or overall error increases dramatically.
As a result, it can be said that this method is suitable for lab conditions as a reference. It should be noted that the error of 2-4% of voltmeters quite acceptable when measured RMS voltage of complex shape with unknown parameters, that is the basis for the use of this method in most laboratories to certification voltmeter with an input audio frequency signal.
The second method is derived from the definition of the value of RMS voltage — the rms. At first glance, all the elementary simple — you must first squared value of the input signal, then take the average over the time interval times the signal period and calculate the square root.
Another embodiment — squared value of the input signal (X) and then divide it by the value of the output signal (Z), obtained by averaging the signal (X2 / Z). Z signal is the rms value, and options are explained in Fig. 2, where the LPF — a low pass filter, and XB — a computing unit.
Both options are described in detail in the specialized literature and are used in high-end modern precision voltmeters labeled «True RMS» of both domestic and imported. This method is easily implemented using the first event signal processors (DSP), the second — specialized transducers rms voltage constant (eg, AD536, AD636, AD637, AD736, AD737). It allows to decrease the margin of error of up to 0.1% when measured RMS voltage baseband signal with virtually any deviations from the sine wave. For modulated signals needed some additional internal calculations implemented in many industrial appliances, which, naturally, did not take into account the specificity of the signals in the SEC.
While many voltmeters general purpose class «True RMS» equipped with special averaging filter that measures the modulated signal, the error of a few percent there already at the modulation frequency of 10-20 Hz. The need for the measured signal from the mixture in the SEC measurement (prefiltering) reduces to all the advantages of the errors listed in the table, even under ideal laboratory conditions. As for the actual operating conditions in the SEC, the result of such measurement method is not predictable and depends on the distribution of the amplitudes of the harmonics of the real signal. Devices based on this method can be used for measurements in the mall, but with the exact error in various forms of signals and modulation.
The easiest method is implemented in the third most inexpensive devices for general purposes. It is a simple mathematical terms srednevypryamlennogo measured voltage values in the standard. The conversion factor for a sinusoidal voltage — 1,111 known to all as the shape factor (ratio of the standard voltage to srednevypryamlennomu). The coefficient is introduced at the stage of scale calibration of the instrument. Difficulties arise when the distortion of a sinusoidal signal with additional unidentified harmonica and even increase with the modulated signal — such as rail connections to the tone.
In the ideal case, when the signal is sinusoidal, the manipulated pulse of known or defined porosity, while providing a multiplicity of device integration period manipulating pulse period would be enough to introduce an additional factor:
K = Vt7T, where t and T — manipulating the duration and period of pulses respectively.
When manipulating pulses meandering coefficient will be 0.7071. Thus, in actual measurements in SEC is necessary to select the desired frequency from the signal mixture (filtering) srednevypryamlennoe measured value with the integration period, a multiple of manipulating pulses, then multiplying the obtained value by a coefficient k, equal to 1,111K. This will be the RMS voltage manipulated.
Voltmeter general-purpose measurements which are based on this method can not be applied in the mall, even in the absence of signals of adjacent frequency — it does not put an additional factor. To illustrate this can be a simple example.
Suppose we measure the modulated signal srednevypryamlennoe whose value is 1 V. Its rms voltmeter and the reading will be 1.111 V.
Now we start to manipulate the sine wave meander. If the voltmeter has a very large integration time or synchronized with the period of meandering, manipulating sine wave, it will show the value of 0.555 V. In fact, the RMS value of the input signal is 0.785 V. The error is obvious.
The SEC may be employed specialty adapted to this method, a voltmeter, which is able to detect the presence of manipulation and its parameters, but with the same limitations as in the case of the second method.
Specially designed voltmeters, use the second and third methods of measuring RMS voltage in the mall, in the laboratory in simulated signals SEC calibrator N4-11 show about the same within the stated accuracy measurement results. Under the conditions of operation of the readings may not be the same — it all depends on the actual shape of the input signal in the measuring circuit.
The fourth method is useful when you know the source data forming the exact values of the measured signal frequency harmonic components of its spectrum. For its implementation requires highly specialized spectrum analyzer is not in some abstract frequency band, and in particular points at which there may be harmonic components. For example, if we have the original signal obtained by manipulating a carrier frequency of 420 Hz by pulses of a frequency of 8 Hz, then the points of the frequency range in which there may be harmonic components — 420 Hz (± 420 n8) Hz, where n — number of harmonics. We deliberately omit the harmonics associated with the distortion sine wave carrier frequency, considering it perfect.
The general theory of signal circuits and is known that, in accordance with the previously mentioned equation Parseval VHC complex signal represents the square root of the sum of squares of all the harmonic components of the signal spectrum.
Given the fact that the side bands of the spectrum is always perfectly symmetrical, it is possible to analyze only one of them, and taking the sum of the squares of its double value. This simple method eliminates the influence of the frequency spectra of two neighboring shopping center at each other. Even when analyzing the spectrum of the signal to the seventh harmonic can create device with an accuracy of up to 1.24% for the modulated signal. At the same time we stopped paying attention to the presence or absence of modulation and deviation form the modulated signal from the ideal. You only need to specify exactly voltmeter and modulates the carrier frequency.
It is the fourth method of measuring RMS voltage in the shopping center is the most precise and promising in terms of its further improvement. Devices based on this method of measurement has already been created and show good results.
Of course, this method has some drawbacks. For example, if powerful enough higher harmonic components of the signal adjacent frequency exactly coincide with the components of the measurement signal, the measurement error increases. This deficiency is caused by a bad choice of frequencies used by the grid and in the shopping center is a «natural» limitation. However, with proper choice of carrier frequencies and modulation frequencies generators audio track circuit such coincidence does not occur and, therefore, in contrast to devices that use a broadband filter, no increase in measurement error.
The methods which are based on the use of non-linear analog circuits will not be considered because of their futility.
Summing up, it should be noted that the measurement of the RMS value of the voltage in the SEC because of its specificity is not a trivial task. It must be admitted that at present in Russia and abroad there is no reference instrument with which to compare all others, specially designed to measure RMS voltage in the SEC under real operating conditions.
Specialists knowing the measurement principles laid down in one or the other instrument can evaluate its ability to carry out measurements in different operating conditions with the stated accuracy. On the basis of these estimates, they have the opportunity to draw conclusions and make informed decisions about the possibility of using the device, particularly when measuring in the SEC. A company that develop measurement tools must be easy to compete fairly with each other and at least at the stage of technical specifications for approval to the Department of automation and remote control are not silent about the trade-offs and limitations inherent in the devices.
Maintenance of devices SCB
Earlier this year, on October Tikhvin distance road started trial operation of the automated technology maintenance signaling devices. It is based on the use of the technical possibilities of the system diagnostics and monitoring (TDM) APC-DC, developed Ltd. «KIT».
In the first stage of implementation of the technology will improve the quality of the content of signaling devices, reduce the number of failures, reduce labor costs, reduce dependence on the human factor. In addition, it will create the conditions for a transition from a planned preventive maintenance method for service devices as.
The new technology provides automated control device parameters Electrician in accordance with the schedule of maintenance (MOT). It uses new technology to measure the card voltage rail connections, the current transfer arrows, time parameters and others. Instead of entering data in the logs and cards printed measurement protocols on ARM electrician APK-DC (Fig. 1).
The technologist monitors the distance and diagnosing the technical condition of SCB devices using ARM software SHCHD, including complex tasks «Monitoring».
■ In March, the Expo Center hosted the third specialized exhibition «Electronics-Transport 2008» was organized by JSC «ChipEXPO.»
Exposition and business program focused on the topical issues of use of modern electronics and information technology in the transport infrastructure. The forum was attended by more than 100 companies that had submitted the transport electronics — from components and modules to complete systems and technologies.
A feature of the event was the business program, under which were organized round tables. One of them was devoted to the theme «Information provision of transport hubs in Moscow, opening the passenger traffic on the Moscow ring railway.»
Attention railway specialists drawn from the experience of seminars modernization of rolling stock, traffic control management systems and traffic control, the use of rolling stock on display in the control centers, train stations and stations.
The exhibition demonstrates how domestic and foreign developers are preparing for the Sochi Olympics. Exposed the security system and video surveillance, satellite navigation for vehicles, to integrate the development of passenger traffic, and others. For the first time held a competition promising developments in the field of electronics and instrumentation of transport «green light.» At the competition were presented developments and solutions with high technical and economic potential: software and hardware technology and automated removal of the move card thermal backlashes rail joints; import-substituting technology for manufacturing highly sensitive and low-noise piezo control rails; high-resolution nanosecond electromagnetic sensing technology of non-contact high-resistance and low-contrast objects; multi-zone system of loud-speaker notification; RF reader and the label on the rolling stock; telephone communication apparatus distillation ATPS-05; waterproof intermediate point selective communication; Integrated security system and automated train control subways; fuel level sensor and others.
Great interest in the exhibition specialists. The reason for this is that the exhibition has become a platform where new ideas were shown by Russian and foreign developers have been given the opportunity to productive communication professionals in the transportation industry.
Transmission of synchronous traffic via the packet network
VA Kudryashov, AK Kahn, head of the department assistant professor
«Electrical connection» PSTU
Transport communication network of JSC «Russian Railways» is built primarily on the basis of equipment SDH transmission speed of 155 Mb / s to 2.5 Gb / s. Today, it fully meets the requirements of the communication channels of all services and divisions of the company, but in the future may become an obstacle in the development of railway infrastructure. The reason for this, for example, a weak focus on the transfer of network traffic rapidly developing automated information management systems. Moreover, in some areas tracts network congestion reaches 100%.
Railway telecommunications network can be subdivided into two components: UTS and ObTS acting on switching technology (CS), and SAP, which uses packet switching technology (KP) and the channels.
The share of traffic and OTC ObTS still dominates, but the steady growth of data traffic caused by the active implementation of automated process control systems. Data transmission network of JSC «Russian Railways» today use E1 streams. These will not affect the traffic safety and rail transport processes, common channels are transmitted in the SPD. Information and Control Systems (ICS) real-time traffic safety, interact through dedicated channels of 64 kbit / s. In some areas, the capacity of existing IPA is completely exhausted, which may lead to collisions. And the situation is often compounded by the lack of free channels for further development.
According to the concept of technical and institutional development of telecommunications JSC «Russian Railways» one of the most promising areas is the construction of multi-access networks and technology networks to IP-based, with a gradual transition from technology to the CC CP.
Developing new network application (IP-telephony, video conferencing, centralized surveillance, distributed computing, interactive graphics) are known to utilize packet switching methods and require work in real time. This creates the preconditions for the implementation of new software and hardware transmission multiservice network traffic and the implementation of an integrated telecommunications infrastructure. The set of network devices, protocols and management tools integrated environment is the basis of processing, storage and transmission-distribution infrastructure perspective multiservice telecommunications network of JSC «Russian Railways».
The greatest distribution networks use technology manual found at the link level Ethernet network layer protocol IP. With indisputable advantages, IP networks have disadvantages, among which are the asynchronous nature of the traffic and sophisticated mechanisms to ensure the required quality of service.
In recent years began to develop telecommunications technology VoIP, MPLS, IPoSDH, allowing IP networks to transmit data in real time. However, they are not focused on the transmission of synchronous traffic with constant bit rate and MPLS technology, although it allows the system to enter gradation QoS compounds also not focused on a synchronous data transmission. An example of a technical solution transition to multiservice networks with full interoperability QC and CP emulation technology can serve as a channel through a packet network CESoP (Circuit Emulation Service over Packet — TDM traffic over packet networks).
CESoP technology provides simultaneous transmission of traffic without optimization and changes in its structure. In other words, all user and service information passes through the packet network transparently, without any changes, and passed both structured and unstructured flows. The data stream is broken into packets of four or eight frames of 125 microseconds duration with the addition of a time stamp, bearing sinhroinformatsiyu. The timestamp can either be added directly to the packets, and transmitted to a separate route to the destination node.
On the border of networks QC and CP is necessary to use the equipment interworking (IWF-Interworking Function), whose task is to convert the type of traffic and the clock transmission of information via a packet network.
It should be noted that the International Telecommunication Union ITU-T in 2006 in recommendation G.8261 said basic requirement for manual sync signal in networks: the quality of the synchronization should be no worse than that defined in Recommendation G.823 and G.824 for networks RMC.
Some manufacturers have already begun to release hardware and microprocessors, allowing to create synchronous packet network. However, as the technology CESoP appeared recently, in 2003, a number of issues have not been resolved. So, found a technical solution for high-speed transmission paths STM-4 and above are not defined limiting the number of transitions QC-KP and KP-CC and bit errors in the networks of the CP under which the possibility of simultaneous transmission and others.
Consider the possible applications of the technology CESoP railway transport based on the equipment of the company RAD.
Organization of operational and communication technology segment with access gateways and IPmux series Megaplex at intermediate stations and Access Gateway Gmux-2000 at the junction. Access Gateway Series Medarh able to organize group voice channels in the KP networks used today, like multiplexers QC operational process communication (UTS). In addition, equipment and Megaplex IPmux allows you to connect the LAN 10/100 Base-T, low-speed data channels PH64 kbit / s and enter the data from the dispatch control system SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition). Between an intermediate station equipment channels combined into a Fast Ethernet network, using fiber optic or cable lines. Access Gateway Gmux concentrating traffic from intermediate stations and is able to convert it into the channels of SDU (E1 or STM-1). Thus, this solution provides a full range of information infrastructure for efficient operation of the technological segment of railway transport communication, as well as the convergence of network traffic UTS and SAP.
It should be noted that the floodgates Gmux and Megaplex have modular design and a wide range of interface cards, which increases network scalability and flexibility in the choice of options to access it. The IPmux provided with a fixed list of interfaces (Fast Ethernet, E1 or E3).
Another option is the use of technology CESoP -Construction bypass communication routes through the network KP, including redundant ring connection for transmission systems E1 and STM-1, is shown in Fig. 2.
Through so-called «islands» CESoP increases the reliability of the communications network as a whole and it is possible to better distribute the load. Access gateways Gmux-2000 can be networked through the channels Gigabit Ethernet.
So, today the transition to a technology manual not only at the level of access to information resources, but also the transport layer networks is becoming increasingly evident. Still yet to solve a wide range of issues on the organization of such a transition, from the terms and definitions, and ending with the choice of the move to a single multi-service network.
Considering the above, we can say that with respect to the communication network of JSC «Russian Railways» is possible to consider two options for its further development: the creation of two independent networks (technological communication network operational and technological public communication network); creating a single network, ensuring priority service traffic, ensuring traffic safety.
The first one because it requires less promising significant investment and moreover, a public communication network technology segment generates a relatively small amount of traffic, ie. E. A separate communication network construction is uneconomical.
Automation, telecommunications, informatics
Development of satellite communication network of JSC «Russian Railways»
The idea of building its own satellite network of the Ministry of Railways has arisen for a long time — more than 20 years ago. In 1992, with the completion of the development of the «Sirius», envisaged the construction of a central hub 32, 180 subscribers, 90 160 mobile and navigation satellite stations.
According to calculations of the NGO «Space Instrument» capital investments in the amount of 460 mln. Rubles. We had to master until 2000, followed by return on investment within three years. It was planned that the network
The system used in digital communication methods with the standard grading of flow rates up to 9.6 kbit / s for data transmission, and 50 100 bit / s for voice-frequency telegraphy, the Kaliningrad and Sakhalin roads. Two years later, he was accepted into the permanent operation called «track.»
Later was developed network of satellite stations will be based on the conversion option of military earth station «Radon-mind.»
For the organization of the network was supposed to use two communication satellites of the Russian space group — «Horizon» and «Express». The first tentative steps for its establishment were made in 1993, experienced a fragment consisted of six earth stations located in the SSC MEA (Central Station), Office of Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk and the East Siberian roads (nodal), Abakan and Krasnoyarsk offices Vihorevsky and East Siberian roads, respectively (of departmental (subscriber) satellite stations).
32 and 64 kbit / s for voice channels. The load for this fragment were manual and automatic telephone communication channels, channels of voice-frequency telegraphy and data transmission between data centers, as well as ACS «Express-2».
However, the requirements to the service of communication and speed of information exchange is continuously growing. When upgrading satellite stations, completed by 1997, we took as a basis the domestic version of the station «Pole SSC 5C» operating in the «C». A fragment of the network expanded through the installation of earth stations in the offices of the West-Siberian, Trans-Baikal, the Far East, Kali
Control, communication, computer science communication «Transtelesat», designed by JSC «St. Petersburg Teleport» and working in a range of «Ku» with the control center in the Leningrad region. By 2003, following the decision by the Ministry of Railways management, experts of the Central Communication Station conducted a set of complex works to rebuild all the earth stations of international communication satellite «LMI-1″ in the frequency resource Sputnik «Ek-Xpress-6A» and transferred to the control center Moscow region. They finished the access network satellite stations, were allowed to enter the network and its trial operation. During the pilot run, worked out questions of operation, maintenance and repair stations. For several reasons, manufacturer «NERA» refused to support the network, partly complicated repairs and setting of earth stations. A year later, the network «Transtelesat» put into regular operation. Following this by order of the Department of Communications and Computer Engineering installed and handed over nine additional subscriber earth stations.
The gradual expansion of the network «Transtelesat» allowed systematically decommissioned satellite station «track.» There are currently only works in one direction of the network, reserving channels of communication «Transtelesat» to Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. The two satellite channels operating in the «C» and «Ku», provide very reliable communication between Moscow and Sakhalin, being the main form of communication. Finally formed
Despite the solid basis of technical development of the 90s, it was eventually identified a number of problems. For example, it was found that 85% of failures in the earth stations are connected with the violation of strict limits set temperature of the equipment. In particular, refusals good performance and reliable power amplifiers associated with unstable air conditioners work the antenna posts.
A similar, but more severe situation with the operation of the modem equipment. In this case, violations temperature lead not only to the obvious failures, but also lower the threshold reliability of the communication channels.
Problems of a different kind, is an objective and even natural. In today’s rapidly changing world, and communication rather than just develop terms of reference, which would meet trebobyla tasked with video conferencing to Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. To eliminate the influence of temperature on the operation of equipment in the room station opened a new channel with the use of modern radio, which is controlled manually.
Two years later, it was organized by the additional data channel on the same track with this, already tested technical solutions. The difference was only that used radio with its own control system. It is allowed to give up control channel manually and monitor its work, picking up the statistics on communication failure. In refining, it could serve as a prototype for a new system of management of the entire network of satellite communications to provide the desired level of automation and monitoring.
network works with a transponder Sputnik «Ek-Xpress-AM2» standing at 80 °. It is represented by a central station, 17 units and 13 subscriber stations of satellite communications. Almost anywhere in the zone of responsibility of Moscow, North and North-Caucasian roads can be rapidly deployed communication channels with five transportable stations. Under the agreement, the CIS operates the line Moscow — Dushanbe. The frequency resource between the stations of the network depending on the amount of information transmitted is adjusted and redistributed in accordance with decisions of the Department of Communications and Computer Engineering.
For example, ten years ago it was difficult to foresee the requirements are now to the level network monitoring. There are also economic problems that are associated with an increase in the value of the frequency resource satellite and the level of automation of the network at the time of the development of technical specifications. As with other forms of communication, reduction in operating costs of satellite communication network is one of the most important tasks.
With a good base basis, which has a network of existing problems can be solved quickly by spending relatively small means. So, in 2005,
Automation, telecommunications, informatics
There are also solutions for the optimization of frequency resources associated with the use of time-frequency signal generation. All this will dramatically reduce the operational costs of the network.
It is important to understand that to provide a new level of technological communication of the railways, the provision of services for the organization of communication in extreme conditions and the task of positioning the rolling stock to a new level and the required accuracy indicated in the project «Sirius» satellite of «Russian Railways» It must be constantly improved and updated.