Kyrgyzstan — a mountainous country. More than three-quarters of the hunting grounds of the republic, occupying an area of about 18 million hectares. Located at an altitude of more than a thousand meters above sea level. Hence the sudden change of vegetation and climate zones — from hot deserts to eternal snows. The rugged topography defines a variety of environmental conditions, the composition of hunting and fishing fauna and originality of the hunt.
The country has two official zapovednika- Issyk-Kul and Sary-Chelek, two reserve — Kemin (for pheasant) and Naryn (by Maral), the nursery of pheasants and 66 ascribed game farms.
Of the 75 species of mammals and 335 species of birds that inhabit Kyrgyzstan, to the number of game are more than 100. The main object of hunting — Siberian ibex, wild boar, roe deer, fox, marmots, badgers and birds — mountain turkey (ular), partridge ( rock partridge), pheasant, quail, various waterfowl, shore birds and pigeons. They live here and the snow leopard and white-clawed bear, and argali, and many other rare animals, but their small number does not allow hunting for these species.
Stocks of game animals for the sake of the republic, since 1966, regularly taken into account. Every year in late December by the service gosohotnadzora, state forest protection and route of hunters held a census of the animals and birds, which can determine the approximate number of wild game in the grounds and possible size of its production. In mid-January, a record is kept of wintering waterfowl.
Catastrophic snowy winter 1968 / 196u, when in a short period of snow depth reached several meters, adversely affected the numbers of many species of animals. The measures taken for the organization of feeding fowl grain, hay, allowed only to reduce but not completely eliminate the damage caused by wild game reserves of natural disaster. Especially sharply reduced the number of chukar, so since 1969, hunting of the formerly most abundant, the object of hunting is completely forbidden to restore the population.
In practice, the licensing system was not because there were no data on the number of licensed types of licenses are issued on the basis not of the animals in the reserve lands, and for the needs of hunters. In 1963, for example, 482 licenses for wild boar and roe deer 575 licenses received by the Company hunters, paid respectively 113 and 346. In 1966, measures were taken to streamline the licensing system, increased cost of licenses, imposed licensing restrictions on shooting ibex. The number of licenses issued in a particular area, limited by the shooting of the accounted number of animals.
However, in 1968, twice as increased penalties for poaching deer, wild boar and ibex. These measures have led to better implementation of licenses and, in general, contributed to the growth stocks of wild ungulates. So, if in 1967, hunters produced under licenses 126 goats, 26 126 roe deer and wild boars, then in 1970 — 816 goats, 379 deer and 302 wild boar. In total, over 5 years to shoot 980 pigs, 2062 ibex and roe deer in 1017, representing more than 150 tons of meat. Of this amount, a preform received only about 5 tons of meat ungulates, including in 1970 — 2 m.
An important role in the management of hunting plays a protection of state hunting fund and hunting grounds. Unfortunately, the facts of poaching in the country has not yet been eradicated.
Over the past 10 years (1961-1970.) On the territory of the Kyrgyz SSR opened by more than 7.4 thousand. Violations of the rules and terms of hunting and preservation of floodplain vegetation.
There is no doubt that an important role in this is increasing the responsibility for the illegal shooting of prohibited species. In 1968, the republic’s government almost doubled the size of the civil action for damages caused by illegal shooting of state fund of valuable animals, and in 1970 in the Republic of increasing criminal liability for a number of violations of hunting regulations. Of great importance are taken in 1967, measures to streamline trade hunting weapon. At the same time strengthen the propaganda of nature protection, in particular hunting fauna. Every year, the State Committee of Forestry is published in Russian and Kyrgyz languages, a collection of «Love, guarded nature of Kyrgyzstan.» It published a series of popular brochures — «Hunting at least in questions and answers», «Groundhog Fishing in Kyrgyzstan», «Harvesting the protein in Kyrgyzstan»; «Hunting for game birds in Kyrgyzstan» for mass hunter.
The main burden of the struggle against poaching is on the small workers gosohotnadzora, there were only 50 people, also poorly equipped vehicles. The share gosohotinspektorov and rangers gosohotnadzora accounts 85-90% of all the protocols drawn up in poachers. Almost withdrew from anti-poaching workers state forest protection in forestry. In 1970, for example, more than 700 foresters, Forest technology, foresters and engineers on the conservation and protection of forests in 26 forestries revealed only 22 cases of poaching, as part of their 10 years in this work is less than 1%. Poor is working and public ranger and staff of the Company hunters reveal that 10-12% of breaches.
Currently, a number of measures aimed at further strengthening the fight against poaching. Increased number of employees gosohotnadzora, made the gradual replacement of rangers district hunting experts, the number of which has increased from 4 in 1968 to 16 in 1971, the Office Kirgizgosohotinspektsii allowed to contain due to budget special funds an additional 12 employees gosohotnadzora, including 6 regional hunters.
Order of the State Committee of Forestry of the Republic of directors of forestry enterprises prescribed fire workers forest protection, refrain from participating in the fight against poaching.
Several improved security gosohotnadzora motorized transport. Kirgizgosohotinspektsmya has now 4 passenger car (GAZ-69) and 15 motorcycles «Ural», whereas in 1966 the whole country had only one car and four motorcycles.
At the March 1971 Council Kirgizohotrybolovsoyuea ohotobschestv chairmen were asked to activate the work of public ranger headquarters, in order to ensure the effectiveness of its liquidation in poaching.
The number of animals and birds in the hunting areas is a direct function of the conductivity in these biotechnical measures on game feeding in winter, breeding and improvement of safety conditions of its habitat. In accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers on May 11, 1959 «On measures to improve game management» in the annual plans of forestry enterprises include jobs for the low reproductive work. They are held in the reserves Kirgizgosohotinspektsiey on Jaeger areas and public lands and hunting grounds ascribed to spend their society of hunters. But the scope of the activities while increasing year by year, until insufficient to ensure normal living conditions of game.
An important role in the reproduction of game could be played by the state farms, for which secured more than 17% of the territory of the republic. But although the government decree farms are also obliged to carry out a complex of biotechnical actions for the whole period of hunting, they have not invested a single ruble in the reproduction gosohotfonda. Kirgizpotrebsoyuz despite significant income derived from purchases of furs of wild animals, little to invest in the reproduction of their stocks.
The big disadvantage in hunting — lack of personal responsibility in the use of hunting grounds. Only in recent years developed work postscript land societies of hunters, for which fixed now about 3 million. Ha. But there is still a lot of work on the creation of hunting farms on these lands.
Brake in the development of hunting was the lack of planning in its jurisdiction. To eliminate this management Kirgizohotiispektsii in 1971 developed a five-year plan for development of the hunting economy of the republic. The plan, inter alia, for: the creation of a network of state hunting farms and game reserves, the development of check digits volumes of biotechnical measures in the hunting grounds, carried out by forestry, and ohotobschestvami gosohotnadzorom, indicators for the procurement of furs, game meat, planned resettlement of valuable animal species.
Doing this five-year plan will provide a solid basis for the further strengthening of hunting and enhancement of natural resources of Kyrgyzstan.